Dr. Omveer Singh,
Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ISBN 978-93-5547-493-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-500-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/tier/v5

This book covers key areas of Engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include 3D coordinates, 3D rotation, Helmert transformation problem, Euler angles, quaternions, dual-quaternions, Blast load, non-linear dynamic analysis, blast resistant structure, SRAM, defibrillator, subthreshold,  POD wear test, ANOVA, wear loss and COF, Buck-boost, cascaded H-bridge inverter, multicarrier pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion, z-source network, telecommunication, Backpropagation, three-dimensional (3D) face recognition, kinect Xbox camera system, smart electronics, Root Mean Square , Power Quality , deep learning, s-transform, PQ disturbances, Passive solar still, economic evaluation, solar desalination, distilled water, renewable energy, sustainable energy, cost analysis, world-wide web, Modelling-to-generate-alternatives, simulation-optimization, waste management planning, population-based algorithms,   Gas turbine, power boosting, air cooling, mechanical refrigeration, Adafruit humidity sensor DHT22, advanced Bosch barometric pressure sensor BMP180, padé approximation, process gain constant, and  two point method of approximation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Engineering Research.

Media Promotion:


3D Coordinate Transformation by using Quaternion Algebra

Stefania Ioannidou, George Pantazis

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 1-24

Rotation in space is one of the most important problems in mathematics and other sciences. Respectively, the three-dimensional coordinate transformations from one system to another and more specifically, the Helmert transformation problem, is one of the most well-known transformations in the field of engineering.

After analyzing the mathematical context of point rotation in space, this chapter presents an investigation of specific data using three different transformation methods. The method of Euler angles, quaternion, and dual-quaternion algebra is used. After research, three artificial sets of data, which were structured in a specific way and forced into specific transformations, were used to find out the sensitivity of each method. In addition, three real transformation problems, concerning monitoring and deformation, were tested, to have an accurate result of which method is best. The problems  Statistical analysis of the results was performed by each method, while it was found that there were significant deviations in rotations and translations in the method of Euler angles and dual quaternions, respectively.

Study on Blast Resistant Structure Using Steel Hollow Sections

A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 25-30

As the incidence of terrorist attacks has increased in recent years, the impact of blast loads on structures has become a critical issue that must be considered during the design and planning phase. Terrorist attacks are rare occurrences and man-made calamities, thus blast loads, like earthquake and wind loads, are carefully calculated. The goal of this investigation is to find out the quality of blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic response analysis of trussed structure subjected to blast loads. This study discusses blast resistant structure design theories, as well as the strengthening of building security against the effects of explosives in both the architectural and structural design processes. Steel hollow sections are employed as structural elements because they can absorb blast energy by undergoing massive nonlinear deformations. In this study, both an architectural and structural approach is taken to explain essential strategies for strengthening a structure's potential to give protection against blast effects.

Design and Modelling of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator under Low Power High Speed Sub-threshold Operation

T. Vasudeva Reddy, B. Nareshkumar, R. Anirudh Reddy, P. Kavitha Reddy

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 31-45

Researchers and scientists have presented designs that operate in the subthreshold and near threshold zones as a result of enormous technological developments. Low power circuits have recently become increasingly appealing to design engineers as the demand for low power consumption gadgets has grown. However, because to the exponential link between current in the subthreshold region and supply voltage (Vgs) and threshold voltage(Vth), the act of subthreshold design has become more deeper to PVT changes. Subthreshold functioning and its driving forces have provided inspiration for low power electronics. The sub threshold design of a source linked logic circuit is detailed in this study, along with its functionality and performance in static and dynamic modes of operation, and its usage as an implantable cardioverter defibrillator using 28nm technology. The study objectives includes SRAM design and also different methodologies like Schmitt trigger based SRAM, Source coupled SRAM working under subthreshold designs.

Processing and Characterization of Tribological Properties of Al6061-TiB2 Composite by Taguchi Technique

H. S. Manjunatha , V. T. Satish, G. Mallesh, S. Ezhil Vannan

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 46-54

Composite materials are the combination of two or more materials, which are different in form and chemical composition and are gradually gaining more importance as a structural material in the present day engineering design and development activities. In the present context, many researchers are striving hard to develop new and novel materials for various engineering applications using different reinforcements in AMC’s.

In this paper, attempts are made to synthesize Al-6061/TiB2 composites by varying weight percentage of reinforcement by in-situ stir casting process to study the tribological behaviour. Pin-on-Disc (POD) wear test apparatus was used to conduct abrasive wear tests as per the Design of Experiments (DOE) to evaluate wear loss and coefficient of friction. Further, Taguchi Technique, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Regression analyses were utilized to optimize the wear loss and COF. Further, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of worn out surface are used to study the wear behaviour of the composites developed. Wear loss and COF decreases with increase in the wt. % of reinforcement. It is concluded form the ANOVA and regression analyses that reinforcement plays a crucial role in the development of Al 6061-TiB2composite system.

Performance Investigation of Z-source Fed Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

R. Ramya , S. Lekashri, M. Nivedha, P. Arivazhagi, A. Balamurugan

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 55-68

In the medium and high power industries, three phase multilevel inverters are commonly used to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI), improve voltage profiles, and increase power capacity. Although several converter topologies for multilayer inverters (MLIs) have been devised, Z-source MLIs are the most common for higher voltage applications. Total harmonic distortion (THD) is reduced by Z-source MLIs, which have good stability and efficacy for diverse electrical power system applications. With multicarrier PWM control approaches, this work seeks to construct a three phase Z-source seven-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB) inverter. In the MATLAB/Simulink software platform, the efficiency of a Z-source CHB inverter with multicarrier PWM control is investigated in shoot through and non-shoot through modes.

Development of Virtual Office Information System Services in Basic Telecommunication Technique Practices

Zainudin Bonok, B. P. Asmara, S. Abdussamad

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 69-75

This study was carried out to design and plan the use of virtual office information system services and virtual labs, which can be accessible at any time for better time management. This study was conducted at Gorontalo State University's electrical engineering laboratory. The research technique was to conduct a literature review and build PHP programming software, AJAX programming technology, and Cloud meeting zoom technology (vicon.ung.ac.id). The research tool makes use of hardware such as a laptop or a personal computer, as well as software such as PHP, an object-oriented programming language, and AJAX programming technology. The findings of the study revealed that the virtual office can process the implementation of office work in the laboratory with the work system being the target of work for laboratory managers, and students who are practicing Basic Telecommunications Engineering from the results of the Urgency development of Virtual Office Information System Services in Basic Telecommunications Engineering practice, Electrical engineering laboratories can increase of the scientific community can be used quickly and easily if supported by adequate network infrastructure.

Investigating the PCA Effect on the 3D Face Recognition System Speed

Adhi Kusnadi, . Wella , Rangga Winantyo, I. Z. Pane

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 76-85

In this paper, we discuss increasing the speed of facial recognition using 3-dimensional data. The use of this data makes facial recognition safer because it is difficult to imitate compared to using 2-dimensional data. 2-dimensional data can be obtained from photos, but 3-dimensional data cannot be done because it requires a third dimension, namely facial depth data which can only be taken from 3-dimensional objects. The three-dimensional (3D) face recognition process in this study did not go through the stages of the facial reconstruction process into 3D form, but directly used data taken from the Kinect Xbox camera system, unlike most previous research studies. So that it can increase the speed and is not expected to reduce the level of accuracy. Data from the camera is directly inputted into the backpropagation algorithm. This algorithm was chosen because it is simpler than CNN or other algorithms, and also this research is only to prove the method used can increase the speed of facial recognition. In addition to eliminating the reconstruction stage, the PCA method is also used. PCA has a function to simplify the amount of data, thereby reducing the amount of computing which can increase system speed. Testing is done in two ways. The first test uses a combination of Backpropagation and PCA, while the second test uses only Backpropagation. The results showed that the system using a combination of Backpropagation and PCA achieved a speed increase of up to 34.2 times, but the accuracy was reduced by 8.5%. Further research is needed to answer the results of this study.

Determination of RMS based Continuous S-Transform with Deep Learning for Detecting and Classifying Voltage Sag and Swell

Kamarulazhar Daud, Syazreena Sarohe, Wan Salha Saidon, Saodah Omar, Nurlida Ismail, Nazirah Mohamat Kasim

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 86-98

Voltage sag and swell can cause major issues in power quality, including as instability, low lifetime, and data mistakes.  Voltage swell normally associate with the system fault condition. The purpose of this paper is to show detection and classification of voltage sag and swell. The Root Mean Square (RMS) approach uses the S-Transform as a base to detect the triggering point of disturbances. This research also shows the different types of sags and swells by incorporating the features into a MATLAB-based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) neural network technique. In addition, the ELM approach is compared to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree methods to see which one performs the best categorization. The classification accuracy was expressed as a percentage. Because the findings clearly illustrate the advantages of RMS in detecting and ELM in categorizing power quality problems, it was proved that detection and classification using RMS and ELM are possible.

Economic Evaluation of Passive Solar Distillation System: A Recent Study

Raj Kumar, Kapil Kumar Samar, Sudhir Jain, Sonali Swetapadma Mohanty

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 99-104

This chapter presents an economic analysis of a passive solar distillation unit. The net present worth (NPW), benefit-cost ratio, payback period (PP), and internal rate of return (IRR) of a solar distillation unit were calculated using initial and maintenance expenses, system life, and estimations of the cost of unit mass of distilled water. Solar distillation is a low-carbon technique that is both easy and cost-effective. The Net Present Value (NPW), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCRR), Payback Period (PP), and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) were calculated and determined to be Rs. 26945.72, 1.5632, 1.538 year, and 50%, respectively. Solar energy was shown to be one of the most appealing sources of energy for producing distilled water in this study.

An Approach towards Traditional Judicial Systems to Digital Forms of Evidence

Banipriya Mishra, Supriya Mishra

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 105-117

“Digital India” scheme announced by current administration initially had many detractors. But with its finger on the correct pulse of Young, Emergent India, much facilitations were provided with the sole aim to bridge technology with the masses. Hence today smart phones, laptops and computers have become house-hold names even in previously inaccessible areas. But on the down-side we also see a severe increase in crimes committed using computers and internet. Technology is an ever-changing phenomenon. It keeps changing, updating and even reviving itself. Crime has grown in lockstep with the advancement of modern technology and high-tech equipment and tools. With the transformation of criminal activities from the physical to the digital realm, a perpetrator can easily plan, execute, and complete a crime without being physically present at the crime scene, making it difficult for investigators, law enforcement officials, and traditional legal systems that rely solely on physical evidence to identify the true perpetrator, determine guilt, and determine the severity of punishment. Using a desktop system or a laptop or even a Smartphone, the criminal can exploit the power of internet, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi technologies, 4G data-transfer speeds and web-servers to execute an unlawful act sitting miles away from the place where the actual crime happens thereafter leaving absolutely no physical trail of the execution of the offence. Under these conditions, it becomes imperative to utilize digital footprints as they are the only way to determine the factuality of execution of an unlawful act and to identify the real culprit. As the guiding principle of IPC goes "Innocent until proven guilty", digital footprints have to be given their rightful due in the existing Judicial system to help in confirming execution of an unlawful act, detecting the actual culprit and determining the amount of punishment. This paper attempts to highlight the significance of digital footprints and usage of the same by the existing Justice Systems to corroborate, attest and substantiate the execution of an unlawful act.

It is often beneficial to provide numerous quantifiably good solutions that provide distinct, contrasting perspectives when tackling waste management (WM) planning concerns. This is due to the fact that WM planning typically involves complicated challenges with a variety of performance objectives and design criteria that are difficult to define and describe when supporting decision models are needed. In the required decision space, the generated alternatives should meet all of the mentioned system criteria while being maximally dissimilar from one another. Modeling-to-generate-alternatives(MGA) is the process of generating as many diverse sets of solutions as possible. To handle computationally challenging, stochastic WM problems, simulation-optimization methodologies have been widely applied. This work describes a stochastic multicriteria MGA technique for WM planning that can produce sets of maximally diverse alternatives for any simulation-optimization method that uses a population-based solution algorithm. Because it provides the necessary number of maximally varied solution options in a single computational run of the technique, this algorithmic approach is computationally efficient. On a "real-world" waste management plant expansion case, the efficacy of this stochastic MGA approach is proved.

Thermoeconomics Analysis of Intake Air Cooler of Gas Turbines Power Plants

Rahim K. Jassim

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 130-149

Gas turbine (GT) power plants operating in arid climates suffer a decrease in output power during the hot summer months because of insufficient cooling. Cooling the air intake to the compressor has been widely used to mitigate this shortcoming. An energy analysis of a GT Brayton cycle coupled to a refrigeration cycle shows a promise for increasing the output power with a little decrease in thermal efficiency. A thermo-economics algorithm is developed and applied to an open cycle, Hitachi MS700 GT plant at the industrial city of Yanbu (Latitude 24o05 N and longitude 38oE) by the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Result shows that the enhancement in output power depends on the degree of chilling the air intake to the compressor (a 12 - 22 K decrease is achieved). For this case study, maximum power gain ratio (PGR) is 15.46%, at an insignificant decrease in thermal efficiency of 12.25%. The cost of adding the air cooling system is also investigated and a cost function is derived that incorporates time-dependent meteorological data, operation characteristics of the GT and the air intake cooling system and other relevant parameters such as interest rate, lifetime, and operation and maintenance costs. The profit of adding the air cooling system is calculated for different electricity tariff.

Assessment of Real Time Weather Surveillance via Lab View Interfaced Arduino

Abhishek Anil Mungekar, Yashraj Kalpesh Solanki, R. Swarnalatha

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 150-156

The paper elucidates the real time weather monitoring system in the precise and cost effective way. Many variations in meteorological conditions can be found in today's reality, particularly in the United Arab Emirates. Climate change can have a negative impact on the working environment of multiple industries, their transportation lines, and the day-to-day operations of a variety of other human activities.  The principle of LDR is that, its sensitivity varies with respect to the light wavelength. The key requirement for this is the VIPM (virtual instrumentation package manager) which directly projects the Arduino’s analog to digital converted parameters. The idea proposed, is an all-inclusive metrological real time weather monitoring system using the advanced Bosch barometric pressure sensor BMP180 and Adafruit humidity sensor DHT22. The monitoring is achieved by making use of efficient virtual simulation (LabVIEW) which is directly interfaced with ATmega328 quartz crystal 16 MHZ microprocessor. The study employs modern technologies to measure environmental characteristics and provide a real-time metrological analysis. The panel setup is used to monitor these characteristics on a regular basis and hence assist in taking further actions to maintain them. As a result, ensuring a suitable working environment.

Adopting Pade Approximation for First Order plus Dead Time Models for Blending Process: An Advance Study

Avani Kirit Mehta, R. Swarnalatha

Technological Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 24 June 2022, Page 157-170

Dead-time is a typical occurrence in real-time processes, and it happens when a process variable fails to respond to changes in the set point. The presence of dead time in systems makes it difficult to govern and stabilize them, particularly in control feedback loops. Padé approximation provides a predictable approximation of dead time in continuous process systems, which can be used in subsequent simulations of similar First Order plus Dead Time Models. The classic Padé approximation, on the other hand, presents a shock at time t=0 due to the same numerator-denomi-nator derivative power. This generates an erroneous estimate of the dead time. Increasing orders of Padé approximation are used to avoid this issue. The corresponding First Order plus Dead-Time models of two blending systems of orders four and seven are discussed in the following work. The accuracy of the response grows as the orders of the Padé approximation increase. Instead of having one massive drop in the negative zone (as seen in the first few orders of Padé approximation), the oscillations are amplified on a much smaller scale, and the approximation tries to synchronize with the intended response curve in the positive region. MATLAB is used for all simulations.