Prof. Raad Yahya Qassim
Department of Ocean Engineering, The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


ISBN 978-81-19102-60-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19102-65-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/taier/v9


This book covers key areas of Engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include induction motor, spectrum analysis, decision tree algorithm, air gap eccentricity, pattern recognition, braking system, heat flux, braking efficiency, brake actuating mechanism, absolate vibrations, relative vibrations, vibrations indicators, vibrations norms, resistive type superconducting fault current limiter, simulink, power system, corrosion, fly ash, concrete, pozzalonic property, SCAPS simulator, absorber layer, thin-film solar cell, geographic information system, enterprise project management system, attribute data geographic spatial data, power distribution systems, methods of grounding the neutral, mathematical model, characteristics of the insulation, fault current, single-phase fault, symmetrical components, double-skin façade, building performance, water flow sensor, internet of things, smart monitoring system, and cloud server. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Engineering Research.


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Analysing the Eccentricity of the Air Gap in an Induction Motor Using a Decision Tree Algorithm

Rama Mishra , E. Vijay Kumar

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 1-10

This present study presents an air Gap Eccentricity Analysis in Induction Motor using Decision Tree Algorithm. In this study, vibration monitoring system applied to bearing fault analysis and experimental result shows that vibration and current is spectra of and rotating machine like induction motor for different bearing faults. The industry is very similar to the induction motor. Due to its simple control quality, it is also widely used. The eccentricity of three-phase induction motors is mismatched. We experienced speed pulsation, vibration-induced acoustic noise, and friction issues between the stator and rotor as a result of the eccentricity issue. The proposed methodology is useful on Real- time data and achieves 90% true Value. The installation of various Sensors in order to maintain the Good condition of the induction motor is very costly. Decision tree algorithm identifier detects 90% accurate value of air gap which is a gap between rotor and stator, in addition, the LabVIEW tools and power analyzer library is used for searching the maximum accurate parameter for achieving the result.

Design and Analysis of Finned a Brake Drum by Using FEA – Truck: A Detailed Approach

A. Bala Raju, A. Padma Rao, P. Chiranjeevi

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 11-24

The present study highlights the design and analysis of Finned a Brake Drum by Using FEA – Truck, In automobiles, the braking system is essential. With the aid of the brake shoe interface, it operates according to the brake actuating mechanism principle. The braking system uses fiction to convert energy.  The custom-made brake drum made of different materials like are Greycast iron, EN AC-41700 Cast Aluminum, Grade 1600 Au tempered Ductile Iron; H950 (S45000) hardened stainless steel, Titanium 6-6-2(R56620) etc Between the thresholds temperature of inside the brake drum, stresses and deflections, heat flux are measured for the existing design and modified design, the brake drum. Modeling is developed in CATIA V5 R20 and analysis is done in using ANSYS Workbench 14.5. In  general  brake  discs  (single  or  multiple)  made  as  solid, vented, drilled, divided etc., are combined with the pads covering the rubbing path of the disc(s) partly or within the entire circumference  (aircrafts).  The  latter  is  used  to  increase  the  friction  force at the  same  contact  pressure.  The  pad  also  may  be  performed as single or multiple (e.g. mine hoist disc brake systems) friction areas  per  one  side  of  the  disc. In order to increase the life of the brake drum, the paper will concentrate on reducing design stresses, decreasing stopping distance and braking force, increasing braking efficiency, and reducing heat inside the brake drum.

Development of Vibrations Indicators for Rotating Machines Monitoring: Case of Gas Turbines

Bendjaima Belkacem

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 25-40

The vibration monitoring of rotating machinery use indicators, their different values allow us to run or not  the machines, If the limit value, defined by the norms of these indicators  exceeded limits an analysis and fault investigations will be required. These limits are defined by norms, we cite norm  ISO 10816.

By a new and particular calculations of machines vibrations responses we will try in this modest work to define, in a simple way,  development of a new calculation method for the vibrations rotating machines response and vibration limites opttimization.

We have used numerical calculation by finished differences where it will be used the model spring–mass system, we calculated the response of the system according to operation parameters of the model elements used (rigidity, damping and frequency).

The maximal free response of spring-masse system is function of the damping and stiffness coefficients; it is represented by the efforts opposed to that of the excitation.  It’s represented by the ratio of stiffness coefficient to that of damping and including expression of only natural frequency [1-3].

The ratio of maximal forced vibrations, at a constant frequency, and the free vibrations is equal to the ratio of damping and the stiffness coefficients.

In previous study we have optimized norms limits of machines vibration by using the constant ratio of still admissible values to admissible for all groups of machines according the norm ISO 10816-1. We supposed that the admissible absoluate vibrations values according norms corresponds to equilibrium. We have added the admissible limit vibrations to the still admissible values, and to other thresholds. An approximation calculation indicate that we can increase norms only once.

An algorithm for fault diagnosis in industrial rotating machines facing new operating conditions emergence is developed on the basis of input indicators, extracted from vibrations spectrums. Indicators selection is used to improve diagnosis performances by the help of a hybrid approach using several selection criteria and different classifiers [4-6].

In this study we also elaborated a new indicator definition of machines vibrations, we choses importants machines, gas turbines. The indicator is the ratio of absolute to relative vibration, it’s the absolute vibrations of bearing per unit of rotor vibrations displacement. It’s the ratio of the RMS absolute value of the bearing to the rotor vibrations velocity, which gives us information on the evolution of the defaults.

This concept of vibration indicators of rotating machines, allows to have more possibility to monitor them. Norms used are  ISO 10816-4 and ISO 7919-4, which include absolute and relative value thresholds.

We hope that on machines exploitation, the practical application of these indicators will be useful, And also that this work will be developed in future and will contribute to scientific research in this area.

Optimal R-SFCL Location in Power Grid

Abhay Singh Gour

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 41-50

Increased demand of power generation capacity in distributed electrical power systems has led to an increase in fault current levels exceeding the maximum  designed short-circuit ratings of the switchgear. In addition an unbalance in voltage level is also observed during fault owing to the integration of AC and DC micro grids consisting of wind and photovoltaic farms. Resistive type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (R-SFCL) could be the best solution to suppress the excessive fault current problems and also to reduce voltage instability by improving the rise rate of the transient recovery voltage in Smart grids. However, the latest concern in such applications is about the optimum location of R-SFCL. In this work, we have modeled a HTS based R-SFCL using E-J characteristics of the superconductor and implemented it at various key locations in a smart grid. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) of MATLAB is developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method on an IEEE benchmarked four-machine two-area test system. Three phase faults of different ratings are studied with and without SFCL at various key points of the smart grid, monitoring the power flows. Such studies on optimum location of SFCL are important to maximize the effectiveness of fault mitigation in an extended network of Power Grid.

Corrosion Performance of Steel Embedded in Activated Fly Ash Concrete

Sunilaa George, R. Thenmozhi, P. N. Magudeswaran

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 51-61

Cement concrete is the most common construction material used in infrastructure projects because of its versatility. Fly ash is one among the commonly used mineral admixtures as it is available in large quantities in many developing countries. The Ministry of Power, Government of India, estimates that 600 million tons of fly ash will be generated from thermal power plants by 2031-2032, which is a major concern for the environment. The use of fly ash as a building material is largely determined by its mineral structure and pozzalonic property. Different methods of activation can improve these two properties of fly ash. This paper focuses on the chemical activation of fly ash with CaO and Na2SiO3, and the corrosion potential of chemically activated fly ash concrete against corrosive environments is demonstrated by acid resistance tests, impressed voltage studies, and permeability studies.

Numerical Simulation of CTS/CdS Thin-Film Solar Cell

Sabina Rahaman, M. S. Sumathi, K. B. Jagannatha, K. V. Balvanth Gowda

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 62-70

In this book chapter, we have proposed new structure of Cu2SnS3 (CTS)/CdS thin-film solar cells using numerical modelling. Cell results are obtained by SCAP-1D solar simulator. Absorber layer thickness, and temperature is varied to optimise the CTS based cell performance. This study also examines the growth and recombination rates of CTS/CdS. Using this simulator, open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, fill factor and efficiency of the proposed cell is inspected. Open circuit voltages of 0.6V and fill factor of 72.89% was observed to enhance solar cell performance. CTS-based solar cell with CdS buffer layer showed a power conversion efficiency of 9.87% under optimum conditions.

Managing the Engineering Projects through the GIS Tools: A Recent Study

A. M. Abdel-Wahab, O. M. Malek

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 71-87

Nowadays, large cities, such as Jeddah, have a significant number of projects in various locations. As a result, there is an urgent need to implement a comprehensive and completely integrated Project Management Solution (using the Primavera Enterprise suite) that includes all projects currently under construction or newly awarded in a single centralized database. The integration of Primavera data in the spatial database is required in this context. This proposed solution will assist Stakeholders in properly allocating staff to mitigate the risks predicted to complete the project on time and within the estimated budget. In this sense, the significance of this research, which is aimed at discovering a cutting-edge IT solution that automates all Enterprise Project Management System procedures and formalities and offers linkage to geographic information systems programs ArcGIS to transform conventional project management data output and reports into information within a geographic/location context. Thus, visualizing project management output like linear/Gantt charts and/or tabular projects related to work status, comments, and flags and associating this information in the presence of maps and layouts. The present study introduces a comprehensive integration solution to achieve a link and a connection between attribute data coming from EPMS Primavera(P6) and Geographic spatial data (location) by using GIS software., geotechnical, geophysical, and field surveys, focusing on specific areas and not spending effort and time in useless locations.

High-Performance Mathematical Models for the Analysis of Single Line-to-Ground Faults in Medium Voltage Electrical Networks

Dumitru Toader , Marian Greconici, Daniela Vesa, Ildiko Tatai

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 88-145

Setting the protections is essential to correctly and quickly detect faulty power lines. A correct setting requires the use for the calculation of the measured quantities in order to detect faults of mathematical models that reproduce as accurately as possible the behavior of electrical networks during faults. In the case of medium-voltage electrical networks, the defect that occurs most frequently in their operation is that of the single line-to-ground type. The sizes characterizing such a fault are strongly influenced by the method used to connect the neutral of the medium voltage network to the ground, by the condition of the insulation of the medium voltage network as well as by the value of the resistance at the location of the fault. The paper analyzes how active power losses from the insulation of the medium voltage network (insulation loss angle \(\delta\)), the value of the resistance at the fault location (Rf ), and the method used to connect the neutral of the medium voltage network to the ground influence the value the fault current, the currents of the non-faulted lines and the zero-sequence voltage related to the medium voltage bus-bars in the transformer substation. The conditions are established in which the insulation of the medium voltage network can be considered perfect (insulation loss angle \(\delta\) = 0) depending on the method used to connect the neutral of the medium voltage network to the ground, the value of the transition resistance at the fault location and the regime in which the medium voltage network operates. In the analysis made, real medium voltage electrical networks were considered, and the results obtained using the proposed mathematical models were verified experimentally in the same medium voltage electrical networks.

Double-Skin Facades: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Design Considerations

Eman Ali Al-Awag, Izudinshah Abd Wahab

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 146-157

Double-skin facades (DSF) have been widely used in modern building design due to their potential to improve energy efficiency and indoor comfort while enhancing aesthetics. Despite that, there is an ongoing debate about the advantages and disadvantages of DSF due to the limited availability of reliable data on their actual performance. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the advantages and disadvantages of DSF systems by reviewing previous studies investigating the benefits and limitations of using the DSF system based on different parameters, namely, the DSF components and types. The results indicate that appropriately designed DSF systems can positively impact building performance and the environment by reducing energy consumption and improving thermal comfort. However, the high maintenance and construction costs of DSF systems remain a challenge that needs to be addressed in future research.

Detection of Water Pipeline Leakage and Monitoring System Using Smart Sensor with IoT

D. Mahesh Kumar, T. Jagadeep

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 9, 17 March 2023, Page 158-168

This paper presents a smart water pipeline monitoring system to control the water leakages occurring in it. In day by day life, usage of water is increasing with proportional to increase in wastage of water. So, to overcome from this, a smart monitoring system with the help of Internet of Things (IoT) is designed and proposed. In this system, to monitor the flow of water, the water flow sensor is used in the pipeline and also to measure the contamination of water a turbidity sensor has been used. Flow sensor works on the principle of a hall effect. Nodemcu microcontroller, is one of the most common microcontrollers used for IoT purposes has been used in this system. Main purpose of this microcontroller used is because of its interrupt pins. The values measured by the water flow sensor and turbidity sensor are uploaded to the cloud server. For storing the data in the cloud, the ThingSpeak cloud server has been used for this system, because ThingSpeak cloud server is open and free to use. With the values measured by the water flow sensor the data is displayed in the ThingSpeak cloud webserver. The system has a water flow sensor, a microcontroller to interpret the data for evaluating the leakage content and to store the data in the cloud. So, monitoring of the water flow in the pipeline will be done very easily.