Dr. Figen Balo
Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Firat University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-81-959996-2-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-959996-6-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/taier/v6

This book covers key areas of Engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include cold formed steel, welding, axial strength, trifurcation, split flow ratio, optimum loss co-efficient, meridian flow, gas turbine, flow rate, absorption cooler, meridian flow, gas turbine, stream function, axial turbo machinery, building science education, high-performance housing, vapor retarders, internet of things, fog computing, security, blending,  long and short fibered, pulping,  natural convection, rayleigh number, nusselt number, fourier number, powder coatings, scratch hardness test, impact resistance test, building information modeling, drones, GPS, robotics, 3D printing, construction management, chaotic map, cepstrum distance, kasami sequence, and simplify lifting. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Engineering Research.


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Structural Behaviour of Cold Formed Steel Sections Based on Fasteners

S. Karthikeyan, K. M. Jeevananthan , T. Karis Prabakar, R. Harini , S. P. Murali Kannan

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 1-12

In developed countries, cold formed steel sections are widely utilized for a variety of purposes, including roofs in the form of deck sheeting and structural components like beams and columns. Cold formed steel is used very little in developing countries like India, where the market for traditional hot rolled steel sections is still growing. However, cold formed built-up sections can be employed for a variety of applications where spans are minimal and there are few active loads if they are produced effectively. This work examined the structural behavior of cold formed sections depending on various fastening types. We compare and analyze the behavior of cold-formed sections that are primarily supported by bolts and welding. It was investigated how different types of fasteners and their connection methods affected the strength of cold-formed sections. According to studies, changing the type of fasteners led to appreciable modifications in the behavior of similar members.

Optimum Pressure Loss and Flow Distribution at Pipe Trifurcation: An Experimental Approach

Basappa Meti , Nagaraj Sitaram

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 13-21

In the flow distribution of plumbing pipes and penstocks, friction losses at pipe trifurcation and branching are significant. It is necessary to construct the design of an effective trifurcation with the correct flow distribution and minimal hydraulic loss. An experimental approach is selected to evaluate the losses at the junction of the pipe trifurcation ’ K = \(\Delta\)P ’. The split flow ratio and pipe junction geometry with the least pressure loss at the trifurcation The research focuses on calculating pressure losses and flow distribution in pipe trifurcations under varied flow rates and pressures using experimental and numerical methodologies. Near high Reynolds numbers, the complexity of the pressure decrease at the trifurcation is extremely considerable. The pressure loss during pipe trifurcations has been experimentally studied using three distinct trifurcation angles (20\(^{\circ}\), 25\(^{\circ}\), and 30\(^{\circ}\)). The pipe line pressure is varied between 50KPa to 200KPa. The experimental data and analysis for 25.40 mm main and 19.60 mm trifurcated pipes show the correlation between pressure loss coefficient (K) with a split flow ratios \(\left(\frac{Q_2}{Q_1} \right)\), \(\left(\frac{Q_3}{Q_3} \right)\), \(\left(\frac{Q_4}{Q_1} \right)\). It is discovered that the major causes of losses and flow separation are turbulence at the pipe trifurcation junction, angle of the trifurcation, and diameter ratio. The overall trifurcation loss coefficient (K) and individual branch loss coefficients (K12, K13, K14) have been computed and correlation between pressure ratio, split flow ratio and loss coefficients have been developed. For various flow ratios, the optimum value of overall pressure loss coefficients is obtained. The experimental results also suggest that when flow rates in branched pipes are nearly equal, the head loss at the trifurcation junction will be minimal. New connections have been discovered. Experiments at various pipeline pressures show that the overall trifurcation loss coefficient (K) is high for higher line pressures.  

Analysis of Meridian Flow in Gas Turbines: Design and Performances

Bendjaima Belkacem

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 22-43

Performance optimization is an ongoing challenge in any industry. Increases in turbomachinery performance are frequently required in the field of electrical energy production. One method for achieving this goal is to design new machines from existing ones. This work incorporates this step by utilizing the absorption cooler and scale factor concepts.  The theoretical calculation started after analyzing the reception essays findings of the initial machine authorized validation, and the outcomes are utilized to determine the scale factors expression for the new machines design. Using this idea, together with a combustion air cooling system, a performance analysis of the suggested machine is conducted (the absorption cooler). A numerical calculation of the scale factor and performances was also performed.

Meridian Flow Analysis in Axial Multistages Turbomachinery: Case of Gas Turbine Design

Bendjaima Belkacem

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 44-69

To the present study develop a meridian flow model in the axial multi stages turbo machinery with compressible fluid. The flow equations are identical to those in the free vortex configuration and outside the blade zone in the case of single stage axial machines. A specific analytical resolution was developed, first treating an ideal machine and then a real gas turbine in two stages, where the reception essays of the machine in question, an analysis on the essays of the real machine was carried out to validate the selected analytical resolution. The method carried made it possible to calculate a scale factor of design of new machines from an initial machine. The calculation is validate with a numerical resolution (calculation by finites differences is carried out in this study). The approximate calculation is confirmed in this study and it will be possible to carry out program by using data-processing tools in order to facilitate the study of the flow in the machines in question and to allow to the engineer the exploitation of our study with simpler and more practical methods.

The Need for Building Science Education: A Review

Joseph Laquatra

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 70-78

The purpose of this paper is to review the history of what has come to be known as building science and its importance to the residential construction industry. This research uses a review and summary method to provide a historical context for building science and its definition.  Improvements in building science education are required as the demand for high-performance housing rises. Learning how to avoid issues, such as water intrusion and mould growth, in the construction of energy-efficient housing has traditionally been done through trial and error. These problems have been addressed by building codes in prescriptive, non-evidence-based ways.

Motivating current housing industry professionals to learn through continuing education is a start, but the core issue must be addressed by incorporating building science education into curricula related to architecture, engineering, construction management, and other fields.Further monitoring of the creation of building science curricula in 4-year university programmes in construction management and related fields at community colleges. Additionally, metrics should be created to gauge the success of this effort, such as decreases in the frequency of residential construction failures and levels of building science comprehension among general contractors and subtrade workers.

Trusted Execution Environments for Internet of Things Devices: A Recent Study

Abhilash Kayyidavazhiyil, Sheena Kaipacheri

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 79-95

It's natural to be concerned about the safety of Internet-connected gadgets and the people who use them (IoT). The inexpensive cost of low-end microcontrollers (MCUs) is one reason why many Internet of Things devices depend on them [1]. However, many MCUs lack any security protections other than the ability to partition important data and programs. Arm's Trustzone-M technology, a comprehensive security solution for safeguarding Internet of Things devices, is now available for integration with the company's Cortex-M microcontrollers (MCUs). It has been suggested that Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs), which are based on Trustzone hardware, may be used to increase the level of security on portable devices. Over the course of the last several years, a large number of individuals have put in a lot of effort to pinpoint hundreds of security flaws and create a toolbox of defences that can be used against a broad variety of dangers. Despite the fact that they include the same vulnerabilities that were discovered in the past, Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) solutions that are based on Trustzone-M continue to thrive. UTANGO is the first product of its sort when it comes to TEEs for the Internet of Things. UTANGO presents an entirely new design for Trustzone (M) enhanced TEEs in order to address the problems that have been identified. To be more specific, we build independently secure execution zones without the need for specialised hardware by utilising the same Trustzone hardware primitives as dual-world implementations. This allows us to avoid the cost and complexity associated with purchasing additional hardware. UTANGO underwent testing on an authorised Trustzone-M hardware platform known as the Arm Musca-B1.

To better understand how this window of opportunity has been utilised for the unusual IoT possibilities, which typically address features such as device usable resource constraints, we conducted a systematic literature review. The concepts of security, fog computing, the Internet of Things, and Intel SGX are among those primarily discussed.

Physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of Ipomoea Carnea were evaluated to determine its suitability for papermaking. Various chemical parameters such as Ash content, cellulose, ethanol–benzene solubility, hollocelulose, lignin and hot water and 1% soda solubility were carried out to find the chemical composition and to find the content resent in the pulp matter. The use of blending of long fibered pulps along with short fibered pulp helps to determine the important aspect of paper making. The morphology and chemical makeup of hard and soft wood varies greatly from one another. Certain elements, such as drainage, wet strength, and press rolls' propensity to stick, are lacking in soft wood. In order to overcome the issues of drainage, and other strength properties blending plays an important role. Pulp blending can be materialized in three distinct ways such as chips blending, pulp blending before beating and pulp blending after beating. The qualities slightly increase physical strength prior to pulp beating. However, beating at 1500 revolutions in a PFI improved the strength characteristics and resulted in an increased pulp yields column. Strength properties of separately cooked pulp blends beaten together showed improvement over the strength properties of pulp obtained from chips blending. Excellent strength properties are obtained when pulps are blended after beating separately.

Thermal Analyses of Heated Horizontal Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Circular Duct

Himangshu Bhowmik

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 107-128

An experimental study is performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of the unsteady natural convection over a horizontal cylinder heated in air. During the heater power-on transient operations, the effect of heat transfer on the circumference of the cylinder is observed. Surface heat transfer distributions around the circumference of the cylinders are presented for Rayleigh numbers of 4.13×104 to 4.35×104 and a range of different angular position of the thermocouple (0\(^{\circ}\), 90\(^{\circ}\), 180\(^{\circ}\)) are investigated. It is documented that the radiation heat transfer contributes 1/3 of the total heat transfer convection heat transfer. The dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number is compared favorably with those obtained from the literature. The findings also indicate that the position of the thermocouples has a significant impact on the transient heat transfer around the cylinder. The transient heat transfer obtained at 90\(^{\circ}\) and 180\(^{\circ}\) is greater than the heat transfer obtained at the stagnation point (0\(^{\circ}\)). Finally, correlations are reported to predict the surface heat transfer behavior of the horizontal cylinder.

Experimental Study and Performance Enhancement of Surface Coating Techniques

K. Samhitha Reddy, V. Shreya Reddy, J. Sujitha, Madhuri Pydimalla

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 129-152

Surface coatings have changed over time to accommodate the changing demands of the processing sector. Powder coatings are desirable due to their adaptability, high performance and minimal environmental effect. This study aims to investigate the role of powder coatings in the evolution of conventional surface coating technology for practical applications in the field of metal coating, particularly with regard to office and home appliances. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a thorough analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of polymer powder coatings versus liquid-based coatings. The second objective was to compare polymer coatings to additive-filled powder coating. In this study, conventional substrates including copper, aluminum, galvanized iron, brass, cement plank, and wood block were utilized. For the priming coat, the materials were first dry scuffed and then immersed in a 3 in 1 chemical (a combination of zinc phosphate and magnesium phosphate). Coating the surfaces of the prepared substrates with spray-gunned liquid paint (on one side of the panel) and electrostatically sprayed powder paint (on the opposite side of the panel). The coated panels are subjected to a battery of standard (ISO) characterization tests, such as scratch hardness testing, flexibility testing, thickness testing, adhesiveness testing, impact resistance testing, etc., to further evaluate the coatings' efficacy. In comparison to liquid coatings, powder coatings demonstrated superior strength and durability (consistent with industry standards), and their qualitative results were promising (e.g., as the load progressively kept increasing i.e. 1000-2000 gms, mild scratches were noticeable on liquid coated substrates, whereas powder coated metal panels have shown a greater resistance to scratch damage). In addition, the characteristics and qualities of the powder-coated materials have been improved by the addition of a small amount of additive (such as graphene), which has withstood a scratch hardness test with a load of over 2500 gms. In this study, the benefits of powder coating technology have been validated, and the impact of fine powder flowability has been examined. Powder-coating thick steel components and even non-metallic substrates is a promising new direction that this study may open up. Recent advancements in powder coating technology with anticorrosion additives will also yield bonded metallic coatings with a distinctive, high-quality appearance.

Refurbishing Recent Emerging Technology Trends in Construction Industry

Gayatri Mahajan

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 153-174

Adoption of recent digital transformation technology is required today to speed up business and serves as the foundation for construction improvement. Incorporating and practicing of the technologies such as cloud-based communication and collaboration solution, BIM, Construction Management (CM) Software, AR/ VR, 3D printing, Digital Twins, AI, Big Data, IoT, Blockchain, Modular Construction, Offsite Manufacturing, Prefabrication, Robotic, Drones, Mobile Apps and 5G expedite the progress in Construction Industry (CI). The objective of this article is to provide the rising pattern amongst digital technology trends in construction which are identified based on a study carried out during 2020-2022. Result reveals that number of construction technology trends vary from 4 to 20 for CI, and eventually reaches to 27 for Civil Engineering (CE). Adoption and implementation of these technology trends increases efficiency and productivity, reduces risks and time, provides higher security and green sustainability, and improves the overall economics. The challenges and solutions are highly embracing in the field of construction. Thus, the CI is constantly evolving with introductory of new technologies and these innovative technologies show potential in reshaping construction industry operations and provides guidelines for future projects.

Some Aspects for Enhancement of Security in Noisy Environment

Alka Sawlikar

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 175-187

To escape eavesdropping, speech scrambling techniques are employed to scramble clear speech into unintelligible signals. Analog scramblers are intended for use in applications where the level of security is not critical and hardware modifications are prohibitively expensive. Lower the correlation between the speech samples to reduce the residual intelligibility of the speech signal. The use of a wide set of kasami sequences to improve security in a speech encryption system is discussed. The speech signal is separated into segments, and the polynomial is created using a chaotic map. Encryption using chaotic map is much better than traditional encryption methods. We are producing a large set of kasami sequences using this polynomial. Using this sequence as a key, the speech signal is encrypted using the AES-128 bit technique. The evaluation is carried out in terms of noise attack. The system's security is determined by the number of PN sequences included in the coding set. Also, the residual intelligibility is very low if each sample of the speech signal is encrypted with a different sequence rather than the same sequence for each sample, hence the signal is better encrypted if the code set comprises a larger number of sequences.   

Design and Development of Manual Equipment Hooking Machine for Industrial Operations

Milkessa Gurmesa Gebisa

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 22 December 2022, Page 188-199

During material handling, different problems arise on our body and the material handling may not be completed on time at a possible minimum energy consumption which in turn leads to customer dissatisfaction and loss of profit. Having this in a mind, this paper is conducted to solve such problems. That means the objective of the paper is to design and developing the lifting machine, to simplify lifting heavy load, to increase the productivity by minimizing operation time and to increase safety of the operation.

To achieve this objective, the necessary information is collected through primary and secondary data sources, the collected data is analyzed and presented using table, graphically, and some, literatures and etc.

 Finally, we are interested to recommend about our design targeted to:

To increase the efficiency of the product at minimum cost using the hooking machine gives many services for manufacturing company and reduce the accidents on human body. Designing of this manual hooking machine that can be operate mechanically by spur gears mechanism to avoid hazards of workers and to increase productivity, to achieve its target and satisfy its employers.