Editor(s)
Dr. Guang Yih Sheu
Associate Professor, Chang-Jung Christian University, Taiwan.

 

ISBN 978-81-19102-04-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19102-05-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/taier/v5

 

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors includes fuzzy rule, wind speed, wood drying process, solar energy, point diffraction interferometer, optical path alignment, error calibration, image processing, precision measurement and control, High-precision optical systems, ultraviolet lithography, periodic structures, extraordinary transmission, electromanetic metamaterials, sub-wavelength imaging, resonance and resonating structures, ceramic glazes, decalcomania, centrifugal casting, Taguchi technique, metal matrix composites, geographic information system, remote sensing, flash floods hazard assessment, Analytic hierarchy process, morphometric analysis, hydrology analysis, low-cost radiosonde instruments, meteorology, climatology, geophysics, creative design technique, embroideries, traditional of textile application, heritage culture, Ikat technique. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research engineering research.

 

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Chapters


Fuzzy Rule Suram for Controlling Drying Process System

Zakarias Situmorang , Alice Erni Husein

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 1-34
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/18344D

The algorithm of Fuzzy Rule Suram to control the drying process system is carried out in order to obtain optimal energy use. In its implementation, Fuzzy Rule Suram uses The look-up tables. The look-up table is the actuator plant to do the value of fuzzification. Rule Suram is based on fuzzy logic and has two weather variables: ambient temperature and humidity. It is used in the wood drying process. The error value and change error of the membership function of the state variable are represented by the typical triangle and trapezium maps. The analysis resulted in four fuzzy rules in 81 conditions to control the output system, which can be built in a variety of weather and air conditions. It is used to reduce the heater's electric energy consumption. One cycle of scheduled drying is   a serial of the condition of the chamber to process as use as a wood species.  In its development, the Suram Fuzzy Rule Algorithm to control the drying process system takes into account the addition of other influencing variables. Extended fuzzy rule Suram is an algorithm developed to control a drying system using diesel as an energy source by modifying the value of the fuzzy membership function {0.5,1]; and has been developed taking into account the wind speed in the implementation of the fuzzy rule for drying coffee, dan The results of the analysis show that maximizing the use of solar energy reaches 40.86%

Machine Vision Assisted Precision Alignment System for Optical Path Calibration in Point Diffraction Interferometer

Zhuo Zhao, Bing Li, Leqi Geng, Jiasheng Lu, Zheng Wang

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 35-58
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/9521F

In point diffraction interferometer (PDI), alignment error between objective convergent spot and diffraction pinhole is inevitable during the tests. This phenomenon will affect the performance of PDI in follow aspects: 1) great wavefront error; 2) reduction on diffraction efficiency; 3) quality of interferograms. All these factors may finally reduce the measurement precision of the instrument. Aimed at these technical challenges, we propose machine vision assisted precision alignment system for PDI optical path calibration. Firstly, Rayleigh-Sommerfeld vector diffraction theory is used to build mathematical model among alignment error, diffraction wavefront error, numerical aperture, and pinhole size. To satisfy the requirement of error calibration, scheme of machine vision assisted optical path alignment system is designed. Then we adopt magnetron sputtering and electron beam lithography to fabric precision diffraction pinhole. In this stage, alignment images as well as PDI diffraction efficiency (intensities ratio between reflected and diffracted beam) are the dominant information to determine alignment error in multi-directions. In addition, specialized image processing algorithm is designed that can measure alignment error in pixel and physical scope. To realize automatic correction, mathematical model between measurement and control quantities is constructed. Finally, implementation and experiment of this method are also introduced. Misalignment on lateral translation (XOY plane), longitudinal defocus (optical axis Z) and tilt error (XY tile) are well calibrated and the quality of interferograms is also improved. It can be concluded that the proposed system has advantages in accuracy and efficiency of optical path alignment.

Metamaterials for Subwavelength Imaging

Kiran Kumar Amireddy, S. Solomon Raj

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 59-69
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/17959D

Metamaterials (MM) with their exotic properties that are not observed in naturally existing materials are of much interest in many fields including medical diagnostics and non-invasive imaging and testing of industrial components. Advances such as super and hyper lenses, extraordinary transmission, cloaking and absorption, have been experimentally demonstrated with metamaterials. These can be treated as effective media, where their extraordinary properties depend on the periodic geometrical and topographic features. This chapter explains the Optical (Electromagnetic) and the Acoustic Metamaterials used for subwavelength imaging.

Low Firing Glazes for Ceramics

Cezara Voica

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 70-91
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/4950E

The ceramic glazes are thin coatings covering the ceramic products. From a structural point of view, they are glass, non-crystalline masses, which confer gloss, smoothness, and water resistance, as well as mechanical, aesthetic, and hygienic properties to the product. Glazes significantly influence most of the final properties of ceramic ware, mainly on surface parameters such s as color, glossy, or roughness. Usually, these properties have been changed by the chemical composition and the firing parameters.

The concerns of obtaining high-quality glazes compatible with the support they stand on are permanent. The tendency of reducing the firing temperature, especially when the aging of glaze (the second firing) is done at temperatures that are lower than the temperature of the structure firing of the mass (the first firing), is an essential goal of the technologies. Thus, the two actions reducing the firing temperature and improving the quality of glazes – do not exclude each other; they must be in a permanent correlation, so looking for composition adjustments is natural.

The study followed by elaborating on a new glaze for bone china with lowered firing temperature.

The newly proposed studied glaze has a low firing temperature – 10500C, with 1300C lower than the firing temperature of industrial glaze, an extensive range of melting and softening (this allows an optimal bearing of trend on the product, avoiding possible leakages at edges and corners); high viscosity in the fused state; unique gloss, due to lead oxide; grown fusibility and a better linking of the colorant from transfer printing (decalcomania).

Wear Characteristics of ZA-27/Al2O3 Composites Processed by Centrifugal Casting: Experimental Investigation

P. N. Jyothi, M. C. Jagath, K. Channakeshavalu

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 92-103
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/5406A

Wear properties of ZA-27/Al2O3 Composites manufactured using centrifugal casting technique were investigated. Operating factors like the reinforced alumina particle size (20–100µm), the specimen's distance from the pin-on disc apparatus's center (0–40 mm), the melt's melting temperature (450–6500C), the weight percentage of added alumina (5–25), the sliding speed (100–500 rpm), and the typical wear load (10–50 N) were focused. ZA alloys are much suitable for applications having higher load concentration at lower speeds. For the analysis, the Taguchi approach with the notation L25 was used. Normal wear load was observed to be one of the parameters that has the greatest impact on wear rate and the dry sliding wear of composites, followed by sliding speed, weight percentage of Al2O3, specimen position, particle size, and melting temperature.  

Implementation of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Study the Flash Flood Risk at NEOM Mega-City, Saudi Arabia

Ahmed A. Abdulalim, Tarek A. El Damaty

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 104-144
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/9470F

Southern Red Sea flooding is common. Assessing flood-prone development risks helps decrease life and property threats. It tries to improve flood awareness and advocate property owner steps to lessen risk. DEMs and topography data were analyzed by RS and GIS. Fifth-through seventh-order Rivers were studied. Morphometric analysis assessed the area’s flash flood danger. NEOM has 14 catchments. We determined each catchment’s area, perimeter, maximum length, total stream length, minimum and maximum elevations. It also uses remote sensing. It classifies Landsat 8 photos for land use and cover maps. Image categorization involves high-quality Landsat satellite images and secondary data, plus user experience and knowledge. This study used the wetness index, elevation, slope, stream power index, topographic roughness index, normalized difference vegetation index, sediment transport index, stream order, flow accumulation, and geological formation. Analytic hierarchy considered all earlier criteria (AHP). The geometric consistency index GCI (0.15) and the consistency ratio CR (4.3%) are calculated. The study showed five degrees of flooding risk for Wadi Zawhi and four for Wadi Surr, from very high to very low. 9.16% of Wadi Surr is vulnerable to very high flooding, 50% to high flooding, 40% to low flooding, and 0.3% to very low flooding. Wadi Zawhi’s flood risk is 0.23% high, moderate, low, or extremely low. They’re in Wadi Surr and Wadi Zawhi. Flood mapping helps prepare for emergencies. Flood-prone areas should prioritize resilience.

 

Design of Radiosonde Based on Arduino Pro Mini Using BME280 Sensor

Ida Pertiwi Sari, Anak Agung Ngurah Gunawan, I. Made Satriya Wibawa, I. Ketut Putra, Mahmud Yusuf

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 145-157
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/18576D

Aims: To produce low-cost Radiosonde instruments with high accuracy, which are expected to be used as a reference in developing upper aerial observation instruments so as to reduce observation costs

Study Design: Design of Radiosonde Based on Arduino Pro Mini Using BME280 Sensor.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physics, Udayana University, and Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG), Region-III Badung, between June 2022 and August 2022.

Methodology: Calibration is done by comparing the output value of the BME280 sensor and the BMKG calibration standard tool. The calibrated parameters are temperature, humidity, and air pressure.

Results: Radiosonde instruments based on Arduino Pro Mini using the BME280 sensor have been produced. The measurement accuracy obtained for the temperature parameter is 99.9968% with uncertainty (U95) of ±0.\(18^{\circ}\)C , the humidity parameter is 99.296% with uncertainty (U95) of ±2.9%RH, the air pressure parameter is 99.99998% with uncertainty (U95) of ±0.15 hPa. The accuracy value indicates that the resulting tool has a good level of accuracy to the standard tool.

Conclusion: In this research, has been produced a Radiosonde instruments at a low-cost with high accuracy and precision, which have been calibrated with BMKG standard tools.

To Study the Indian Heritage of Textile Embroidery & Creative Design Techniques Process

Ramratan Guru, Jyoti Rani, Ushma Saini

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 158-171
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/4611C

Indian heritage which includes the Indian culture and Embroidery is one of the most diverse and full of variety in compared to any other country across the globe. Indian culture comprises of various religious and ethical values that is not found in any other country. Every state has its unique culture, traditions and religion which plays a vital pivot for the country to be different from the other countries and the culture manifolds the diversifications that cannot be seen elsewhere. Indian Culture and Indian art form especially the Indian Embroideries are well known for its originality and uniqueness.

To Study the Creative Technique on Ikat Traditional Textile

Ramratan Guru, Deepika Grewal, Anupam Kumar

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 5, 27 February 2023, Page 172-184
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/taier/v5/4612C

One of the oldest and most traditional ways to decorate fabric is with the delicate touch of a weaver's hand, using the Ikat technique. Due to its diversity of ornamentation in the field of complexity, fineness, and artisanship of a pure designer, presumably evolved from Asia, this yarn resists the manner of embellishment for cloth is wholly different from that of the fabric ikat. Despite the introduction of shuttle-less looms with sophisticated dobby and jacquard technology and their great productivity in the textile business, traditional textiles continue to draw a certain type of client from all over the world. India has a rich heritage culture and Indian traditional textiles are one of the parts of the heritage culture but now this field would suffer ignorance. These studies enlighten the different types of Ikat textiles and also motivate the scholars to think of research areas in this immensely skilled craft in terms of colour, foam and fabric. Ikat is a craft that tests the skills of two sets of craftsmen tie-dye experts and weavers to create some stunning masterpieces. They draw from the cultural nuances of different regions. It is a celebration of this tradition across the world at the World Craft Council Asia Pacific Region exhibition in New Delhi. In this article we have study traditional of Ikat, classification of Ikat, material & techniques used and application.