Dr. Figen Balo
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Firat University,  Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-5547-841-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-842-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/taier/v1

This book covers key areas of Engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include emergency generator package set, Structural adhesive, bulk specimens, thick adherend shear test, fracture toughness, Adhesive joints, T-joints, finite element method, Bi-adhesive, cohesive zone models, fracture toughness, Remote sensing images, image processing, detection of land use and land cover, segmentation, Flexible AC Transmission System, Intreline Power Flow Controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller ,damping of oscillations, Flow accelerated corrosion, Computational fluid dynamics, Weathering, polyolefin, photo-oxidation, chain scission, cross-linking, Alternative fuels, vegetable oil, plastic oil, injection timing, supercharging, and combustion characteristics. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Engineering Research.

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Emergency Generator Usage on Landing Craft Tank: A Brief Review

Danny Faturachman, Muhamad Padil De Manan, Karina A. Sulaeman

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 1-12

The Landing Craft Tank (LCT) is a type of attack landing craft for waterfront vessel tanks. Generally, LCT 415 Gross Tonnage (GT) ships are not equipped with emergency generators. Only ships with more than 500 GT are required to have an emergency generator package, according to Indonesia Classification Bureau or Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia (BKI) rules. However, in order to achieve a higher level of safety, the LCT 415 GT is outfitted with an emergency generator package installation. This generator serves as an electric power source for the ship's compass when it is turned off. The goal of this research is to learn about the LCT 415 GT's electrical power requirements in order to identify the required emergency generator package specifications and to provide an overview of the generator's placement on the main deck. Emergency generator packages are organised to improve ship safety, crew safety, and cargo safety. LCT 415 GT ships required a total power of 29,9408 kW in an emergency. When extreme weather conditions occur, the basic package of emergency generator set selection is based on total emergency power in accordance with BKI regulations, as well as the generator safety engine package set.

Mechanical and Fracture Property Estimation of a Structural Adhesive

J. E. C. Pinto, R. D. S. G. Campilho

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 13-24

It is not sufficient to understand the conventional mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus (E), shear modulus (G), tensile strength (\(\tau\)f) and shear strength (\(\tau\)f) in order to predict crack propagation of an adhesive joint using advanced fracture mechanics-based techniques like cohesive zone models (CZM). Actually, estimating the tensile (GIC) and shear fracture energy (GIIC) is also necessary. The purpose of this work is to carry out the mechanical and fracture property characterization of a new structural two-component epoxy adhesive. With this purpose, four tests which were conducted: tensile testing to bulk specimens, shear testing with thick adherend shear tests (TAST), double-cantilever beam (DCB) and end-notched flexure (ENF). The test results were consistent with the manufacturer's data, and they will make it possible to build bonded structures using this adhesive.

A Comprehensive Experimental Study on Bi-Adhesive Technique Applied to Structural T-Joints

P. M. D. Carvalho, R. D. S. G. Campilho, I. J. Sanchez-Arce, R. J. B. Rocha, A. R. F. Soares

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 25-39

T-joints are used in many applications such as automotive, marine, and aerospace industries. In this work, the bi-adhesive technique is studied, consisting of using two adhesives, placing a more flexible adhesive at the overlap ends and a stiffer one in the central area. To test this method in T-joints, different adhesive ratios were evaluated. To evaluate this concept, a numerical study was carried out using the CZM technique, in the ABAQUS® software, including a study of failure modes, stresses, strength or maximum load (Pm) and dissipated energy (U). The CZM technique was initially validated with experimental results using the current work. The numerical work that followed demonstrated that the strength of T-joints is significantly dependent on the adhesive combination used and that it is possible to achieve increases in Pm and U when compared to single-adhesive joints.

Detection of Land Use and Land Cover from an Optical Remote Sensing Image: A Review

A. V. Kavitha, A. Srikrishna

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 40-69

Since the inception of a remote sensing image, the detection of land use and land cover from an optical image has been a crucial study topic. Maps of land use and cover are widely used in agriculture, environmental monitoring, urban planning, and other fields, as well as in the management of various catastrophic disasters like floods, tsunamis, and forest fires. The main methods for identifying land use and land cover from an optical remote sensing image were examined in this research. The value of strategies based on spatial context and mathematical morphology has finally been argued after many techniques based merely on spectral information, spatio-contextual information, and knowledge-based methods have all been examined.

A Comparative Overview of PI and Fuzzy Logic Based IPFC on Damping of Power System Oscillations

S. N. Dhurvey, V. K. Chandrakar, P. P. Ashtankar

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 70-89

This research introduces a novel fuzzy logic-based Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) approach for identifying the appropriate control signals for oscillation damping. The IPFC perfor- mance is tested with PI controllers in comparison with fuzzy logic based controller on Modified Phllips-Heffron Model of Single Machine Infinite Bus System to achieve improved damping per- formance by selecting effective control signals such as deviation in pulse width modulation index of voltage series converter 1 in line 1, pulse width modulation index of voltage series converter 2 in line 2, deviation in phase angle of the injected voltage of convertor 1, injected voltage phase an- gle deviation of convertor 2. Investigations have shown that the resilient dynamic performance is produced by the coordinated tuning of an interline power flow controller and fuzzy logic controller. Simple fuzzy rules are used in the Fuzzy Logic Based Interline Power Flow Controller [IPFC] design to coordinate the additional damping signal. The proposed controllers for IPFC are capable of improving the power system's designed performance. By using eigen value analysis, the validity of effective control signals has been determined.

Determination of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) in Feeder Pipes Using CFDd Software Fluent

Dheya Al-Othmany

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 90-96

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is a corrosion mechanism caused by a combination of physical, chemical, and hydrodynamic factors, resulting in piping wall thinning. This phenomenon requires prediction and modelling to account for local and non-uniform distribution flow and mass transport characteristics. This is possible with the CFD software FLUENT. A feeder wall thing rate of 0.1084 mm/EFPY has been reported in a number of nuclear reactors. The focus of this study is on two objectives. The first was to conduct CFD analysis with FLUENT. A typical reactor's feeder channel was modelled because it displayed a maximum wall thinning rate of 1.1 mm per year. However, the chemical treatment of the working fluid was not taken into account in this investigation. To ascertain the FAC threshold temperature, experimental tests of FAC were conducted at a range of temperatures. For water temperatures up to 90°C, no significant FAC was discovered due to experimental constraints.

Weathering Degradation of Polyolefin

Wahyu Purwo Raharjo, Dody Ariawan, Kuncoro Diharjo, Wijang Wisnu Raharjo, Bambang Kusharjanta

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 97-145

Thermoplastic polymers, such as polyolefin, are degraded when interacting with the environment. Polyethylene and polypropylene can experience chain scission and cross-linking caused by photo-oxidation, in the presence of oxygen and sunlight. The sunlight contains UV radiation which is easier to go through the amorphous region of the polymer than in the crystalline one. It causes the susceptibility of lower-crystalline polymers higher than highly-crystalline ones. Polymers having straight chains are more resistant than those having high tertiary-carbon content. The photo-oxidation is initiated by the formation of charge transfer complexes of polymer-O2. Chain scission happens only if oxygen is present and it is based especially on the Norrish II reaction, meanwhile cross-linking, promoted particularly by the Norrish I reaction, occurs in the absence of oxygen resulting in the gel formation. Compared to artificial one, natural weathering, consisting day-and-night cycles and seasonal changes, provide a stronger impact on photo-oxidation.

Combustion Characteristics of a Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine with Plastic Oil with Supercharging

Aditya Seshu Machiraju, M. V. S. Murali Krishna, P. Ushasri

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 146-163

Waste plastic is non-biodegradable. It causes health hazards to human beings and cattle. Scientists have found that it is carcinogenic in nature. If plastic is converted to oil, which can be used in Internal Combustion Engines. In the context of fast depletion of fossil fuels, ever increase of pollution levels with fossil fuels and increase of economic burden towards import of crude petroleum, which could have spent another important sectors like health, poverty, literacy, agriculture etc., the search for alternative fuels has become pertinent. Alcohols and vegetable oils are important substitutes for diesel fuel, as they are renewable in nature. Alcohols have high volatility, but low calorific value and cetane ( a measure of combustion quality in diesel engine) number. On the other hand, vegetable oils have comparable calorific value, and cetane number. But they have high viscosity and low volatility. Plastic oil can be manufactured from waste debris by the process known as pyrolysis, is a good substitute for diesel fuel, as its properties are comparable with diesel fuels. However, plastic oil has high viscosity. In order to reduce viscosity and improve cetane number diethyl ether (DEE) of optimum quantity (15%) was added to the plastic oil. These viscous fuels can be effectively burnt in low heat rejection engine or semi adiabatic diesel engine (SADE). The concept of SADE is to minimize the heat loss to the coolant thus creating hot combustion chamber suitable for burning high viscous fuels. The SADE consisted of air gap insulated engine. It is necessary to find out or to evaluate combustion characteristics of the test fuels, if the design of combustion chamber was changed from conventional combustion chamber to insulated combustion chamber. The aim of this report was to determine combustion characteristics of peak pressure (PP), time of occurrence of peak pressure (TOPP) and maximum rate of pressure rise (MRPR) at full load operation of the engine with both versions of the engine such as conventional engine (CE) and SADE with and without supercharging with varied injection timing. Supercharging is defined as additional supply of (oxygen) air at high pressure at inlet manifold of the engine to improve the performance of the engine The piezo electric transducer was connected to the top portion of the cylinder head, while TDC (top dead centre) encoder was connected to the extended portion of the extended shaft of the dynamometer. The console was connected to the transducer and TDC encoder. The console converts pressure signal from transducer and magnetic signal from TDC encoder to electric signal fed to the computer. The computer reads the data of combustion parameters at full load operation. The injection timing was varied with an electronic sensor. Combustion characteristics improved with SADE at full load operation with advanced injection timing.

Developing an Efficient Hybrid Approach for Email Spam Filtering: SPAM-NSGA-II-NvBys

S. Kumar, S .D. Vijayakumar, R. Praveenkumar, V. Manimala

Techniques and Innovation in Engineering Research Vol. 1, 6 September 2022, Page 164-179

Any type of unwanted email that you didn't sign up to receive is considered spam. However, some spam could be a part of an identity theft scam or another type of fraud. Some spam is annoying but not unpleasant. In order to combat the spam phenomenon's ongoing growth, anti-spam filters have recently become indispensable technologies for Internet service providers. E-mails are filtered inconsistently across different users nevertheless of the user’s curiosity. For statistically figuring out whether a specific email message is actually spam or not, there isn't one particular algorithm. To address this issue, we present a hybrid approach that combines the Navie Bayes spam filtering algorithm with the Multi objective Genetic Algorithm: Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), resulting in a better result in reducing spam mails entering the user's inbox. SPAM-NSGA-II-NvBys will be the name of our proposed hybrid approach. The filter's evaluation revealed that it can make decisions with high accuracy (96.24% in the worst case and 99.66% in the best case).