Edited by

Ruokun Yi
Chongqing University of Education, China.

Xin Zhao
Chongqing University of Education, China.

ISBN 978-93-91595-30-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-31-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-91595-30-2

This book deals with the bioactivity of some Chinese and Korean homologous substances. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the area of probiotics. This book was funded by Chongqing University Innovation Research Group Project (CXQTP20033), China.


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The Impact of Antarctic Ice Microalgae Polysaccharides on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

Ruokun Yi, Lei Deng, Jianfei Mu, Chong Li, Fang Tan, Xin Zhao

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 3-25

Antarctic ice microalgae (Chlamydomonas sp.) are a polysaccharide-rich natural marine resource. In this study, we evaluated the impact of Antarctic ice microalgae polysaccharides (AIMP) on D-galactose-induced oxidation in mice. We conducted biological and biochemical tests on tissue and serum samples from mice treated with AIMP. We found that AIMP administration was associated with improved thymus, brain, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney index values. We also found that AIMP treatment inhibited the reduced aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels as well as the increased serum, splenic, and hepatic nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels arising from oxidation in these animals. Pathological examination revealed that AIMP also inhibited D-galactose-induced oxidative damage to the spleen, liver, and skin of these animals. AIMP was additionally found to promote the upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, \(\gamma\)-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 as well as the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in these animals. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed AIMP to be composed of five monosaccharides (mannitol, ribose, anhydrous glucose, xylose, and fucose). Together, these results suggest that AIMP can effectively inhibit oxidative damage more readily than vitamin C in mice with D-galactose-induced oxidative damage, which underscores the value of developing AIMP derivatives for food purposes.

Investigating the Anti-tumor Activities of Bamboo Salt on Sarcoma 180 Tumor-Bearing BALB/c Mice

Ruokun Yi, Yong-Cai Qi, Xin Zhao, Kun-Young Park

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 26-35

Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt made by packing sun salt (sea salt) into bamboo tubes and cooking it at high temperatures numerous times. Bamboo salt was studied and compared to other salt samples for anti-tumor efficacy . Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited with large tumor weights, bamboo salt is associated with a lower tumor weight. The anti-tumor efficacy of bamboo salt baked nine times (9X) was higher than salt baked once (1X) or three times (3X) (3X). A MTT Assay was used to examine the growth rate of 9X baked bamboo salt in mice splenocytes. Bamboo salt baked once (1X) can be used as table salt.This rate of proliferation was higher than that achieved with 1X baked bamboo salt by FBS, LPS or Con A. Purified and solar salts showed the least proliferative impact in terms of growth rate. 9X bamboo salt significantly (p<0.05) lowered ALS, AST, and BUN levels when compared to the other salt samples .The bamboo salts, especially 9X bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) increased the cytokine levels of TNF-\(\alpha\) and IL-1\(\beta\) compared to the other salt samples.

Studies on Preventive Effects of Malvae verticilate and Perilla frutescens var. Japonica Leaf on Activated Carbon Induced Constipation in ICR Mice

Ruokun Yi, Na Ji, Xin Zhao, Kun-Young Park

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 36-48

Constipation is a common problem that is defined as persistent, difficult, infrequent, or apparently incomplete defecation. It includes the passage of excessively dry and hard faeces, sluggish bowel action, and other symptoms.The current study looked at the effectiveness of a Perilla frutescens var. japonica leaf extract against activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. Constipation was induced in mice by administering active carbon (10% activated carbon dissolved in 0.5% arabic gum water), whereas control mice received only 0.5% arabic gum water. Constipated mice were given 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg body weight/day of Perilla frutescens var. japonica leaf extract for 9 days, during which all feeding characteristics such as body weight, dietary and drinking water amount intake, as well as faecal properties, first black stool time, gastrointestinal transit, and levels of serum biomarkers such as gastrin, motilin, somatostatin, were monitored. Treatment of constipated mice inhibited body weight loss, dietary intake loss, increased intestinal motility speed, faecal volume, and also shortens the first black stool time, accelerated serum levels of gastrin, motilin, substance P, and decreased serum levels of somatostain, which inhibited Growth Hormone (GH). The anti-constipation property of the herb extract at the intake level of 1.0 g/kg body weight shows the greatest efficacy. The extract's effect is comparable to that of biscodyl, a common laxative. These findings indicate that the leaf of Perilla frutescens var. japonica can be used as a natural preventive method of constipation medicine.

White Tip Silver Needle (Slightly Fermented White Tea) Flavonoids Help Prevent Aging via Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects: A Recent Study

Chong Li, Jianchun He, Yue Yang, Yuting Gou, Zhiying Wang, Hong Chen, Xin Zhao

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 49-69

Aim: White tip silver needle, a slightly fermented white tea high in flavonoids, has a significant impact on D-galactose/lipopolysaccharide-induced ageing in mice.

Methods: We investigated the antioxidant capacity of white tip silver needle flavonoids (WTSNF) in vitro, as well as their effects on organ indexes, pathological changes, liver function indexes, biochemical indicators, molecular biological indicators, and genes associated with oxidation and inflammation.

Results: WTSNF contained baicalin, kaempferol, kaempferide, quercetin, isorhamnetin, lespenephryl, and rutin, according to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry results.WTSNF showed strong scavenging ability for both 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) free radicals. Pathological analysis results showed that WTSNF reduced liver, kidney, and lung damage in mice with induced aging. WTSNF effectively increased the antioxidant-related levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity in serum and liver tissue while decreasing the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. WTSNF also reduced the inflammation-related levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF\(\alpha\)), and interferon gamma (IFN-\(\gamma\)) and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12. WTSNF also increased the levels of mRNA expression of cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-10, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor, heme oxygenase 1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IkB-\(\alpha\)), and thioredoxin, while it downregulated the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-18, interleukin-1 beta, TNF\(\alpha\), IFN-\(\gamma\), inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB).

Conclusion: WTSNF is an antioxidative and anti-inflammatory natural substance that inhibits D-galactose/lipopolysaccharide-induced ageing in rats.

Intervention Effect of Malus pumila Leaf Flavonoids on Sennainduced Acute Diarrhea in BALB/c Mice

Ruokun Yi, Yu Tian, Fang Tan, Wenfeng Li, Jianfei Mu, Xingyao Long, Yanni Pan, Xin Zhao

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 70-81

The Malus pumila leaves are used as a kind of tea drink in China, and there are abundant flavonoids in the leaves of Malus pumila. In this study, BALB/c mice received senna extract solution via gavage, which induced acute diarrhea, and the interventive effect of Malus pumila leaf flavonoids (MPLF) was observed. The results showed that MPLF decreased the diarrhea index, and MPLF also decreased the capillary permeability in the abdominal cavity of mice. The result of serum cytokine detection indicated that MPLF decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-\(\alpha\)). The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that diarrhea decreased the mRNA and protein expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3) in the jejunum and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the ileum, which were inhibited by MPLF. By high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), MPLF mainly contains 10 flavonoids, which are rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, taxifolin, quercitrin, hesperidin, myricetin, baicalin, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and quercetin, the synergistic effect of these components plays an antidiarrhea role in MPLF. Therefore, MPLF achieved good antidiarrheal effect, which was better than that of the commonly used montmorillonite powder at the same concentration. MPLF is a natural raw material for functional food with an antidiarrheal effect.

Antioxidant Capacity-Related Preventive Effects of Shoumei (Slightly Fermented Camellia sinensis) Polyphenols against Hepatic Injury

Ruokun Yi, Yuxuan Wei, Fang Tan, Jianfei Mu, Xingyao Long, Yanni Pan, Weiwei Liu, Xin Zhao

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 82-104

Shoumei is a kind of white tea (slightly fermented Camellia sinensis) that is rich in polyphenols. In this study, polyphenols were extracted from Shoumei. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the polyphenols included mainly gallic acid, catechin, hyperoside, and sulfuretin. In an in vitro experiment, H2O2 was used to induce oxidative damage in human normal hepatic L-02 cells. In an animal experiment, CCl4 was used to induce liver injury. The in vitro results showed that Shoumei polyphenols inhibited oxidative damage in normal hepatic L-02 cells, and the in vivo results showed that the polyphenols effectively reduced liver index values in mice with liver injury. The polyphenols also decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-\(\alpha\)), and interferon gamma (IFN-\(\gamma\)) levels and increased albumin (ALB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in the serum of mice with liver injury. Furthermore, pathological observation showed that the Shoumei polyphenols reduced CCl4-induced hepatocyte damage. qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the polyphenols upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), manganese- (Mn-) SOD, copper/zinc- (Cu/Zn-) SOD, CAT, and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) alpha (IkB-\(\alpha\)) and downregulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NF-kB p65. The Shoumei polyphenols had a preventive effect against CCl4-induced mouse liver injury equivalent to that of silymarin. The four polyphenols identified as the key substances responsible for this effect mediated the effect through their antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that Shoumei polyphenols are high-quality natural products with liver-protective effects.

Effects of Cold-Pressing and Hydrodistillation on the Active Non-volatile Components in Lemon Essential Oil and the Effects of the Resulting Oils on Aging-Related Oxidative Stress in Mice

Guijie Li, Sha Xiang, Yanni Pan, Xingyao Long, Yujiao Cheng, Leng Han, Xin Zhao

Study on Bioactivity of Food and Drug Homologous Products, 29 July 2021, Page 105-124

The aim of this study was to analyze the non-volatile composition and antioxidant differences of lemon essential oils (LEOs) obtained by cold-pressing vs. hydrodistillation. Pathological observations showed that LEO effectively inhibited liver injury caused by oxidative stress, and CPLEO was more effective than HDLEO. CPLEO increased serum T-AOC, SOD, GSH, and GSH-Px levels while decreasing NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1\(\beta\), IFN-\(\gamma\), and TNF-\(\alpha\) levels in mice with oxidative damage. The effects of CPLEO were stronger than those of HDLEO and similar to those of vitamin C. CPLEO upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1 while downregulating nNOS, iNOS, IL-1\(\beta\), COX-2, TNF-\(\alpha\), and NF-kB mRNA expression and nNOS, eNOS, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression in mice with oxidative damage. The results demonstrate that LEO has good antioxidant effects and that CPLEO has a better antioxidant effect than HDLEO as it retains more active non-volatile substances.