Editor(s)

Prof. Shi-Hai Dong
Department of Physics, School of Physics and Mathematics, National Polytechnic Institute Building 9, Unit Professional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, A. P. 07738, Mexico D. F., Mexico.

ISBN 978-93-91595-88-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-96-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1

This book covers key areas of physical science. The contributions by the authors include PSpice simulation, Sziklai pair, complementary Darlington pair, Small-signal amplifiers, dark matter, magnetic monopole, inverted Maxwell’s equations, magneto-electric, Dirac equation, magnetic sterile neutrino, active black hole, event horizon, nified field theory, dark matter, cosmology, shock wave, glow gas discharge, ionization instability, stratified energy source, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, complex conservative difference scheme, neutrino interactions, nuclei, electro production, muonic neutrino, auroral event, Aurora Australis, Gill’s Electronic Theory, geomagnetic dynamo, photonic crystal, metalized planar layered structure, light reflection spectroscopy, bandgap structure, local states, thin lines of transmission, collimation of THz irradiation, optical devices, corrugated aerofoil, Reynolds number, black hole, event horizon, gravitational collapse, Hawking radiation, dynamic collapse, AC/DC resonant converter, high frequency AC, power distribution systems, steady-state analysis, experimental evaluation, classical spin, electrodynamics, field theory. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science.

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### Chapters

##### Study of Low-Noise Wide-Band Tuned Sziklai Pair Small-Signal Amplifier

Sachchida Nand Shukla, Geetika Srivastava, Syed Shamroz Arshad

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 1-16
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/4064F

The objective of the paper is to propose and study the modified version of NPN-driven Sziklai pair small-signal amplifier with user-defined PSpice model of unmatched BJTs. With an additional biasing resistance, the proposed amplifier generates higher amplifier current gain (12904), higher amplifier voltage gain (304.343), wider bandwidth (2.7107 MHz) and higher power gain (65.940 dB-Watt) than earlier announced commercial BJTs based NPN Sziklai pair Small-signal amplifier. It is also found capable of producing distortion-less and fair output for a 1$$\mu$$V-1.6mV range of AC input signal at 1KHz frequency. Low input and output noises along with excellent thermal stability over the operational temperature range -30oC $$\le$$T$$\le$$+50oC are the paramount features of this amplifier. Proposed amplifier is also examined with the matched pair of BJTs. An investigation of the physical analysis of frequency responses and related parameters such as the effect of additional biasing resistance RA, effect of variation of current gain factor $$\beta$$, temperature dependency, noise sensitivity, phase variation, range of the different biasing resistances and capacitors and small-signal AC analysis is also being performed in detail. With the suggested modifications, the proposed amplifier may be used in analog front-end amplifiers for monitoring the bio-potential signal of the human body. Tuning performance also makes it a suitable candidate to be used in radio and TV receiver stages.

##### What Connects Dark Matter and Black Holes? Scientific Explanation

Russell Bagdoo

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 17-37
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/3910F

Dark matter is a major component of the universe, about six times more abundant than ordinary visible matter. We measure the effects of its mass, but it escapes the telescopes. It has the particularity of emitting no radiation and interacting only by the action of gravity. The main purpose of this article is to try to answer what dark matter is: we conjecture that it is composed of magnetically charged neutrinos, true magnetic monopoles. But that requires a huge conceptual leap: Maxwell's laws must be inverted and the electric charge becomes a magnetic charge. Asymmetric "reversed" Maxwell's laws would provide the "dark" magnetic charge that would replace the electric charge. The very form of the Dirac equation, which imposed on ordinary matter that the particle carries an electric charge and obeys the principal properties of the electron, would impose in the dark matter that the "dark" particle obeys the main properties of a neutrino associated with a magnetic charge. Dark matter is intimately related to black holes. The darkness of dark matter and black holes is caused by the reversal of Maxwell's laws. The second aim of the article is to show that dark matter is derived from black holes, mainly from active supermassive black holes. This requires a second conceptual leap: the horizon of the black hole undergoes a high temperature and an intense pressure of magnetic fields which cause a blackout and a phase transition (or broken symmetry) when the matter crosses the horizon. The result is a reversal of Maxwell's laws: A magnetic charge is substituted for the electric charge, and the electric current becomes a tributary of the magnetic current. A third important conceptual leap follows: sterile magnetic neutrinos created inside the black hole would cross the horizon to the outside to constitute dark matter.

##### A Look at Schmutzer's New Projective Unified Field Theory

Rainer Collier

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 38-43
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/3583F

This short letter refers to Schmutzer’s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism. The scalarism appearing in the theory is a new phenomenon of nature, which can be interpreted as dark matter. A number of applications to the orbits of spaceships, planets and stars in galaxies as well as to the cosmos as a whole generate new effects that go beyond the known statements of the Einstein-Maxwell theory.

##### Passage of a Shock Wave through the Region of Ionization Instability of Gas Discharge Plasma: Experimental and Numerical Study

Olga Azarova, Tatiana Lapushkina, Alexander Erofeev, Oleg Kravchenko

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 44-56
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/12614D

The article refers to the field of supersonic flow control via external energy deposition. The objective of this work is to study the influence of ionization inhomogeneities organized in the area of a shock wave propagation on its shape, stability and intensity. Passing the strong shock wave (M=5-6) through the region of pre-formed ionization instability in gas discharge plasma has been studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiments the ionization spherical strata have been obtained arising in the gas discharge region due to the development of the ionization instability in air. As a result of the interaction of an initially plane shock wave with the inhomogeneous plasma region the formation of new complicated shock-wave configurations was obtained the shape of which changed from smooth to gear. These configurations were shown to acquire an unstable character. Numerical simulations were carried out on the basis of the Euler system of equations with the parameters corresponding to the experimental conditions with the use of the complex conservative difference schemes. The stratified energy source was modelled by a set of thermal layers with varying characteristics. Changes in the physic-chemical properties of the medium were described by varying the adiabatic index. Stratified shock-wave structures consisting of modified wavy shock-wave and contact discontinuities have been obtained as a result of the interaction of the shock wave with the region of ionization instability. Generation of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities has been obtained on the thermal strata in the vicinity of the shock wave front curvatures which confirmed the unstable character of the shock wave front. Comparison of the obtained experimental and numerical shock front evolution showed a good agreement. Results of the study can be used to control of high-speed flows and shock-wave configurations, as well as mixing processes.

##### Study on Dependence of Diffraction Dissociation Phenomenon in Neutrino Interactions with Nuclei

O. K. Egorov

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 57-61
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/9700D

Only after the introduction of the electron proton accelerator HERA was able to conduct experiments on the diffraction dissociation phenomenon in photo and electro production. We present results on A-dependence of diffraction dissociation (DD) phenomenon in interactions of muonic neutrino with nuclei at various values of momentum transfer. Calculations were done within the two-gluon exchange model by Nikolaev-Zakharov-Zoller (NZZ). Comparison with experimental data obtained in interactions of muonic neutrino with photo emulsion nuclei is carried out. All data are presented as ratio of the DD cross section to the deep inelastic cross section.

##### Message from the SUN on 28th August 1859

Avtar Singh Gill

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 62-82
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/12511D

The great 1859 spectral auroral event affecting the Earth which also showed the link between the magnetic effect and the electrical effect is explained as the ‘Message from the SUN 28th August 1859'.

The Northern and Southern Lights are caused by the solar IMF. Gill’s Electronic Theory of Magnetism 1964 shows how the solar IMF on approaching the magnetosphere of the Earth splits into its negative and positive electric energy components which head for the opposite magnetic poles of the Earth to cause the equally bright Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis.

Why these Northern and Southern lights do not reach all the way to the magnetic poles of the Earth and why they are brighter on the night side will be explained with illustrations. Kristian Birkeland’s 1900-1916 ‘terrella’ experiments are further explained.

The solar source of the essential electrical seeding of the magnetic poles of the Earth for the functioning of the geomagnetic dynamo of the Earth to create its magnetosphere is shown.

Some applications to harness this solar electrical energy reaching the Earth are presented and dot product equations are presented to support these applications without any need of Henrik Lorentz’s 1893 cross products.

Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism 1964 explains all the above and should replace Maxwell’s pre-existing dipole theory of magnetism 1873.

##### Collimation Effect on THz Transmission Resonances in Metalized and Defected Photonic Structures

E. Ya Glushko

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 83-89
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/4111F

A photonic crystal resonator optically contacted with a metal film generates in the THz frequency range a system of sharp spikes of electromagnetic quenching matching the reflection spectra of a bore resonator. It was shown that the calculated angle-frequency map of reflection for a metalized polypropilene/air structure contains narrow lines of extraordinary transmission through the metal film. In this work, we found that sharp peaks of electromagnetic transmission can also be generated at certain conditions by the defect containing resonators. The effect depends essentially on the defect position and number of periods. A remarkable property of the considered resonators when a thin inclined line of transmission takes place against the backdrop of perfect reflection can serve as a ground effect in compact and reliable direction control devices and THz radiation collimating devices. Energy concentration and collimation effect in a metalized resonator structure fitted with a stochastic EMW reservoir was evaluated. Enhancement of THz radiation filtering based on peaks of resonant transmission was discussed.

##### Study on Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis of Bio-mimetic Corrugated Wing

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 90-100
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/12539D

The aerodynamic and static structural analysis of a newly developed bio-mimetic corrugated aerofoil inspired by dragonfly forewing is included in this work. The basal wing part of the dragonfly corrugated aerofoil structure used in this study was placed around the radius of the forewing. These corrugations define the stressed skin structure, which is made up of grider-like veins and a thin cuticle membrane that provides a sophisticated mechanical advantage for longitudinal bending resistance while allowing for wing camber and torsion. Dragonflies are recognised for their amazing flight abilities. They are designed to carry both aerodynamic and inertial loads. At a Reynolds number of 15000, a computational analysis of a newly designed dragonfly corrugated aerofoil is performed, with flow assumed to be laminar, steady, incompressible, and two dimensional. The project includes static structural analysis and aerodynamic flow analysis of a 2-D dragonfly corrugated aerofoil utilising Ansys Fluent and Ansys Mechanical APDL. It has been discovered that the design criteria employed, as well as simulations performed on a corrugated aerofoil, produce significantly better results than earlier studies. The structural analysis also demonstrates that it can withstand maximum pressure loads and provides high rigidity to the wing span. This discovery adds to our knowledge of insect-inspired corrugated wing structure and facilitates the application for improved design of artificial wings for MAVs and UAVs.

##### A Potential Barrier Halting Spherically Symmetric Relativistic Gravitational Collapse

James C. Austin

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 101-113
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/4203F

For asymptotic observers, geodesic paths of radially inbound photons in a Schwarzschild space-time approach the critical radius of a collapsed star asymptotically. When considering processes of accretion or quantum evaporation however, inbound null geodesics, in a corresponding Vaidya space-time, pass through a momentary inflection point where time dilation diverges and subsequently reach the critical radius within a finite coordinate time. By considering a diagonal form of the Vaidya metric that reduces to the Schwarzschild metric in the zero accretion/evaporation limit, photons approaching on radial paths pass through the inflection point and undergo infrared divergence at the critical radius. Particles on radial timelike geodesics are shown to meet a potential barrier beyond the inflection point, which diverges at the critical radius.

##### Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of a Resonant AC/DC Converter for HF-AC Power Distribution Systems: Recent Advancement

Marcelo G. Cendoya

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 114-128
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/4181F

The high frequency (HF) alternating current (AC) power distribution systems have significant advantages over their DC counterparts. This paper presents the analysis and experimental evaluation of an AC/DC resonant converter, suitable to be used at the load side of HF sinusoidal AC power distribution systems. Foremost, a theoretical analysis of the converter operation in steady-state and continuous conduction mode is performed. The analysis is focused on obtaining the conversion ratio, the distortion of the input current and the converter efficiency. In order to validate the theoretical analysis and to investigate the performance, a converter prototype was included in a laboratory HF sinusoidal AC distribution system. The experimental results present a good correlation with predicted values obtained by means of calculations done with the mathematical expressions derived in the theoretical analysis. They also confirm the converter fine performance for the suggested application.

##### Study on Classical Electrodynamics Spin

R. I. Khrapko

Research Trends and Challenges in Physical Science Vol. 1, 26 August 2021, Page 129-158
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rtcps/v1/4052F

There are two mutually exclusive concepts of the electrodynamics spin. According to the widespread concept, the spin density is proportional to the gradient of the electromagnetic energy density. Therefore, an unlimited plane wave of circular polarization does not contain spin, and a real wave, limited in space, carries all spin at its boundary, separately from energy. In contrast, according to the original concept, the spin density is proportional to the energy density, and the spin of plane waves is not related to the existence of the boundaries. Within the framework of this concept, we calculate the spin fluxes of plane waves in various situations and the previously unnoticed spin flux in the dipole radiation. The reason for the transition from this initial concept to the concept of a spin proportional to energy density gradient is discussed.