Editor(s)

Dr. Gul Ozcan
Professor,
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Istanbul, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-91215-72-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-73-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9

This book covers key areas of biology research. The contributions by the authors include leaf lectin, leaf endophytic bacterium, Cratylia mollis seed lectin, Cramoll, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, electrochemical system, oxidative stress, lectins, anticancer and antioxidant activity, Von Willebrand factor, atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, coronary artery disease, Heyde’s syndrome, pronator teres, humeral head, ulnar head, medial intermuscular septum, coronoid process, entrapment neuropathy, nutrient foramen, nutrient artery, femur, tibia, fibula, diaphysis, soleal line, spiral line, medial crest, duchenne muscular dystrophy, fibroblasts, hyperosmolar or pro-inflammatory cell stress, climate change, phytopathogenic fungi, plant diseases, plant protection, pesticides, harmful chemicals, biodegradation, phytochemical resources, lipid rafts, membrane proteins, protein localization, regulated secretion, signaling pathway, proteome, mast cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesoderm specific transcript, Periodontal ligament stem cells, Periodontal tissue,  Regenerative medicine, drug targets, phytochemicals, phytochemical structure database, antrophogenic noise, anti-predator activity. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biologyresearch.

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### Chapters

##### A Simple Electrochemical System to Evaluate Interactions between Bauhinia monandra Leaf Lectin (BmoLL) and Cratylia mollis Seed Lectin (Cramoll) Immobilized in Nafion Nanopores with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Endophytic Strain

Sandra R. Souza, Benny F. Oliveira, Jadilma C. Pimentel, Sergio A. F. Ramos, Janete M. Araújo, Thiago H. Napoleão, Patrícia Maria G. Paiva, Maria T. S. Correia, Luana Cassandra B. B. Coelho

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 1-17
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9392D

An electrochemical system evaluated the interaction of lectins immobilized in nanopores of Nafion with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin, BmoLL, specific for galactose, interacted with P. aeruginosa strain UFPEDA598, an endophytic bacterium isolated from B. monandra leaves. Cratylia mollis seed lectin, Cramoll, specific for glucose-mannose, did not bind to the endophytic strain, but recognized a pathogenic bacterium of P. aeruginosa, strain UFPEDA-39 (IT2633). BmoLL revealed high recognition of the UFPEDA598 endophytic bacterium strain; the result of this interaction was evidenced by an increase in electrochemical potential and stability in the presence of galactose, the lectin inhibitor, with a binding preference for endophytic membrane carbohydrates. Cramoll did not interact with the endophytic strain, since there was no variation in the electrochemical potential in relation to the control; however, the addition of glucose to the system promoted a lower potential, indicating the lectin preference for the monosaccharide. On the other hand, Cramoll showed high specificity for the membrane carbohydrates of P. aeruginosa strain UFPEDA-39 (IT2633); a decrease in the electrical potential was observed after the interaction, with stability to the glucose-inhibited lectin. We developed a simple, label-free system for recognizing microorganisms in real time. The biosensor clearly distinguished the glycoconjugate surfaces of P. aeruginosa from different environments and can be useful for the selective identification of strains of the same species. The electrochemical detection of lectin interconnections with microorganisms is relevant to unravel structural recognition mechanisms.

##### Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Cancer-Induced Mice Treated with Ruta graveolens L. Stem Lectins

Amairany Torres-Alvarez, Ernesto Mendoza-Vallejo, Catalina Machuca-Rodríguez

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 18-24
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9501D

Free radicals are generated naturally in aerobic organisms as a result of mitochondrial activity. Normally, cells have many pathways for scavenging free radicals, but in certain pathologic processes, such as cancer, the development of free radicals increases, rendering it difficult to keep the system intact, resulting in oxidative stress. Ruta graveolens L. (Rue) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine, mostly as an anti-inflammatory; this has been linked to various organic components, such as Rutin, but no lectin tests in Rue stem have been conducted. The richest source for most lectins are the seeds or, more generally, the storage organs of plants. These are seeds as in most plants studied so far, but also roots, bark or leaves. Lectins are non-enzymatic, non-immune glycoproteins that can bind to simple carbohydrates, enabling them to bind selectively to malignant cells while killing them via apoptosis and reducing free radical levels. We aimed to classify rue stem lectins because they hadn't been studied before. The anticancer and antioxidant activity of these lectins was also investigated. Rue stem lectins were extracted using a saline solution and semipurified to obtain an enriched extract, which was then administered to nickel oxide-treated mice. Oxidative stress was quantified in the liver using the tiobarbituric acid (TBARS) method to quantify Malondialdehyde (MDA), the Griess method to quantify Nitrites, and the enzymatic activity of catalase. In this study, it was discovered that rue stem lectins are useful as a therapeutic auxiliar, despite the fact that their antioxidant activity ratio is limited, making them a prooxidant agent at high concentrations.

##### Von Willebrand Factor in Thrombo-inflammation and Cardiovascular Pathology

Yuliya Avtaeva, Ivan Melnikov, Sergey Okhota, Sergey Kozlov, Zufar Gabbasov

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 25-47
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9634D

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric plasma glycoprotein that links thrombosis and inflammation. It mediates platelet adhesion and leukocyte recruitment to vascular injury sites and carries coagulation factor VIII, a building block of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. VWF may serve as a bridge between bacteria and the vessel wall in sepsis. The presence of ultra-large multimers of VWF in the bloodstream is associated with spontaneous thrombosis, whereas its deficiency leads to bleeding. Deficiency of VWF multimers also causes disturbances in angiogenesis and predisposes to the development of angiodysplasia. In cardiovascular pathology, the progression of the heart valve disease results in VWF deficiency and cryptogenic gastrointestinal bleeding. The association between higher plasma levels of VWF and thrombotic complications of coronary artery disease was described. Of note, it is not the plasma levels that are crucial for hemostatic and proinflammatory activity of VWF, but VWF activation, triggered by a rise in shear rates. VWF becomes highly reactive with platelets and leukocytes upon unfolding into a stretched conformation, at shear rates above the critical value (more than 5000 s-1), which occur at sites of arterial stenosis and injury. The activation of VWF and its counterbalance by ADAMTS-13, the VWF-cleaving protease, may contribute to complications of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the involvement of VWF in thrombo-inflammatory complications of cardiovascular diseases and possible diagnostic and treatment approaches.

##### Variations of Pronator Teres(PT) Muscle: A Morphological investigation

Mamta Sharma, Rajeev Prashar

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 48-53
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9663D

The muscles of shoulder girdle and elbow act together to position the hand accurately for manipulative functions. The superior extremity of man has undergone various modifications during evolution one of which is the lateral rotation of forelimbs at joints with pectoral girdle. The aim of the present study was to study the variations of Pronator teres(PT) muscle. The study of Pronator teres muscle is important because of its close relation to the median nerve.  The present study was done on 60 upper limbs (56 Males and 4 Females) of embalmed adult human cadavers obtained from Deptt of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College Patiala. The humeral head of PT was found in all the cases, while Ulnar head was present in 52(86.7%) cases. The Humeral head was muscular in all the cases. The Ulnar origin was muscular in 15 cases (28.84%), tendinous in 7 cases(13.46%) & mixed in 30 cases (57.7%). In 2 (3%) cases there was double humeral head and the median nerve was passing between them. In 3 cases (5%) there was high origin of humeral head of Pronator teres from medial intermuscular septum. Anatomy instructors and health professionals should be aware of the common variations in muscles and tendons of the forearm, not only for their academic interest but also for their clinical and functional implications. The information of innervation pattern of median nerve to Pronator teres is of significant importance in understanding the different presentation of Pronator teres syndrome and its differentiation from other clinical conditions.

##### Morphological Variations of Nutrient Foramina in Lower Limb Long

Mamta Sharma, Rajeev Prashar

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 54-62
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9649D

Backround: The major blood supply to long bone is from the nutrient arteries, which enter through nutrient foramen. Nutrient foramen is an opening into the bone shaft which give passage to the blood vessels of the medullary cavity of a bone. The direction of the nutrient foramen of all bones is away from growing end and has a particular position for each bone.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to study the topographic anatomy and morphology of the nutrient foramina in human adult lower limb long bones.

Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 150 lower limb long bones which included 50 femora,50 tibiae and 50 fibulae. The bones were obtained from department of anatomy, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar.

Results: The variations were found in number and location of nutrient foramen in different lower limb long bones. In femur double and triple foramina were observed. Absence of nutrient foramen was observed in femur and fibula.

Conclusion: The topographical knowledge of these foramina is useful in certain operative procedures, in orthopedics as well as in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to avoid damage to the nutrient vessels.

##### Study of NFAT5 Physiology in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Fibroblasts: Provisionary Explanation for the Permanent Fibrosis Formation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Sandrine Herbelet, Boel De Paepe, Jan L. De Bleecker

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 63-75
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9835D

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrotic tissue production by fibroblasts. The promyogenic factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) is virtually present in all cells, responding to hyperosmolar or pro-inflammatory stress. In embryogenic fibroblasts, absence of NFAT5 results in cell cycle arrest. Here, unaffected skeletal muscle fibroblasts from one healthy donor showed NFAT5 nuclear translocation upon hyperosmolar stress and normal cell viability. Absence of NFAT5 translocation under pro-inflammatory conditions resulted in decreased cell growth (Incucyte ZOOM). In DMD skeletal muscle fibroblasts from one DMD patient, NFAT5 was merely located in the nucleus. Exposure to hyperosmolar conditions or pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-$$\gamma$$, IL-1$$\beta$$ and TNF-$$\alpha$$ had no influence on NFAT5 physiology (immunofluorescence, western blotting, RT-qPCR). Hyperosmolarity resulted in decreased cell viability and pro-inflammatory stress in unaltered cell growth. These findings suggest that NFAT5 is vital to DMD fibroblast survival. Exposure to pro-inflammatory or hyperosmolar stress in DMD fibroblasts results in an unexpected NFAT5 response, where fibroblasts are not triggered by inflammatory cytokines and do not withstand hyperosmolarity. Chronic inflammation could be viewed as a non-restrictive factor in the formation of fibrosis in DMD. Abnormal NFAT5 physiology could provide a molecular explanation for permanent fibrotic matrix production by DMD fibroblasts.

##### Climatic Anomalies and Plant Diseases

Mark Levitin

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 76-86
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9874D

The climate of our planet has been changing rapidly. Over the past 100 years, an average global air temperature has increased by 0.740, in particular, in Russia, it was 0.4°C from 1990 to 2000. By the middle of this century, warming of almost 2°C is expected (http://www.protown.ru/information/articles/articles_2519.html). The fastest (0.052°C/year) temperature rises are in the northern and European territories of Russia. January was the warmest month in 2020. For example, in Moscow and St. Petersburg, an average monthly temperature in January was 9.4 degrees above normal. May became the warmest on record – an average air temperature exceeded the average in May by 0.63 degrees. Russia remains the part of the world where climate warming during the 21st century will significantly exceed the average global warming. In addition to the temperature factor, changes in CO2 concentration will influence plant diseases. Most climate scientists associate an increase in surface temperature with an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide CO2 in the atmosphere. Since 1750, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been drastically increasing (1). In 1750, the concentration of carbon dioxide was 280 p.p.m., while in 2000, it reached 368 ppm, and by the end of the century, it will be 800 ppm. The average   growth rate of CO2 concentration in Russia over the past 10 years was 5.7%. There is an opinion that if the CO2 content doubles, then the average annual temperature of the Earth could increase by 6°C (https://terve.su/globalnoe-poteplenie-mnenie-finnov/). The problem of climate change may have a catastrophic impact on agriculture. About 70% of the losses connected with unfavorable climatic conditions occur in agriculture. According to experts, as a result of climate change, Russia annually lacks more than 40 million tons of crop production in grain equivalent. Experts report about climate change and the consequent extinction of 30-40% of plant and animal species, degradation of key ecosystems, agricultural productivity, and, thus, aggravation of the problem of food security. The chapter examines the possible consequences of climatic anomalies for plant diseases. It presents examples of the spread of some southern diseases to the north of Russia. There is an opinion that global warming may lead to the expansion of the range of thermophilic species of phytopathogenic fungi. The author discusses the problems of the relationship between parasites and plants, the structural peculiarities of protective measures in the context of global climate shift.

##### Bio-efficacy of Acacia auriculiformis against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Amandeep Kaur, Satwinder Kaur Sohal, Saroj Arora, Harpreet Kaur

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 87-98
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/9469D

Synthetic chemical pesticides used for pest control in agriculture have resulted in enormous problems raising concerns about their effect on environment and human health. It necessitates imposing a limit on the use of these harmful chemicals. of insecticidal potential of purified fractions obtained form A. auriculiformis against the selected pest, B. cucurbitae along with the analysis of chemical constitutes of these fractions to establish a base for industrial applications and formulations of ready to use type of chemicals for farmers. Traditional pest control methods led to an era of pesticide-contaminated food, air, and water. The scientific community is primarily focused on developing ecofriendly, biodegradable, and human-safe pest control chemicals. Plants are investigated for their extensive phytochemical resources as a result of this search. The purpose of this study is to investigate the active components of Acacia auriculiformis, an economically important medicinal plant, against Bactrocera cucurbitae, the melon fruit fly. The results showed that fractions of ethyl acetate extract have a promising effect against insect pests, as they significantly reduced emergence, increased mortality, and decreased the pupal weight of pest with treatments. The chemical characterization of the active ingredients using various spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, NMR, LC-MS) shows that flavonoids make up the majority of the fractions. The findings also concluded the presence of flavonoids mainly apigenin, gallic acid and catechin in fraction A1, A2 and A4 respectively. This will lead to the formation of base for further development of ecofriendly chemicals from the plant source as well as in the laboratory as potential control agents of insect pests like B. cucurbitae.

##### Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Lipid Rafts from RBL-2H3 Mast Cells

Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho, Luiz Augusto Marin Jaca, Lilian Cristiane Baeza, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Clayton Luiz Borges, Constance Oliver, Maria Célia Jamur

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 99-122
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/10043D

Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, glycosphingolipids, and certain proteins. They are involved in the regulation of cellular processes in diverse cell types, including mast cells (MCs). The MC lipid raft protein composition was assessed using qualitative mass spectrometric characterization of the proteome from detergent-resistant membrane fractions from RBL-2H3 MCs. Using two different post-isolation treatment methods, a total of 949 lipid raft associated proteins were identified. The majority of these MC lipid raft proteins had already been described in the RaftProtV2 database and are among highest cited/experimentally validated lipid raft proteins. Additionally, more than half of the identified proteins had lipid modifications and/or transmembrane domains. Classification of identified proteins into functional categories showed that the proteins were associated with cellular membrane compartments, and with some biological and molecular functions, such as regulation, localization, binding, catalytic activity, and response to stimulus. Furthermore, functional enrichment analysis demonstrated an intimate involvement of identified proteins with various aspects of MC biological processes, especially those related to regulated secretion, organization/stabilization of macromolecules complexes, and signal transduction. This study represents the first comprehensive proteomic profile of MC lipid rafts and provides additional information to elucidate immunoregulatory functions coordinated by raft proteins in MCs.

##### Determination of Mass Acquisition of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell

Hidefumi Maeda

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 123-133
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/2682F

The periodontal ligament (PDL) is an essential fibrous tissue for tooth retention in the alveolar bone socket. PDL tissue further functions to cushion occlusal force, maintain alveolar bone height, allow orthodontic tooth movement, and connect tooth roots with bone. Severe periodontitis, deep caries, and trauma cause irreversible damage to this tissue, eventually leading to tooth loss through the destruction of tooth retention. Many patients suffer from these diseases worldwide, and its prevalence increases with age. To address this issue, regenerative medicine for damaged PDL tissue as well as the surrounding tissues has been extensively investigated regarding the potential and effectiveness of stem cells, scaffolds, and cytokines as well as their combined applications. In particular, PDL stem cells (PDLSCs) have been well studied. In this review, I discuss comprehensive studies on PDLSCs performed in vivo and contemporary reports focusing on the acquisition of large numbers of PDLSCs for therapeutic applications because of the very small number of PDLSCs available in vivo.

##### Integrating Traditional Medicine (Phytochemical) & Computational Biology for Combating COVID-19

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 134-148
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/10144D

SARS-CoV-2, a zoonotic virus has affected Millions of people worldwide and has created turmoil all over the world as everything is at a standstill. Along with this worsening condition, no validated drugs exist specifically for the SARS-CoV-2 while prophylactic medicine remains an option. Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases there can be pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. Phytochemicals help regulate the oxidative and proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor -$$\alpha$$, interleukin (IL) 1$$\beta$$, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase 2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa B, nitric oxide synthase. An outcome of this is relief in a cytokine storm. Phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, delphinidin, quercetin, ergosterol peroxide, punicalin, naringin, diosmin, hesperidin, emodin, chrysin are of relevance for the prophylactic treatment of COVID-19.

##### The Effect of Antrophogenic Noise on Anti-predator Activity of Sumatran Elephants at the Elephant Conservation Center

. Abdullah, A. Shabrina, . Khairil, M. Saputri, D. Syafrianti, N. Ala

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 9, 28 June 2021, Page 149-157
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rrab/v9/8893D

The increase of human activity around forest area causes noise anthropogenic effect to animals. This long-term effect can lead to decrease behavior and impact on species composition and inter-species interactions. Sumatran Elephants are classified as endangered animal. This study aims to determine the effect of noise on the Sumatran elephant's anti-predator behavior and the difference in behavioral response based on the difference noise exposure time. The observation was conducted to Sumatran Elephants in Elephant Conservation Center Saree, Aceh Besar District. Observation method was animal focal sampling technique. The data was analyzed using the chi square test with a significant level of 5%. Based on the results of the chi-square test, the value of sig is 0.000 or smaller than 0.05, indicate that there is an effect of noise toward anti-predator behavior. The observed Sumatran elephants also look more responsive to the noise that is sounded in the morning. Noise can interfere with prey perceptions of predators and correlate with increased energy use. The presence of visitor, motorized vehicles, and other voices from around area contributed significant noise which had an impact on the welfare of animals in captivity.