Dr. Matheus Ramalho de Lima
Professor, Federal University of South of Bahia, Brazil.

ISBN 978-93-91215-34-7 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-35-4 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rrab/v8


This book covers key areas of biology research. The contributions by the authors include  antimicrobial peptide, atopic dermatitis, barrier function, epidermal barrier, filaggrin, skin barrier repair,  epilachna larvae, plant feeder pests, predatory species, physicochemical parameters, alkalinity, carbon(iv)oxide, salinity, dissolved oxygen and temperature ranges, brackish water, fishpond,  anaemia and antisickling property, cytoskeletal proteins, energy metabolism, mitochondrial interactions, plectin, tubulin beta, signaling, ischemia-reperfusion, cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, mitochondria, mitochondrial heterogeneity, preconditioning, reactive oxygen species, signaling, chromosomal band maps, herbal practitioners, medicinal plants, phytochemicals, ethnobotanical study, cell suspension culture, phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, succulent plants, biochemical parameters and kidney biomarkers, modern toxic metal, nephrotoxicity, cadmium treatment, cytomegalovirus, morphological evaluation, lymphocytic component. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biology research.


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Implication of Antimicrobial Peptides in Atopic Dermatitis: Role in Regulation of Skin Barrier

Hai Le Thanh Nguyen, Juan Valentin Trujillo-Paez, Yoshie Umehara, Hainan Yue, Ge Peng, Chanisa Kiatsurayanon, Panjit Chieosilapatham, Pu Song, Ko Okumura, Hideoki Ogawa, Shigaku Ikeda, François Niyonsaba

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 1-18

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that exhibits a complex interplay of skin barrier disruption and immune dysregulation. Patients with AD are susceptible to cutaneous infections that may progress to complications, including staphylococcal septicemia. Although most studies have focused on filaggrin mutations, the physical barrier and antimicrobial barrier also play critical roles in the pathogenesis of AD. Within the physical barrier, the stratum corneum and tight junctions play the most important roles. The tight junction barrier is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, as structural and functional defects in tight junctions not only disrupt the physical barrier but also contribute to immunological impairments. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered a rapid and first-line response of the innate immune system to microbial pathogens.  Furthermore, antimicrobial peptides, such as LL-37, human b-defensins, and S100A7, improve tight junction barrier function. Recent studies elucidating the pathogenesis of AD have led to the development of barrier repair therapy for skin barrier defects in patients with this disease. This chapter analyzes the association between skin barrier disruption in patients with AD and antimicrobial peptides to determine the effect of these peptides on skin barrier repair and to consider employing antimicrobial peptides in barrier repair strategies as an additional approach for AD management.

Beetles play a significant role in the economy for two reasons. Plant feeders are pests of farm crops and forest trees when they are numerous. Predatory species, on the other hand, contribute significantly to man's attempt to control plant feeder pests.  Pests are animals whose populations grow to such an extent that they cause economic losses to crops or are a nuisance and health hazard to humans and their livestock. Momordica dioica Roxb (wild bitter gourd) fruits are less bitter than Momordica charantia L. fruits (bitter gourd).It also has medicinal properties.  It is a wild annual plant with a low ability to germinate. It has a lower production than bitter guard but a higher market value. On the wild bitter gourd Momordica dioica, Epilachna larvae (grubs) and adults were spotted attacking. However, current research shows that it is a pest of cucurbitaceous hosts as well as Momordica dioica. It causes defoliation and stunted development, resulting in a lower yield.

The Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research/African Regional Aquaculture Centre (NIOMR/ARAC) brackish water fish farm, Buguma is an example of tidal water between the farm and adjoining creek, where tidal water flows into the farm and out, enhancing constant exchange of water. Water quality parameter reflects the water composition as affected by both natural and anthropogenic activities expressed in terms of measurable quantities. Knowledge of hydrological conditions of water body helps assess its productivity as well as a better understanding of the population and life cycle of the fish community. The result obtained indicates that for 2011 pH; ammonia-nitrogen; nitrite-nitrogen; nitrate-nitrogen; alkalinity; carbon (iv) oxide; salinity; dissolved oxygen and temperature ranges were between 6.5-7; 0-0.1 ppm; 0.25-0.25 ppm; 40-80 ppm; 5-10 ppm; 9-20 ppt; 3.8-6 ppm and 26-31°C respectively while for 2012 pH; ammonia-nitrogen; nitritenitrogen; nitrate-nitrogen; alkalinity; carbon (iv) oxide; salinity; dissolved oxygen and temperature ranges were between 6.5-7; 0-0.1 ppm; 0.05-0.05 ppm; 0.05-0.25 ppm; 40-80 ppm; 5-10 ppm; 9-20 ppm; 3.8-5.6 ppm; 26-31oC respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in all parameters for both years and the values measured were within tolerable limits for optimum aquaculture. proper management of these parameters will contribute immensely to fish production and enhance experiments seeking to adapt fish species to this region in the Niger Delta when tolerable limits has been established.

Pigment Production in Callus Culture of ‘Karandafi’ Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). A Probable Cure for Sickle Cell Anaemia

L. B. Hassan, I. S. Usman, A. Usman, H. Ibrahim, H. O. Ahmed, S. Mohammed

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 32-38

‘Karandafi’ is a landrace of sorghum with identified antisickling property and rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanidin but mutant in nature. This tends to limit large scale production of this important drug used for the treatment of sickle cell aneamia. Sorghum bicolor is very rich in various phytochemicals and its extract is used in combination with other medicinal plants to treat sickle cell anaemia. This work is designed to study the effect of different concentrations of hormone alone or in combination with elicitor on the production of pigment in Karandafi in vitro. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media was fortified with different concentrations of 2, 4-D (0, 2 and 4 mg/L) alone or in combination with 0.5 mg/L NAA or KN for callus induction using mature seeds as explant while MS media supplemented BAP (0-3 mg/L) alone or in combination with 1 mg/L KN, NAA or 50 mg/L yeast extract (Y.E) was used for pigment production. Data was collected on percentage callus formation, callus fresh weight, nature of callus induced, % shoot and root formation, number of root, shoot and root length. Highly significant difference was observed for all the traits measured. Media fortified with 2 mg/L 2,4-D alone or in combination with 0.5 mg/L NAA and KN are optimum concentrations of hormone that can be used for callus induction while better callus growth was obtained in the media fortified with 4 mg/L 2,4-D +0.5 mg/LKN (3.43 g). Pigment production was observed from the media fortified with BAP alone or in combination NAA, KN or yeast extract in Karandafi but with extraction and quantification the best treatment with highest content of 3-deoxyanthocyanindin can be determined.

The Role of Cytoskeletal Proteins in the Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

Andrey V. Kuznetsov, Sabzali Javadov, Michael J. Ausserlechner, Judith Hagenbuchner

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 39-63

Identification of the mitochondrial roles and regulatory mechanisms for the understanding of muscle bioenergetics is a fundamental problem in physiology/pathophysiology. The three cytoskeletal systems microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments play a fundamental role in the maintenance of mitochondrial structure/architecture, intracellular organization and motility. Moreover, numerous communications between cytoskeleton and mitochondria can actively contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial respiratory function and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In skeletal and cardiac muscles, mitochondrial positions are firmly fixed with very regular arrangement along filaments, providing a basis for many interactions with cellular systems such as cytoskeleton and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Importantly, this might involve association of cytoskeletal elements with VDAC (the voltage-dependent anion channel), by this means, controlling the permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and overall mitochondrial energy metabolism. Cardiac muscles and isolated cardiomyocytes show also a regular arrangement of tubulin beta-II fully co-localized with mitochondria, in contrast to other tubulin isoforms. This finding suggests the participation of tubulin beta-II in the regulation of OMM permeability through interaction with VDAC. In addition, the OMM permeability might be regulated by the specific isoform of cytoskeletal protein plectin. This book chapter summarizes and discusses previous studies on the role of cytoskeleton in the regulation of energy metabolism and mitochondrial physiology, OXPHOS and intracellular energy transfer.

Mitochondrial Involvement in the Molecular Mechanisms of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Heart

Andrey V. Kuznetsov, Sabzali Javadov, Judith Hagenbuchner, Michael J. Ausserlechner

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 64-87

Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cell viability and cellular basic functions by energy (ATP) production. These organelles are also considered as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several apoptosis activators. The crucial role of mitochondria has been shown in numerous aspects of cell physiology and pathophysiology, such as intracellular signaling. Mitochondria and mitochondrial function may deteriorate under pathological conditions like various diseases, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and during aging. Damaged or injured mitochondria are the main causes for cell and tissue impairments, due to various cell stresses, generation of excess of ROS  (oxidative stress), increased cellular and mitochondrial calcium levels, associated with apoptotic or/and necrotic cell death. The interplay among these mitochondrial activities under normal and pathological conditions is still unsuccessfully recognized. Mitochondria play a critical role in cardiac IR injury, where they are directly involved in various pathophysiological mechanisms. Here, we discuss the role of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion) and heterogeneity. In particular, we stress the existence in the heart and skeletal muscles functionally different mitochondrial subpopulations that may also have different sensitivities to diseases and IR injury. Thus, different cardioprotective medications that maintain stability of mitochondria, their dynamics and turnover, including several agents, specific mitochondrial antioxidants, uncouplers, and application of ischemic preconditioning might be considered as the possible, beneficial strategies to protect mitochondria and cardiac function and improve longevity.

The Medicinal Importance of Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

A. I. Sodimu, J. Appah, M. B. Usman, R. A. Suleiman, G. L. Lapkat

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 94-102

Hydrocotyl asiatica (L.) is commonly used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. However, little is known about is medicinal use in Nigeria. Thus, a multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 10 marketers and 40 herbal practitioners. Water extract of Hydrocotyle asiatica excreted anti-inflammatory and anti-filarial effect and used as memory enhancer and facilitate excellent learning ability. Questionnaires were purposively administered to key informants in the Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. However, only 45 were retrieved in the end. The questionnaire focused on demographic information of respondents, ailment treated, preparation and administration protocols. Results revealed various diseases are treated with H. asiatica, which include: headache, cough scurvy and mouth sore, fibroid, menstrual pain, waist pain, back ache, weak libido, sexually transmitted infections, hypertension, amongst others. This herbaceous species can be used alone or mix with other herbs such as Pipper guineensis, Ocimum grandiflorum, Allium cepa, amongst other. Standardization of measurement in the use of H. asiatica is through the use of table and tea spoons. However, it is recommended that adequate storage facilities should be provided to check excessive dryness of the kola and pest infestation during storage. Also, the sustainability of biodiversity and biological resources of the species and other important medicinal plants should be ensured so that individual plants do not go into extinction.

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Utilization and Phytochemical Analysis of Baobab Tree (Adansonia digitata L.) in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

A. I. Sodimu, M. B. Usman, J. Appah, O. Osunsina, R. A. Suleiman, S. Maikano, L. G. Lapkat

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 103-114

Traditional medicine covers a wide variety of therapies and practices which varies from country to country and region. Medicinal utilization and phytochemical composition of Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State was studied. Twenty (20) questionnaires were randomly administered in each of the six (6) districts to make a total of one hundred and twenty questionnaires (120). Ninety (90) were retrieved. The result revealed that the plant parts (leaves; stem; bark and seed) can be used in treatment and prevention of various diseases such as tuberculosis; anemia; malaria; dysentery; diarrhea; joint pains; serves as anti-diabetic; fever; urinary infection e t c. Infusion is the major (43.33%) method of herbal preparation. Parts of the plants species used in preparing the herbs include: the leaves; bark; root; seeds and fruits. Majority of the herbal are consumed in a dried form. Demographic characteristic of the respondents was also examined. The percentage of Male was (43.34%) while that of their female counter part was (56.66%). Majority (43.33%) of the respondents were between 31 – 40 years’ age bracket and majority (44.44%) are married with majority (37.78%) having 1-5 house hold size. 45.56% of the respondents had secondary education while 2.22% had no formal education and majority (51.11%) are traditional healers. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins; alkaloids flavonoids; terpenoids; saponins and phenolic acid in various concentrations as there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between these phytochemicals and their plants parts. The presence of varied active ingredients in the different parts of these plants explains their diverse use in the treatment of different disease conditions. However, it is recommended that due to the increased interest in baobab products (especially on its medical utilization) and slow growth of the plant research should be directed on how to develop a new cultivar with short maturation period. Also, the local population particularly the youth should be educated and also encouraged to learn more about the tradition medicine knowledge in order to preserve it from being lost with the old genera. Although the high technological approaches of conventional medicines are especially useful for acute usage treatment, herbal medicines are more suitable for dealing with chronic ailment.

Coryphantha macromeris Cell Suspension Cultures: Phytochemical Profiling and Agitation Velocity Effect on Cell Morphology and Viability

E. Cabañas-García, C. Areche, J. Bórquez-Ramírez, R. Muñoz-Miranda, K. M. Rosales-Lopez, E. Pérez-Molphe Balch, Y. A. Gómez-Aguirre, F. Cruz-Sosa

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 115-131

Cell suspension cultures represent an alternative for the production of active plant metabolites. The agitation velocity is one of the main conditions to achieve high cell viability and high yields in metabolite production. In this work, the effect of agitation velocity on cell viability and morphology of Coryphantha macromeris cell suspension cultures was evaluated, and then, the phytochemical profile of two-month-old cells cultivated at 80 rpm was analyzed using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS). The results indicated that the agitation velocity of 120 rpm impacts negatively on cell integrity, while at 80 and 100 rpm, the cells successfully survived and proliferated with similar viability percentages (ca. 97%). The chromatographic and mass spectral analysis indicated the presence of 49 metabolites, and 45 of them were identified. Among the detected compounds, different classes of metabolites such as phenolic acids (gallic acid derivatives), iridoids (gardoside), stilbenes (tyrolobibenzyl E), lignans (acanthoside B), flavonoids (catechin, lantanoside, sakuranin, afrormosin, kaempferol 7-rhamnoside), and phenylethanoids (phlomisethanoside) were found. Our results contribute to the phytochemical knowledge of cacti species and offer the basis for future investigations regarding cell suspension cultures of C. macromeris and related plant species.

Cadmium Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Mice

P. Vijaya, Suman Sharma

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 132-140

Cadmium is a modern toxic metal and is a by-product of zinc and lead mining and processing, which releases large amount of Cd into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and soil resulting in environmental pollution. In humans, the kidney is recognized as the most critical organ affected by chronic exposure to cadmium. The present study was designed to explore the toxic effects of intraperitoneal acute administration of CdCl2 (0.32 mg/kg b.w.) in kidney of albino mice. Adult male albino mice were divided into 2 groups: Control and toxic group. The blood of mice from each group was used to determine some biochemical parameters. Cd administration resulted in significant (p<0.001) reduction of body weight and kidney weight. Cadmium treatment decreased total glycogen, cholesterol content and total proteins when compared with the control group. In addition, it also elevated serum urea, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen but reduced alkaline phosphate in toxic group.

Organokinetics for Transient Cytomegalovirus Infection in Mice

Daniel Benharroch, Bracha Rager, Ory Ruvio

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 8, 17 May 2021, Page 141-154

We determined the primary level of dissemination of the cytomegalovirus into the mouse organs and its significance. This was completed prior to our engagement in a wider project on the immune and molecular aspects of the pathogenesis of MCMV infection in the Balb/c mice. By this venture, we may have opened opportunities to develop one or more vaccines against the virus. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with the virus. At day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after infection, the murine organs including the spleen, salivary glands, inguinal lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow, and lungs, were collected. The organs were assessed for the expression of MCMV-DNA, for the infectious viral titer and part of the tissues was formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for morphological evaluation. Each organ was found to present a different configuration of the three components reflecting the viral spread. Thus, the lungs and the bone marrow showed high levels of DNA and low titers of infectious virus, taken to mean evidence of latency. The salivary glands revealed evidence of a persistent infection, as expressed by high levels of MCMV-DNA and constant titers of infective virus that lasted beyond day 28. However, the most remarkable finding was that the latency probably discerned in the spleen was localized in the stromal cells, but not in the lymphocytic component. To this extent, we may have determined the MCMV journey in the mouse.