Dr. Slawomir Borek
Assistant Professor,
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.


ISBN 978-93-90516-93-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90516-94-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rrab/v5


This book covers key areas of biological research. The contributions by the authors include  human-carnivore-conflict, germination, moisture level and non-mist propagation, sprouting, seedling production, tissue culture, phytohormones, microalgae, biofertilisers, microalgal biomass, biofuel production, cyanobacteria, antiretroviral treatment, cholestatic abnormalities, neurotheology, quantum biology, subtle anatomy, quantum mysticism, hepatocellular abnormalities, Reissner’s fiber, yoga, biological diversity, climate change, aquatic pollution, environmental surveillance, phytoplankton, anthropogenic effluents, indicator species, endemism, taxonomic primer, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, cardiovascular risk factors, fungal infection, dermatophytosis. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biological research.


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Emphasizing the Human Carnivores Conflict in Wamba District, Samburu County, Kenya

William O. Ogara, Nduhiu Gitahi, Alfred O. Mainga, Eunice B. Ongoro

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 5, 20 February 2021, Page 1-12

Human-livestock-carnivores conflict is a unifying theme on a complex problem of a shared environment. This makes the interfacing more prominent resulting in increased depredation and cross-species disease transmission with a negative economic impact to involved communities. The study was conducted to determine the levels and nature of human wildlife conflict in Samburu County, Kenya. The data was collected from 2006 to 2009, in three community areas. A total of 266 homesteads were randomly selected for interviews and characterization. The survey was carried out using semi-structured questionnaires, direct field observations and physical measurements. Data obtained was analyzed using Genstat® Discovery (3rd Edition University of Reading), and levels of association established using chi-square. Carnivores within the ecosystem were identified using motion sensor cameras which included lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), hyena (Crocuta crocuta and Hyaena hyena), jackal (Canis mesomelas), and wild-dog (Lycaon pictus). Livestock predation occurred at different sites notably homestead, water-point and grazing field. A total of 435 cattle, 801 sheep, 1138 goats, 189 donkeys, and 92 camels were killed by carnivores during the study period. The magnitude of depredation was mainly influenced by animal husbandly practices, including poorly constructed animals’ sheds and animals left in the field without headers or under the care of minors unable to scare the carnivores away. The dynamics of both wild and domestic ungulates at different seasons are considered to be possible influencing factors on carnivore diet composition, hence presenting as increased conflict during droughts. This study is specific to Samburu County and underpins its relevance and timeliness as pastoralism remains a major source of livelihood in this jurisdiction. This study also shows close interaction between humans and animals which could also be of importance for other dimensions of study in human carnivore studies including a one health dimension.

A study was conducted in Dalbergia melanoxylon (African Blackwood) comparing the ability to form seedling between seed germination in the soil, germination in the Murashge and Skoog medium (MS) and rooting of the cuttings to form seedling. An overharvested species D. melanoxylon have a highly valued wood but not propagated. This is why in recent years there have been some efforts to conduct investigations which can improve seedling production. About 2 kilograms of seeds were purchased from TTSA and cuttings (root, softwood and hardwood stem cutting) were collected from the forest for experiment on 2010 at the Botany Department University of Dar es Salaam. Three treatments were employed for soil germination (Low, Median and High moisture level) while two treatments were employed for MS germination (Half strength and Full strength). Sterilizing reagents were 35%, 70% alcohol and 2.6% sodium hypochlorite. Sterilizing duration were 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Softwood, semi-hardwood, hardwood and root cuttings were introduced in a non-mist propagator using soil inoculated with mycorrhizae. Data recorded include germination percentage, moisture level, MS concentration, sterilizing reagent concentrations and time used to sterilize the seeds, temperature and humidity in the propagator and sprouting percentage of cuttings. Standard procedures were used to analyze and compare germination and rooting data as described by Zar, [1]. Highest germination in the soil was 21% while that of the MS was 19.8%, rooting was 100% in softwood cuttings and 37% in root cutting while semi-hardwood and hardwood cutting didn’t root at all. The two germination mediums (soil and MS) did not differ significantly while using cuttings imply harvesting of the existing forests which is not recommended. More investigations especially genetic transformation of the species for easy access in tissue culture is needed to improve seedling production of D. melanoxylon for propagation of the species.

Phytohormones Production in Microalgae and the Methods of Characterization

Cam Van T. Do, Thuan Dang Tran, Quang Trung Nguyen

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 5, 20 February 2021, Page 24-41

Microalgae have been reported to produce endogenous phytohormones including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, brassinosteroids and abscisic acid. There is a vast increasing demand for microalgal-derived biomolecules in crop production (biostimulants and biofertilisers), food and feed, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and biofuel production. Biorefinery is a comprehensive approach that could fractionize all biocompositions of microalgal biomass for these specific uses. Methanol residual released from microalgal lipid extraction usually contains variety of bioactive compounds including the phytohormones have been reported to enhance crop seed germination and plant growth (root length, plant height, branch, leave and flower increase). Although some good results have been achieved on application of microalgal products as fertilizers, biostimulants, and regulators of plant growth, these studies poorly provided analytical techniques for characterization of these algal products. The profile and content of algal products-constituted biomolecules which play the main roles in catalyzing crop seed germination as well as plant growth should be elucidated for providing basic understanding and guiding for specific applications in agriculture. This book chapter is aimed at representing production of various phytohormones production in microalgae, cyanobacteria, as well as algae world. Moreover, this study also provides state of the art of recent advanced techniques in qualitatively and quantitatively determination of phytohormones in microalgae. Moreover, general perspective of algal phytohormones applications in the regard of microalgae-based biorefinery is also overviewed.  

Liver Enzymes and HIV-infected Adults on HARRT: Evidence from a Randomised Cross-sectional Study in UPTH

Chinwe F. Anyanwu, Eric O. Aigbogun Jr.

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 5, 20 February 2021, Page 42-55

This study evaluated the liver enzyme levels of HIV-infected adult patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for not less than 1 year. The study was designed as a randomised cross-sectional study that evaluated the differences in the aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP] of 129 (46 males and 83 females) HIV-infected adult patients. Before the study, ethical clearance (Ref: UPH/CEREMAD/REC/19) was obtained from the University of Port Harcourt Ethics Committee. Venous blood samples were obtained and the liver enzyme levels were analysed using Clinical Chemistry Analyser (VS10) manufactured by Vitro Scient. Values were further categorised into; normal or abnormal. SPSS version 21 (IBM® Armonk, USA) and Graph Pad Prism (Version 8.0.2) was used to analyse the data. T-test compared the sex differences in mean, while Chi-square analysis tested the sex differences in the categorised data. From the result, the mean AST (27.65±17.93 IU/L) and ALP (135.13±10.87 IU/L) values for males were higher than females AST (27.25±18.93 IU/L) and ALP (132.65±9.96 IU/L) values, while ALT was higher in female (34.66±22.29 IU/L) than males (33.75±18.14 IU/L); however, the differences were not significant (p>0.05). Generally, abnormal AST, ALT and ALP levels were 31%, 34% and 82% respectively; with no sex-associated differences (p>0.05). 45.7% of the patients (males: 25 [54.3%] and females: 34 [41.0%]) had cholestatic abnormality, while 8.5% (5; 10.9% males and 6; 7.2% females) had hepatocellular abnormality, 18.6% (6; 13.0% of males and 18; 21.7% of females) and mixed abnormality (AST/ALT/ALP). The correlation between CD4 count and liver enzymes were not significant (P>0.05). In conclusion, cholestatic abnormalities were observed in more than 80% of the patients as opposed to hepatocellular abnormalities, which were less than 35%. More females were associated with mixed abnormality when compared to males with independent (ALT/AST) abnormality. This study, therefore, suggests the need for a randomised case-control study to highlight the extent of deviation from normal values.

The subjects of neurotheological investigations have thus far made dubious claims that their experiences are equivalent to the purported revelatory and mystical experiences of the originators of the major religions and mystical traditions. Parallels between ancient mysticism and modern physics have thus far mostly dissolved into poetic metaphors. However, a new approach to testing the ancient claims of supersensory perceptions of absolute truth is on the horizon. Mystical traditions have consistently described a circuit running through the center of the spine that connects the human and the divine. If descriptions of this circuit are based on actual interoceptions, then it corresponds to a little-known, epigenetically suppressed structure that ensheathes the central axis of the central nervous system; Reissner’s fiber (RF). A regenerated fiber could create a new relationship with realities that quantum orthodoxy has declared to be beyond conception or perception, a relationship that could to lead to a marriage between the origins of religion and the frontiers of science.

One of the most remarkable ongoing stories in the history of neuroscience is the nearly universal neglect of what is arguably the most strategically located structure in the central nervous system (CNS), an enigmatic, thread-like aggregation of glycoproteins originating from the center of the brain called Reissner's fiber (RF). It is an anomaly, which, because it lies beyond the grasp of conventional theoretical and technological tools, has been rendered virtually invisible to neuroscientists.  New tools, however, are poised to reveal the secrets of this unique, highly conserved structure which runs through the entire length of the fluid-filled cavities and passageways of the CNS. This paper proposes that an enigmatic, thread-like aggregation of glycoproteins originating from the center of the brain called Reissner's fiber (RF), explored with quantum theoretical tools and seen through the lens of its possible recent evolutionary degeneration, can provide a new intellectual and physical pathway toward a deeper understanding of consciousness.   

The object of this study is to estimate the diversity and the influence of the climate changes on spatial of the species of the family of Acanthaceae in Ivory Coast. Fluctuations in climatic variables such as precipitation and temperature are likely to affect biodiversity and the geographical distribution of habitats favourable to species. The principle of «Maximum Entropy» was used to model the habitats of Dicliptera alternans Lindau, Elytraria ivorensis Dokosi and of Whitfieldia lateritia Hook. under the current and future climatic conditions (horizon 2050/scénario A2). These species were selected on the one hand on the basis of number of occurrences and on the other hand by taking account of their endemic nature. The contact of presence of the species was collected and combined with the bioclimatic data extracted the database www.worldbioclim.org. The surface of the potentially favorable zones of distribution or not, was calculated for each species. The document retrieval revealed a total of 106 species left again between 39 kinds and of which 16% are endemic at the Ivory Coast. 7 species are register on the local list of the endangered species and rare of the Ivory Coast of Aké-Assi L. Les values of the AUC of about 0.90 indicate excellent quality of the models generated for the distribution of the model species by 2050, the results reveal that the «Seasonal variation of the temperature (Bio 4) » is the environmental variable which contributed the most to the prediction of the model of the species Dicliptera alternans Lindau, Elytraria ivorensis Dokosi and Whitfieldia lateritia Hook. The A2 scenario shows by a 2050 reduction of the surface of the potentially favorable zones of the species will des Dicliptera alternans Lindau, Elytraria ivorensis Dokosi and Whitfieldia lateritia Hook respectively of 67.66%, 3.35% and of 1.17%. In spite of these changes observed, the results show that the protected areas in Ivory Coast remain refuges under the current and future environmental conditions for the species of the family of Acanthaceae. This study confirms the impact proven of the climate changes on the spatiotemporelle distribution of the species. This work will help to better guide decision making in terms of conservation and management of protected areas as biodiversity refuges.

Okpoka Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta is a tidal creek receiving organic anthropogenic effluents from its environs. The study investigated the influence of tides (low and high) on the species composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton. The surface water and phytoplankton samples were collected monthly from May 2004 to April 2006 at both tides from ten stations according to standard methods. Phytoplankton was identified microscopically. Species diversity was calculated using standard indices. Data analyses were done using analysis of variance, Duncan multiple range, and descriptive statistics. Phosphate and ammonia exceeded international acceptable levels of 0.10 mg/L for natural water bodies indicating high nutrient status, organic matter, and potential pollutants. A total of 158 species of phytoplankton were identified. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton (62.9%). Diversity indices of diatoms were 1.5±0.03 (Margalef) and 0.8±0.01(Shannon). Pollution-indicator species such as Navicula microcephala, Nitzschia sigma, Synedra ulna (diatoms), Cladophora glomerata (green alga), Euglena acus (euglenoid), Anabeana spiroides (blue-green alga) and Ceratium furca (dinoflagellate) were recorded at either only low, high or both tides. Concerted environmental surveillance on Upper Bonny Estuary is advocated to reduce the inflow of pollutants from the Bonny Estuary into this Creek caused by tidal influence.

In this study, the seasonal variation on selected major minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg) and proximate composition of Mesopotamian catfish (Silurus triostegus Heckel, 1843) were investigated. The mineral and proximate composition of fish varies greatly from one species and one individual to another depending on age, sex, environment, season, area of catch and processing method. Fish samples used in this research were obtained seasonally from Atatürk Dam Lake within the boundries of Turkey (37ºC45N’ latitude/38ºC17E’ longitude) via fishing. The mean value of Ca, P, K and Mg were determined as 92.59±9.81 µg/g, 1447.56±117.38 µg/g, 2762.50±418.00 µg/g and 227.26±39.79 µg/g (wet weight) respectively. The highest mineral contents were identified in summer. The highest crude protein was observed in autumn (18.88%) and the lowest in winter (16.88%).The average lipid content was identified between 4.22-6.56% and the highest value was observed in winter. The results showed significant differences between the four seasons (P<0.05) in major minerals and proximate composition. The results of this study showed that Mesopotamian catfish from Atatürk Dam Lake (Turkey, Adiyaman) has rich lipid content, a low amount of major minerals and protein content when compared with other economical freshwater species from Turkey. However, the highest levels of the major minerals in Mesopotamian catfish (S. triostegus) were recorded in summer period.

Taxonomic Keys of Mayflies in the Palni and Cardamom Hills of Western Ghats, Southern India

S. Barathy, T. Sivaruban, Pandiarajan Srinivasan

Recent Research Advances in Biology Vol. 5, 20 February 2021, Page 128-154

A key to ephemeropteran nymphs belonging to 8 families, 30 genera and 48 species from the Palni and Cardamom hills of the Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu states is presented in this chapter. Sampling was done at 30 sites. Baetidae and Leptophlebiidae diversity was higher compared to Ephemeridae and Ephemerellidae. Mayflies endemic to the Palni and Cardamom hills include Ephemera (Aethephemera) nadinae, Klugephlebia kodai and Indoganodes jobini. This work serves as a taxonomic primer for doing further research on mayfly taxonomy, biology, biogeography and ecology and it will also aid Bio monitoring programs.

?-hydroxy ?-methylbutyrate (HMB), a bioactive metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine, is a popular dietary supplement among different athletes who participate in regular resistance training for muscle gain and strength. However, HMB has received less attention concerning its impact on changes in inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) and cardiovascular risk factors following resistance training. Therefore, in this chapter we aim to summarize the current literature in this area in a reasoned manner. Due to the small number of published studies, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data reviewed here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate the pro-inflammatory response following high-intensity resistance exercise in athletes. Moreover, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption and concurrent resistance training does not improve cardiovascular parameters and OS markers greater than resistance training alone. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, long-term studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with the body’s inflammatory condition, cardiovascular health and antioxidative defense system in humans.

The most common causative agents of superficial infections are dermatophytic fungi and other non dermatophytic fungi. The present work focuses on isolation and identification of dermatophytes and non dermatophytes from superficial mycoses. One hundred Fifty (150)clinical specimens were subjected to firstly potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and then culture isolation on SDA media. Identification of dermatophytes on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Among 150 suspected patients samples of dermatophytosis, 130 (86%) samples were found positive by KOH mount and 90 (60%) were culture positive cases. Trichophyton mentagrophyte was the most frequent isolate from clinical types of dermatophytosis followed by Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum canis & Microsporum gypseum. Dermatophytes were well grow at high temperature, moisture and humidity. Personal hygienc and living conditions are also important factors which are helpful to cause dermatophytosis. Trichophyton species was found to be the most common most etiological agent of dermatophytosis in the current study.