Editor(s)
Dr. Atila Yildirim
Associate Professor, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-968463-0-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-968463-6-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rraass/v3

This book covers key areas of arts and social studies. The contributions by the authors include capital punishment, death penalty, mass execution, Houthi Movement, financial transactions, educational system, Bhojpuri folk songs, psychology of worship, Mauritian Intangible Cultural Heritage, Geet-Gawai, Jane Austen's characters, Harding's critical method, Jung’s theory, natural hazards, social services, drug dealing, drug incarceration, systemic violence, market dynamics, psychopharmacological violence, Goldstein’s definition, crime-fighting tactics, and policing model, geographical indications, Indramayu batik, complexity perspective model, multiple levels analysis, team intervention strategies, organizational development and change, discursive legitimation, bibliometric analysis, legitimation strategies, social constructionism. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of arts and social studies.

 

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Chapters


The Effect of Capital Punishment on Terrorism in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Alqahtani, Stewart J. D’Alessio, Lisa Stolzenberg

Recent Research Advances in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 20 December 2023, Page 1-19
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rraass/v3/2407G

Numerous studies investigate the deterrent effect of capital punishment on homicide levels, but no published study conducted to date focuses explicitly on the impact of capital punishment on terrorist activity. In addition, no research evaluates the possible deterrent effect of a mass execution. This study examines the influence of the mass execution of 47 terrorists by the Saudi government, which took place on January 2, 2016, on the frequency of terrorist attacks originating from within Saudi Arabia. Using missile and drone attacks that were launched from outside of Saudi Arabia as a statistical control variable, results generated in an interrupted time-series analysis show that the mass execution decreased the frequency of within-country terrorist attacks by approximately two attacks per month. Results further reveal that the Saudi military intervention in Yemen amplified within-country terrorist activity by nearly five attacks per month. These findings suggest that the use of capital punishment may prove to be useful in deterring terrorist attacks.

The nexus between lethal violence in the drug market and drug-selling behavior remains a topic of interest among social scientists. Although the current body of literature demonstrates strong empirical evidence of systemic violence, questions still endure as to the underlying causal mechanisms responsible for this violence. This study uses 10 years of prosecution data aggregated at the county level to investigate whether drug-related homicide is predictive of first-time drug-selling offending. Results from a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis suggest that new entrants are using lethal violence to penetrate the illegal drug market. As drug-related homicides increase, the percentage of first-time offenders being prosecuted for a drug-selling offense increases markedly. This relationship persists even after controlling for non-drug-related homicide. This finding suggests that new drug sellers are primarily using lethal violence, possibly to help them gain entry into a competitive drug market.

This chapter highlights the theory of ‘regulated hatred’ in two masterpieces by Jane Austen: Sense and Sensibility (1811) and Persuasion (1816). To analyse these novels, the paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach, including psychological, biographical, and New Historicist approaches; taking its inspiration from the theory initially introduced by D. W. Harding in his article ‘Regulated Hatred: An Aspect of the work of Jane Austen’ (1940), alongside C. J. Jung’s theory of ‘the formation of artist’s creativity’ highlighted in his article ‘Psychology and Literature’ (1930). The chapter comprise three different discussions.\. The first discussion includes the theoretical aspects of the research, outlining Harding and Jung’s theories. A brief overview of the plot of the two novels is set out, to assist in establishing the author’s narrative techniques. The psychological theories of Austen’s two novels Persuasion and Sense and Sensibility in reference to the theoretical framework has taken the second place in this chapter. Additionally, through a psychological, biographical, and new historicist analysis of Austen's narrative techniques, this study examines the ways in which she uses her hatred of both her enemies and unpolished manners in society. These include: her varying tones, her artistic representation, her tyrannical style and intellectual perspective, and the unequal treatment of her characters. In addition, there is a discussion of Austen’s motives in writing these two novels. This section discusses the assumptions behind the attempt to deduce new literary, social and political interpretations of Austen’s art, examining her novels as, amusement and entertainment, social critique, or as an outlet of her inner emotion with the aim of reforming the ills of society. The third discussion portrays the ways in which Austen adopts a new form of realism; in particular, how she employs her pen to revolutionise the ruling standards of social groups. Austen is seen to address the internal struggles of society successfully, by sympathising with, or disdaining, her characters in both novels. New critical theories by critics such as D. W. Harding, C. J. Jung, Raymond Williams, Linda Hutcheon, and M. M. Bakhtin, provide a new significance and interpretation when applied to old or modern works of fiction, including for instance, William Shakespeare, Anton Chekov and George Orwell. The study, therefore, offers a complementary understanding of the inner psychology of the creative Jane Austen, as well as of her art and the era in which she lived.

Examining Community and Government Responses to Floods in South African Informal Settlements

Joseph Rudigi Rukema , Sinazo Nomsenge

Recent Research Advances in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 20 December 2023, Page 66-78
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rraass/v3/9978F

The aims of this study were to examine communities’ responses to flood in informal settlements of South Africa and the existing government strategies to mitigate the impact of floods on poor communities in informal settlement of South Africa. In order to answer to the above research objective, this study used the existing secondary qualitative data. These include audios and videos from materials shared on YouTube channels platforms as well as TV news posted online and diverse categories of articles available online. These sources contained victims of flood testimonies, expert’s analysis as well as official reports.

The findings have shown that despite repeated occurrence of flood in informal settlements, communities have not developed collective strategy to respond to floods. It was evident that the response is spontaneous and un-coordinated. That means that there are no educational and training available to assist communities deal with floods where they occur.

Poor assets and form of livelihoods undertaken by informal dwellers, do not allow them to recover from flood effectively. The findings have also shown that the government intervened, however, the interventions have not been effective in addressing the underlying problems that lead to vulnerability to flood. This means that government intervention is reactive rather than pre-emptive.  The study recommends long term strategy, if challenges related to flood in informal settlements are to be addressed. While this study uncovered some important findings, as a desk-based study, it presents some limitation. It is important that further study is conducted that involves people and those affected by floods.

Mauritian Bhojpuri Folk Songs: Psychological Worship and Cultural Tradition

Jayganesh Dawosing

Recent Research Advances in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 20 December 2023, Page 79-91
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rraass/v3/7034C

This chapter discusses about the psychology of worship in the Mauritian Bhojpuri folk songs. Songs from the Mauritian "Geet-Gawai" (Bhojpuri songs sung before the wedding ceremony in Mauritius). Contemporary musical discourse is of utmost interest. Bhojpuri music is getting more and more vibrant today. Themes like pantheism, fear and awe in religion, nature worship or nature mysticism will be discussed. How do these singers perceive worship? Which theories are reflected in these songs? For how long will this tradition of worship exist? For the study, three songs have been chosen from the Mauritian Geet Gawai which are prevalent during the performance.

Mauritius Folk melodies from Bhojpur express the idea that reality and divinity are one and the same. All things belong to an everlasting, merciful God. In the examination, Baruch Spinoza's theory of Pantheism comes out on top, and similarities with Advaita's Vedas-philosophy (non-dualism) are also evident. This ceremony depicts that there are no barriers of caste and class, as it contributes in the making of a strong multiracial community identity. It is no longer only for women, as men are also actively participating in it. Geet Gawai is an ever-evolving folkloric ritual. Some organizations use modern instruments, which is something that should be supported. In addition to the Mauritian Sega, the Ministry of Arts and Culture and the Ministry of Tourism should host the Geet Gawai in the neighborhood hotels to provide visitors with a more comprehensive introduction to Mauritian culture.

 

Conceptualizing an Ideal Policing Model: Strategies for South African Police

John Motsamai Modise

Recent Research Advances in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 20 December 2023, Page 92-110
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rraass/v3/7026C

This chapter conceptualize a perfect policing model and crime-fighting tactics for the South African police service. Controlling crime is the police's primary goal.  top priorities since 1996 when the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) of 1996 was launched. This strategy is based on a fundamentally new approach by government which is both a multi-agency and multi-party initiative. In particular, it requires the development of wider responsibility for crime prevention and a shift in emphasis from reactive "crime control" which deploys most resources towards responding after crimes have already been committed, towards proactive "crime prevention" which is aimed at preventing crime from occurring. The public generally supports professional crime fighting as the primary policing technique because it represents a strong dedication to this goal. Other recommended strategies, such community policing or problem-solving, seem to be obscuring the main point. These would be undesirable alternatives if they increased the risk of criminal victimization in the community. But when assessing the value of alternative police tactics in crime control, one must look beyond words or just declared commitment to the cause; one must look for demonstrated effectiveness in achieving the objective. Today's professional crime-fighting tactics consist of three primary strategies: motorized patrol, prompt emergency response, and retroactive crime investigation. Over the past few decades, police responsiveness has been improved by connecting officers with the public via telephones, radios, and cars as well as by matching police officer schedules and locations to anticipated calls for service. The field will know it has a stronger policing plan available if they are successful in the next three to five years at both decreasing major crime and winning over the public's support. The goal of problem-solving and community policing is to establish a close, as opposed to a remote, relationship with the community.

This chapter develop an assessment of Indramayu batik based on Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and Geographical Indications (GI). OUV has three types of criteria, namely basic criteria for cultural products, integrity criteria, and product authenticity criteria. To fulfill GI, Indramayu batik needs to be able to explain the name of the GI being applied, the name of the item, its characteristics, geographical environment, coverage area, history and traditions contained, production processes, quality test methods, and labels for Indramayu batik.

Batik is an Indonesian cultural heritage that has been known since the early 19th century until now. Batik art in each region can be seen from the manufacturing process, batik quality, ornament, and color arrangement. This study discusses which ornaments of Indramayu batik represent the production area the most, then Indramayu batik is assessed on two grounds, namely Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) and Geographical Indication (GI). Additionally, the finding of this study revealed that spatial patterns formed from the results of the assessment of Indramayu batik based on OUV and GI. The qualitative approach was adopted to develop the study in which the data was collected through interviews. Indramayu batik business owners and Indramayu batik craftsmen from 22 different locations of Indramayu batik producers was participated in the interviews. Analysis of the collected data carried out by applying two approached including descriptive analysis and spatial analysis. The results of this study are sekar niem and kapal kandas ornaments get the highest value based on OUV and GI, while merak berunding, liris, parang teja, and banji are the ornaments with the lowest value. The similarity of these ornaments is to get influence from Cirebon. While merak berunding, liris, parang teja, and banji are ornaments with the lowest value based on GI and OUV. These ornaments have similarities with each other, namely describing the values held by the local community.

The purpose of the paper is to examine how organizational development and change (ODC) consultants engage in complex processes of facilitating and implementing team interventions in organizational contexts. Organizational teams depict a variety of types such as work teams, parallel teams, project teams, and management teams [17]. Team interventions are used to support team-building processes and training strategies toward improving team performance and organizational effectiveness. The notion of high-performing teams in organizational contexts needs to be reexamined and reinterpreted beyond team building, developmental, and training strategies. Complexity issues such as organizational cultural and political realities impact teams and teamwork effectiveness or lack of it. The qualitative methodology integrates ODC methodologies in examining the challenges and opportunities experienced in facilitating change related to tasks and roles required in the diagnosis and implementation of team intervention. The case study of team intervention in a business school depicted capacity improvements in team building and training outcomes which demonstrated its success. Ten members from the Career Development Centre (CDC) were selected for this study. The research techniques included personal interviews, focus group discussions, and observations with members of the team. However, the organizational cultural, and political factors remained the team’s challenge. Since these complexities were not solved the team eventually collapsed. Engaging team interventions in organizations requires moving beyond analyzing internal group dynamics of task and maintenance functions of teams identified within team training and team building strategies.

Trends and Perspectives in Discursive Legitimation Research

Xiaofan Yu, Haicui Zheng

Recent Research Advances in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 20 December 2023, Page 153-169
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rraass/v3/8347A

This chapter presents an analytical literature review of 107 research articles on discursive legitimation. Discourse plays an important role in the construction of legitimation. Numerous studies of discursive legitimation have been completed. However, few studies have reviewed relevant literature with a visual pattern, and a review that analyzes its trends is urgent. A bibliometric analysis using CiteSpace is applied to analyze relevant studies quantitatively and visually, followed by a close qualitative analysis to capture different classifications of legitimation strategies, main research methods, and hot topics. The results show that much attention has been paid to discursive legitimation strategies, and various analytical frameworks has been proposed, but most of the studies are conducted from the view of critical discourse analysis with van Leeuwen’s framework, examining political issues. It is hoped that the study will be helpful for future research.