Dr. Marcello Iriti
Professor of Plant Biology and Pathology,
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Italy.

ISBN 978-93-91473-25-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-33-4 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rppsr/v2

This book covers key areas of plant and soil research. The contributions by the authors include Scheffé multiple comparison method, joint regression analysis, test for parallelism, test of coincidence, nitrogen fertilization, nodulation, yield and yield components, irrigation, genotype-environment interaction, models of dynamic, prediction, design, interpreting of the nature of ecological reaction, signs, levels of correlations, the shifts of dominance in different environments, pure cultures, aqueous extracts, microbial load, microorganisms, eco-genetic portrait, genetic-physiological systems, selection, mathematical model of "genotype - environment interaction”, management by environmental factors, composting, crop rotation, mobility, environmental consequences, cassava brown streak disease, Cassava brown streak virus, Disease symptoms, fertilizer application, agricultural practices, jojoba seedlings, agricultural practices, pigment, photosynthesis, metabolite and productivity. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of plant and soil research.


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Structuring Genotype X Environment Interaction by Regression Techniques

Dulce Gamito Santinhos Pereira, Paulo Canas Rodrigues, Iwona Mejza, Stanislaw Mejza, João Tiago Mexia

Recent Progress in Plant and Soil Research Vol. 2, 27 July 2021, Page 1-14

The investigation of the structure of genotype-by-environment interaction is an important topic in multi-environment trials, in which a series of tests are undertaken across multiple environmental conditions. This study proposes a generalisation of joint regression analysis for situations when the response (e.g. yield) is non-linear across environments and can be expressed as a second (or higher) order polynomial or another non-linear function. We propose a selection technique based on the modification of two tests after determining the common form regression function for all genotypes: (i) a test for parallelism of regression curves; and (ii) a test of coincidence for those regressions. When the parallelism hypothesis is ruled out, subgroups of genotypes with parallel (or coincident) responses should be found. The Scheffé multiple comparison approach for regression coefficients in second-order polynomials allows for the classification of genotypes into two categories: one with upward-facing concavity (i.e. potential yield growth), and the other with downward-facing concavity (i.e. the yield approaches saturation). With an example of yield from a non-orthogonal series of experiments with winter rye, theoretical conclusions for genotype comparison and genotype selection are demonstrated (Secale cereale L.). To demonstrate that our meteorology is entirely relevant to incomplete data sets, we randomly erased 10% of that data, which are common in multi-environment trials. The hypothesis of parallelism of regression curves was rejected, which is natural in multi-environment trials with interaction between genotype and environment. The main difference in the two subgroups of genotypes where the responses are parallel is that one group had upward-facing concavity (i.e. potential yield growth) and the other had downward-facing concavity (i.e. the yield approaches saturation), which can help breeders in their genotype selection. The approach proposed in this paper is general and applicable to any series of experiments conducted in multi-environment trials or simply to the case of two-way classified data.

In this research, the effects of nitrogen fertilizers given by irrigation in bean on yield, yield components and nodulation were examined. Trial was conducted as randomized complete block design with 3 replications as 12 plots, four different nitrogen fertilizer applications time were made. I. fertilizer application, all of the nitrogen (60 kg/ha) was at sowing time, II. fertilizer application, nitrogen is divided into two and at sowing time, during first irrigation (30 kg/ha N), III. fertilizer application, nitrogen is divided into three and at sowing time, and during first irrigation and second irrigation (20 kg/ha N), and IV. fertilizer application, nitrogen is divided into four and at sowing time, and during first irrigation, second irrigation and third irrigation (15 kg/ha N). According to obtained result of the research; the response of flowering time (days), first pod height (cm), biological yield (g/m2), 100 grain weight (g) and grain protein content (%) to nitrogen were statistically significant. IV. fertilizer application has significantly increased the biological yield (501.90 g/m2) and grain protein content (32.60%) in bean. II. fertilizer application and the highest nodosity number with 70.90/plant of nitrogen divided by two. But it was not significant differences as statistically. BNF (Biological Nitrogen Fixation) capacity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is very low. It is essential to diagnose and correct application nitrogen to bean cultivation under irrigated conditions. Some significant results were obtained based on the our study but it needs more detailed research results for certanity.

Study on Basic Principles of Mathematical Modelling of "Genotype-Environment” Interaction

I. M. Mikhailenko, V. A. Dragavtsev

Recent Progress in Plant and Soil Research Vol. 2, 27 July 2021, Page 23-34

V. A. Dragavtsev [1] identified 20 major tasks for future quantitative technologies of eco-genetic development of plant production and yield, which are investigated. For each of these activities, the authors provide mathematical modelling principles.

This study was carried out to determine whether ethanol and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) could effectively eliminate pure cultures of selected enteric and pathogenic bacteria. Ethanol and water extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) bulbs were made through cold extraction and then concentrated by refluxing in soxhlet apparatus. A crude (raw) extract of the bulbs was also obtained by blending and then using muslin cloth to squeeze the juice out. These extracts were tried at various concentrations on four species of enteric bacteria namely: Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. to observe their efficacy on these pathogenic bacteria. Crude extract showed a highly positive result and the rest were negative.  

This research looked into microbial, chemical and environmental causes of the rotting of this all important vegetable. A total of eight microorganisms (Fungi and Bacteria) were isolated from deteriorating tomato fruits. These isolates were used to carry out pathogenicity tests on wounded and unwounded healthy fruits and it was found out that fungi generally cause more deterioration than bacteria. Tests were carried out to ascertain the effect of temperature and milton on the rotting of the fruits. It was observed that deterioration increases with increase in temperature. Treatment with milton effectively reduced rotting. Ascorbic acid level in the fresh and deteriorating fruits was also experimented. The results showed a decrease in ascorbic acid level with increased deterioration.

Fundamentally new approaches to solving the problems of selection of parental pairs (varieties) for crossing and forecasting the ecological-genetic portrait of the future new variety are considered. An algorithm for controlling the breeding process based on mathematical models of the genotype-environment interaction is proposed, which consists in the sequential selection of options for complementary ecological and genetic portraits of potential parents and predicting the resulting quantitative breeding traits. In this case, the choice of options is carried out to the required degree of coincidence of the predicted and specified breeding characteristics. In the presence of controllability of environmental factors, such a choice is complemented by the optimization of environmental parameters, which ensures the maximum use of the ecological and genetic potential of the parents and the subsequent increase in the reliability of identification of offspring genotypes by their phenotypes.

Smallholder farmers are usually susceptible to the effects of climatic variations. This study sought to determine the extent of adoption of various organic and conventional crop and soil management practises in the farms and assess the contribution of Climate Smart Agricultural strategies on adaptation to climate change among small holder farmers in Nyaribari Chache Sub-County, Kisii County. Ten farms were sampled at an equidistance of one kilometre along a transect laid across each of the eight randomly selected sub-locations in the sub county. A sample size of 80 farms was randomly selected from the Sub-County. The eighty farms were regrouped into two; Organic and conventional farms. A survey of the crop management practises was carried out and the observed methods recorded down. Questionnaire administration on the 200 households was conducted in data collection on CSAP employed by farmers and also carry out interviews and focused group discussions with farmers to identify CSAP adopted. The data collected was analyzed using the statistical paired t test and descriptive statistics. Use of pesticides recorded the highest percentages (60%) in conventional methods while mulching recorded relatively high percentage (42%) in organic methods. Use of plastic cover recorded the lowest percentage of 4% in conventional methods while vermi-composting was not embraced in conventional methods. Conventional methods were 3.33 points higher than organic (95% CI [-9.37596, 16.04263]). Conventional and Organic farming methods were strongly and negatively correlated (r = -0.069, p > 0.05). However, there was no statistical significant difference between conventional and organic methods (t5 = 0.674, p > 0.05), Appendix 1[(iii)]. CSAP Adopted by Smallholder Farmers was statistically significant (p<0.005); Appendix 1 [iv (b)]. Determinants of smallholder farmers’ choice of CSAP on adaptation to climatic variations had a significant impact on embracing of CSAP (p<0.005); Appendix 1 [v (b)]. Access to credit facilities, inadequate extension facilities, low education levels, scanty weather and climate statistics were main hurdles impacting on implementation of CSAP. These knowledge will aid farmers and other participants globally to improve crop productivity. These information will also enable farmers seek for unconventional ways to alleviate the problem of heavy usage of agrochemicals in order to embrace organic farming for the long run sustainability of the agricultural sector. Additionally, stakeholders should heighten exposure of farmers to extension services and prompt distribution of climate variations data for informed decision making.

Study on Fate and Transport of Salinomycin Sodium in Sandy Soil

R. Jayashree, Shiv O. Prasher

Recent Progress in Plant and Soil Research Vol. 2, 27 July 2021, Page 73-78

This study aims to investigate the fate and transport of SAL-Na in sandy and loamy sand soil through soil column experiments. Salinomycin sodium (BIO COX) is a polyether ionophore, commonly used in the poultry industries for the prevention of coccidial infections and promotion of growth. Salinomycin sodium (SAL-Na) is very toxic, and may be fatal, if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin than many other antibiotics, thus evaluating its fate in the soil environment is of importance. Mobility of SAL-Na was measured in sandy soil. Soil column leaching experiments indicated that the strongly sorbed SAL-Na was not detected in the leachate of sandy soils, indicating that the amount added to each column was not leached off the soil fractions. When compared to the sterile soil, non sterile soil has more movement of SAL-Na. Leachate collected from the soil column (75% hydraulic conductivity) passed with phosphate buffer showed higher concentration (0.48 mg/L) of SAL-Na and the movement was also observed higher in non sterile soil. About 35% of SAL-Na was found in leachate of sandy soil.

Diagnosis of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has for long been based on foliage and root symptoms expression by infected plants. Variability in patterns of symptom expression between varieties and seasons however, has meant that symptom-based diagnosis is unreliable. The current study identified three major types of foliage symptoms (chlorotic blotches, chlorotic spots, vein chlorosis) and root (brownish black necrosis, chalky necrosis, necrotic specks) symptoms associated with CBSD. The newly described CBSD symptoms includes; spotty foliage chlorosis, brown necrotic internal tissue at the base of the leaf petiole and chalky root necrosis. The relationship between symptom expression and the presence of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) through RT-PCR was also established. Plant parts most suitable for detection of CBSV by RT-PCR were identified. Foliage CBSD symptoms could be unreliable indication of CBSV infection. Moreover, CBSV may not be uniformly distributed within the infected plants. Up to 67% of tested samples were from plants that were both symptomatic and visually seen to be infected by CBSV. About 22% were free from CBSV despite apparently exhibiting CBSD symptoms and only 7% were CBSV-infected but symptomless. CBSV was detected in flowers, fruits, apical buds, young tender leaves, newly-opened leaves, youngest symptomatic leaves, and the tender top green portion of the stem and non-necrotic storage root tissues. The study concluded that symptom based diagnosis for CBSD should consider examination of both foliage and roots and always be confirmed with molecular detection by RT-PCR.

Aims: To investigate fertilizer application practices in vegetables garden soils, methods of fertilizer applications on soils and perceptions of farmers about fertilizers application practices.

Study Design: Thirty vegetable producers were randomly selected within QwaQwa communal areas

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Qwaqwa communal vegetable garden soils at Maluti A Phofung local municipality within Thabo Mofutsanyana district.

Methodology: Open ended questions, close questions and interviews were developed and used to investigate fertilizers and manure applications on vegetable soils.

Results: Eighty five percent of the vegetable farmers respondents are planting on seedbeds, 68.7% of them are resting their soils after two years of same vegetable commodity production, cattle manure was rated best manure applied at the rate of 95%, gardening tools are mostly utilized when tilling the soil than tractor and implements.

Investigating the Effect of Some Agricultural Practices on Field Performance of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) Seedlings in Semi-Arid Areas of Voi, Kenya

Shadrack Inoti, Lulther Lulandala, Shabani Chamshama, Wilson Thagana, Rob Dodson

Recent Progress in Plant and Soil Research Vol. 2, 27 July 2021, Page 104-115

Inappropriate management procedures are partly responsible for low Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) seed yield. Jojoba is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae and is a native shrub of Sonoran desert of Arizona, Southern California and North Western Mexico.  In semi-arid locations, an experiment was done to determine the optimum farming procedures for Jojoba seedlings. The study had a randomised complete block design that lasted ten months in 2013. The percentage of plants that survived, the height of the plants, the diameter of the root collar, the number of leaves, and the number of shoots were all recorded. The findings demonstrate that combining manure, irrigation, and micro catchment was the best agricultural strategy, as it resulted in a considerably higher (p \(\le\) 0.05)  root collar diameter (17.1 mm) than micro catchment (12.2 mm) alone, which was the least effective. Similarly, as compared to the control(61.5 cm), the micro catchment and irrigation combination produced the maximum height growth(86.4 cm). In comparison to single agricultural activities, a combination of manure, irrigation, and micro catchment is the most optimal agricultural practise for field planted seedlings. For optimal growth, this study suggests applying manure and supplementary watering during the early stages of establishing a Jojoba field.

Determination of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Citrus species of Kokrajhar District, BTAD, Assam, India

Mohesh Gogoi, Miniswrang Basumatary

Recent Progress in Plant and Soil Research Vol. 2, 27 July 2021, Page 116-122

Citrus species grown to different localities of Kokrajhar district were identified in 2016 and thereafter another investigation was undertaken for determination of chlorophyll content in seven selected Citrus species during 2017-18. The primary aim of the study was to find out the chlorophyll concentration and its relationship with growth and development of the said plant species. Therefore, estimation and quantification of Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll (Chl a + Chl b) content in each species were carried out in Biotech Hub laboratory. An established fact is that green plants synthesize a wide range of primary and secondary metabolites in different quantity. Chlorophylls belong to the primary metabolites that give the color of the leaves and fruits, especially in the unripe stage. The spectral properties of chlorophylls are essential in harvesting light energy and in the transduction of absorbed light energy for photosynthesis. Like other plants, the variation of leaf colour as well as photosynthetic activity in Citrus species is dependent on chlorophyll concentration. Chlorophyll content determines the photosynthetic capacity of the plant per unit area of leaf, stress and nutritional deficiencies. The study has revealed district variation in terms of chlorophyll concentration among the studied species.