Editor(s)
Prof. Khalil Kassmi
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mohamed Premier University, Morocco.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19491-54-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19491-55-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9

This book covers key areas of Science and Technology. The contributions by the authors include autocratic administrative style, laissez-faire administrative style, smart hospitals, proactive care management, patient satisfaction, data monitoring, network topology, operational technology, network connectivity, edge computing, commercial off-the-shelf, finite element method, principal stress vector, computer-aided manufacturing, computed tomography, electrocardiogram, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnography,  toroidal topology, ring torus, toroidal -ary grid, de bruijn shape, electronic speckle pattern interferometer, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, industrial revolution, cyber-physical systems, digital twins, laissez-faire administrator, intelligent internet of things and principals’ leadership. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians, in the field of Science and Technology.

 

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Chapters


Influence of Principals’ Leadership Styles on Job Performance of Teachers in Senior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

Robinson Osarumwense Owenvbiugie , Vincent Okotako Ibadin

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 1-16
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/4199B

The study assessed the influence of principals’ leadership styles on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in senior secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are: the extent principals who adopt autocratic administrative style of leadership influence teachers’ job performance; the extent principals who adopt democratic administrative style of leadership influence teachers’ job performance; and the extent principals who adopt laissez-faire administrative style of leadership influence teachers’ job performance. Three research questions guided the study, and a survey research design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 400 teachers. 240 teachers were used as sample representing 60% of the population A proportionate sampling technique was adopted Two experts validated the Instrument. Cronbach alpha statistical tool was used for the reliability of the instrument and this yielded 0 70. Descriptive statistics of Mean and Standard Deviation were employed to answer all the research questions. Two null hypotheses were tested using t test statistics at 0 05 level of significance. A questionnaire titled Principals’ Leadership Style Questionnaire (PLSQ) was administered on the respondents by the researchers and two research assistants. The results showed that the respondents agreed that autocratic and laissez-faire principals’ leadership style influenced teachers job performance to a low extent, while democratic principles leadership style influenced teachers job performance to a high extent. Based on the findings and conclusion it was recommended that efforts should be made by government to organise workshops and symposia on a regular basis to ensure that principals understand the individual behaviours of their teachers to ensure good job performance.

Smart Hospitals: Intelligent IoT Solutions for Enhanced Patient Experience and Workflow Optimization

M. Laxmaiah , B. Neeraja , Aparna Atul Junnarkar , Mandeep Kaur , Nazeer Shaik

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 17-28
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/6184C

This chapter examines the field of Intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) solutions, examining how they might improve patient satisfaction and streamline medical procedures in "smart hospitals." The chapter provides a comprehensive view of the current healthcare system, highlighting the difficulties faced by conventional medical facilities and the need for creative solutions. It delves into the core elements of smart hospitals, such as IoT devices, data analytics, and connectivity, as well as their various healthcare applications. The chapter conducts a thorough review of the literature and analyzes case studies in order to provide a current overview of smart hospital implementations. The topic of data security and privacy in smart hospitals is discussed in terms of both potential benefits and disadvantages. Finally, the chapter draws to a close by outlining potential future directions and highlighting the transformative impact of smart hospitals on healthcare delivery. The main goal is to demonstrate a thorough understanding of how innovative IoT solutions can transform hospitals into patient-centric healthcare settings, boosting productivity and satisfaction for both patients and healthcare providers.

Features of Data Center Network Topologies Fit for IIoT Deployments

Pedro J. Roig , Salvador Alcaraz , Katja Gilly , Cristina Bernad , Carlos Juiz

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 29-48
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/10852F

Industry 4.0 represents a turning point in the manufacturing field due to massive digitalization and the application of artificial intelligence techniques, as it allows to implement a wide range of disruptive actions such as predictive maintenance or smart chain supplies. However, in order to make this all possible, remote computing facilities should be brought to the edge of the network, such as edge/fog computing, which allows communications with low latency and high bandwidth. In this paper, the focus is set on data center network topologies adapted to those environments, characterized by a lower number of end users, thus leading to a lower number of nodes than their cloud computing counterparts. In this context, performance is evaluated using statistical means regarding the average number of links between any pair of nodes.

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Scoliosis Brace

Slawomir Grycuk , Piotr Mrozek

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 49-69
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/7208A

The main purpose of the work was to recognize the working scheme of the structure of a brace and then to identify the possibilities of optimization of the orthosis construction. This chapter presents the results of numerical simulations of the Boston-type orthosis using the finite element method (FEM) in the Ansys Workbench environment. Scoliosis is a clinical condition marked mostly by a lateral curvature of the spine. Moderate cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are typically treated through conservative methods which try to naturally correct scoliosis during the growth of the patients. A common conservative treatment is to use orthotic brace structure. The geometric model was developed based on the results of digitisation performed by means of a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner. A test stand for measurement of the brace’s field of displacements, utilising a laser electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI), was used to experimentally verify the FEM model. Particular focus was placed on applying the loads and boundary conditions employed in the numerical calculations during the experimental testing. As a result, there was a relative difference of 0.6% or so between the center displacements of orthoses as estimated experimentally and numerically. Taking an approach in the direction defined in this way, a conventional analysis method of the FEM modelling results output was used, consisting of the calculation of the von Mises stress distribution at loads equal in order to the magnitude of the common correction loads, imposed in accordance with an elementary “three-point system”. The experimentally verified FEM model was used to determine the force flow lines characteristic of the brace, indicating the general working method of the brace’s structure. The main components of the orthoses were discovered, together with the loads they carried for straightening the spine and the locations of spots that required little effort to participate in the orthoses' principal therapeutic function. The outcomes enable the suggestion of strategies for mechanical optimization of the brace's design.

Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea from ECG Signals

Jagannatha K. B. , Sabina Raman , P. J. Kusuma , B. Likitha , A. H. Namrata , Shreya Pattan

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 70-80
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/10879F

This project aims to develop an automated machine-learning algorithm that can accurately identify sleep apnea in individuals by analyzing their electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. By focusing on the irregular breathing patterns that affect ECG signals, we aim to provide a more accessible and less burdensome alternative to the time-consuming and expensive polysomnography method currently used for sleep apnea diagnosis. To achieve this, the ECG signals will undergo a series of preprocessing steps, including the removal of high-frequency noises such as electromyogram noise, additive white Gaussian noise, and power line interference. Once the signals are filtered, statistical features will be extracted from them. These features capture relevant information about the ECG signal's characteristics and patterns. The extracted statistical features will then be utilized for classification purposes. Various classifiers will be trained using the values of these features, enabling the model to learn the distinguishing patterns between normal ECG signals and those associated with sleep apnea. By training the algorithm on labeled datasets, it will develop the ability to categorize incoming ECG signals as either indicative of sleep apnea or normal ECG signals.

Approach to Layouts Used in Toroidal Topologies

Pedro J. Roig , Salvador Alcaraz , Katja Gilly , Cristina Bernad , Carlos Juiz

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 81-97
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/4662B

Toroidal topologies are shapes following the layout of an n-dimensional torus, whose main feature is the presence of wraparound links along the whole structure. In this paper, three instances of toroidal topologies are studied, such as de Bruijn shapes, k-ary n-cubes and toroidal k-ary grids. De Bruijn shapes of n dimensions are ideal for pattern spotting, as all available patterns of a determined size and alphabet throughout a given shape are located just once. However, k-ary n-cubes and toroidal k-ary grids are ideal for node identification so as to move around them, where the former has a simpler layout, as nodes are labeled in a sequential manner, whilst the latter is more complex to build up, as it minimizes Hamming distance among node identifiers.

Application of Artificial Intelligence in Drones in the Mining Industry: A Case Study

Hitanshu Kaushal , Anupam Bhatnagar

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 98-107
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/1031G

In this chapter, we are utilizing AI-powered drones for the analysis of agricultural land use in mining leases. Drones in mining have shown tremendous growth and have also added significant value to all mining projects. With better coordination, in-depth analysis, diminished expenses, and heightened workers' safety, the mining industry has found its savior. The automation of drone control, which includes the control of navigation and movement, has been made possible by the use of artificial intelligence (AI). Numerous techniques, such as GPS tracking, computer vision, and machine learning algorithms, can be used to implement this application. During the survey, data was captured using drone instruments within the mining lease and up to 100 meters from its boundary. The data was used to create 3-dimensional models of the mining lease. The survey area and flying path were created using KML in software applications, which allowed for precise planning and execution of the drone flights.

Drones are crucial for land surveying and mapping due to their unique mix of spatial coverage and resolution. The Orthomosaic product may produce high precision georeferencing if several ground-control points were used. In conjunction with field observations, drones provide a prompt and precise means of recording land data and its use. A drone survey and mapping operation was conducted within a mining lease situated near the village of Kanthariya, in the Tehsil and District of Chittorgarh, covering an area of 64.75 hectares, for the analysis of agricultural land use in the mining lease. The use of artificial intelligence to automate the control of drones is an application of AI in the field of drone technology. This technology can improve the accuracy and efficiency of drone operations, including navigation and movement.

Revaluation of Posidonia oceanica Waste as a Renewable Resource to Develop New Sustainable Products

Ana Moral , Valeria Greyer

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 108-123
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/1082G

Posidonia oceanica is a marine phanerogam with similar composition and structure to terrestrial monocotyledonous plants which makes the revaluation of its coastal residues of special interest. Chemical characterization of the phanerogam residues revealed its potential as an alternative source of cellulose that can be extracted using clean technologies. For this purpose, one-stage (cooking with soda-anthraquinone) and two-stages (adding hydrogen peroxide) separation processes were used.  Cellulose obtained from the one-stage process showed characteristics for its use as reinforcing fibre. The addition of a second stage with hydrogen peroxide increased the purity and improved the properties of cellulose making it suitable for the synthesis of new sustainable products. Revalorization of Posidonia oceanica waste can reduce the environmental, health and economic problems caused by their coastline accumulation, also, its use such a cellulose source contribute to diminish the terrestrial plant supply reducing deforestation and climate change.

Application of Seeds Palm Oil Superior Based on SNI 8211:2023 for Increased Productivity

Daryono Restu Wahono , Biatna Dulbert Tampubolon , Bambang Prasetya , Febrian Isharyadi , Widia Citra Anggundari

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 124-139
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/6148E

The social aspect of the sustainability of palm oil has received relatively less emphasis as compared with the economic and environmental aspects. Oil palm production, especially large-scale estates, has frequently been associated with negative social impacts on rural communities, indigenous people, and estate laborers. The employment of undocumented labor and children exposes them to exploitation and violates human rights. By 2045, Indonesia hopes to produce 60 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) annually. Approach the oil palm production and ask for the product This ongoing increase has the potential to worsen the environment. Programmes for increasing plantation palm oil production managed by commercial companies, government agencies, and smallholders have the ability to bridge the gap between the value of increasing production and the need to protect the environment. Intensification has taken place without adding new room for the associated plant [1]. Palm oil plantation utilising superior seeds for rejuvenation is the first stage of the intensification programme [2]. It is recommended that seed appropriate palm oil with Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 8211:2023, which may be used as a reference, be taken into account when conducting an intensification programme for plantation palm oil in Indonesia. In addition, the entire activity of the plantation must be certified in accordance with the standard national support policy set forth in Regulation President Number 44 of 2020 regarding the certification system for sustainable oil palm plantations in Indonesia (ISPO) [3,4]. Lack of standard procedure and documentation on the employment in oil palm plantations, particularly those involving native and indigenous groups are often associated with labor and human rights issues. SNI 8211: 2023 sets up conditions for high-quality palm oil seed production, high- quality sprouts, technical packaging terms, conditions for palm oil seed cultivation, technique cross-development, and full sale. Third stage of intensification of the national palm using SNI, where at the first stage in year planting 2014-2015 there was an improvement in production oil palm from an average of 4 tons/ha/year to 6 tons/ha/year, at stages second in 2018-2019 can increase production oil palm to 9 tons/ha/year, and at stages third in 2023-2024 breeders are hopeful that production oil palm can produce 12 tons/ha/year in the garden experiment. System intensification of planting palm oil is the right way to increase production because it can increase production of palm oil without planting area expansion. Characteristic features of the plantation palm oil system were intensive through the selection of excellent seeds, management of correct land, balanced fertilization, good irrigation, eradication of pests/disease, harvesting, and processing post-harvest. Plantation palm oil can apply technology available height for run agriculture intensive for producing more ok quality.

Optimal Channel Estimation with Timing Synchronization

B. Sireesha , B. Anuradha

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 140-149
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/6173B

To achieve the highest possible BER performance in OFDM systems, the receiver and transmitter must be fully time synchronized. The channel estimation is never going to be at its best without temporal synchronization. Both timing synchronization and optimum channel estimation are the essential requirements to maximize the performance of the system. To maximize the throughput of OFDM systems it is required to minimize the number of pilots. This requires the knowledge of the number of channel taps.

In the OFDM signal received over any multipath channel, the samples corresponding to the cyclic prefix are correlated with the same number of last samples in the symbol frame. All the other samples are uncorrelated. The number of such correlated samples is equal to the sum of the number of samples in the cyclic prefix and channel delay spread. From the first sample in the cyclic prefix, the amount of correlation of these samples increases to a maximum and decreases to zero.

Study of Visual Technqiues for Determing Clustering Tendnecy Over the Unlabelled Datasets

Ch. N. Santhosh Kumar

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 150-158
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/6447B

Finding similarity features between a set of data objects is a primary step in assessment of clusters. Currently, visual techniques such as visual access tendency (VAT), spectral VAT (SpecVAT) and other variants of VAT are widely used for determining the number of clusters. Determining the number of clusters for given data is known as cluster tendency. Popular clustering techniques, such as k-means and other graph-based techniques produces the clusters without knowing the knowledge of cluster tendency. Thus, this paper surveys the visual approaches for addressing the problem of cluster tendency that can be useful for improving the quality of clusters in k-means and graph-based clustering approaches. VAT and SpecVAT are major visual approached and that can be tested on synthetic datasets and presented cluster assessment results in observation study.

Image Processing Techniques for Medical Mammography Masses Detection Applications

K. Rajendra Prasad

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 159-170
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/6581E

The role of image processing is crucial in the mammography for detecting of any unwanted suspicious regions in the mammogram. Quality of image is majorly focused in proposed image enhancement technique for retrieving of efficient feature extractions. SVM and GMM based classifier models are built for improving the performance parameters of proposed methodologies. Aim of this chapter is to reduce the noise in the mammogram image in order to enhance the mammogram image. Enhancement techniques, such as, contrast stretching and histogram equalization, morphological, median filters are experimented on mammogram images and results are compared for analyzing the image enhancement. These techniques are used to improve the clarity and denoise of mammogram images. It is useful for detecting the tumors in the mammogram effectively and it is helpful to locate and size of masses or tumors accurately in mammogram. Proposed methodology shows the image from the selected range of pixels and it show the intensity of the mammogram image at the particular pixel range. By this, the mammogram image will be smoothened which will be useful for diagnosing the tumors.

Road Surface Image and Video Dataset for Machine Learning Applications with Seasons

Sonali Bhutad, Kailas Patil

Research Highlights in Science and Technology Vol. 9, 19 August 2023, Page 171-179
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rhst/v9/10790F

Monitoring road surfaces is essential for ensuring the comfort and safety of all road users, including vehicles and pedestrians. Furthermore, the upkeep of the roadways will benefit from this knowledge. As a result of the unpredictable weather, the state of the roads worsens. Thus, producing an image dataset of the road surface for two seasons-summer and rainy-thus serves as the major goal of the suggested paper. Consequently, we produced photos and videos of various road surfaces, including paved and unpaved roads. These folders have two subfolders for potholes in the rainy and summer seasons. The dataset consists of 10 videos and 8484 pictures. For machine learning specialists working in the areas of automatic vehicle control and road surface monitoring, this dataset is quite helpful.

The objective of this paper is formulation of general criteria for recognition of resilience and vulnerability of large-scale industrial systems (ISs) to destructive impacts (DIs).  The multigrammatical framework (MGF) is applied for this purpose. A technological base of an IS is represented by a unitary multiset grammar, an order completed - by a multiset, as well as resource base and a DI on an IS. A solution of the reverse problem, which aim is to determine a part of an order, which may be completed by an affected vulnerable IS, is described. Implementation issues as well as future developmements of the MGF are considered.