Dr. Shigenori Ito
Division of Cardiology, Sankuro Hospital, Toyota, Japan and Director of Japan Cardiovascular Imaging Core Laboratory, Japan.

ISBN 978-81-19102-46-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19102-40-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rhdhr/v4

This book covers key areas of Disease and Health Research. The contributions by the authors include human trafficking, medical education, child abuse, forensic stigmata, personal hygiene, school environment, health program, diarrhoeal diseases, infectious diseases, telemedicine, pandemic, epidural steroid injections, low back pain, inflammation, pain, orthodontics, analgesics, vitamin C, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells, paraneoplastic syndrome,  carcinoma breast, jigsaw strategy, academic achievement, maternity students’ attitudes, periodontitis, oral health, healthcare system, Covid-19, ontology, epistemology, psychosocial impact, coping, panoramic radiography, and osteoporosis. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Disease and Health Research.


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The prevalence of child abuse and human trafficking in human existence has occurred in various forms for many centuries and now appears to be approaching epidemic proportions in many societies where borders are insecure and enforcement resources are inadequate. The emergence of child abuse and human trafficking in their different forms is a serious crime that affects virtually every country in the world, where they not only represent a violation of the basic human rights and dignity of those impacted, but also have an impact on their families and loved ones who may be inadvertently left behind. While the majority of cases of human trafficking have traditionally involved humans being coercively forced to engage in sex and labor violations, an emerging area of illegal organ trafficking to support an increasing need for organ transplantation procedures can now be included. While children and young adults are the most frequently affected segments of the population for some types of trafficking, human trafficking can affect victims of any age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, or persuasion, and they can reveal in the clinic accompanied or unaccompanied for urgent care. When presenting, a patient may display cardinal signs, symptoms, and clinical stigmata that are of a suspicious nature and suggest further investigation, including reporting the issues to competent authorities, especially if the victim is an infant or regarded a minor, less than 18 years of age in most countries. Since health care professionals are frequently the first point of contact when symptoms and stigmata of human trafficking, child abuse, and other signs of abuse are evident, additional modules in health care forensics would be a welcome addition to medical curricula and public health perspectives for physicians and other members of the healthcare team. Thus, the goal of this paper was to review the characteristics of human trafficking and abuse, to summarize key areas of legal, medical, and administrative responsibility in order to ensure the availability of optimal and appropriate patient-centered care for victims, and to emphasize the significance of including modules in forensic medical education in medical curricula.

Personal Hygiene in Public and Private Schools in an Urban Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria: A Comparative Study

Ifeoma Nwadiuto, Golden Owhonda , Felix Emeka Anyiam

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 18-38

This study is necessitated by the need to know the state of the personal hygienic practices of school pupils as well as environmental hygiene conditions and to compare this status between the public and private schools, to make evidence-based recommendations on how to promote further or strengthen school-based health program in the state. Children who are healthy and well-fed are better able to engage fully in class and thereby benefit from education. By resulting in days missed from illness, poor hygiene practises contribute to the growing burden of communicable diseases. This comparative cross-sectional study was                   conducted in four public and private primary schools in Port Harcourt LGA, Rivers State. The sample size was calculated and 139 pupils were randomly selected, 75 in the public and 64 in the private schools. Data collection                       was done with the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS Version 16. Differences in means were compared using Student’s t-test while association between categorical variables were examined with Chi-Square (X2) test. A probability value ?0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Public and private school pupils had very good hygiene knowledge (?2=0.101; p=0.97). Assessment of the personal hygiene revealed that the proportion of pupils who were rated as ‘very clean’ was higher in the private schools than the public schools, although not statistically significant (?2=2.881; p=0.277). There were significant differences in favour of the private schools in the cleanliness of the nails, body (skin) and mouth/teeth with p-values of 0.027, 0.003 and 0.003 respectively. Pupils in public and private schools have a very high level of hygiene knowledge but low hygiene practice. The study forms part of the baseline for evaluating future programming and interventions for addressing hygiene behaviour among schools and school children. This could indicate that additional health personnel are needed in Nigeria and other poor nations to care for the health of schoolchildren.

Telemedicine: Basics, Utilization and Challenges during Covid Pandemic

Ravishekar N. Hiremath , Pooja Sinha, Sandhya Ghodke , S. R. Manjunath, Kasi Vishwanath

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 39-46

Telemedicine is the use of electronic data to communicate expertise for the purpose of sustaining healthcare when physical distance separates users. In this review article, we talked historical perspectives, telemedicine system concepts, telemedicine center infrastructure, role in various spheres, types of Telemedicine Technology, applications in Public Health, current Initiatives and perspectives of a medical practitioner, and eventually the success and popularity of Telemedicine during the Covid 19 pandemic. Using remote monitoring, patient-related data for a large number of individuals can be gathered at the same time. However, there is always a drawback if an issue arises due to software or hardware. Thus, relying solely on a computer system for patient monitoring can be problematic at times. As a result, there should always be a balance between computer dependency and human intelligence use. Each and every one’s life difference can be made by maintaining the balance between the two.

Epidural Steroid Injections in Low Backache: An Overview

Siddharth Jain, Pankaj Kumar Mishra

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 47-53

The purpose of the chapter is to find out the effectiveness of epidural steroid injections in low backache. Epidural steroid injections provide reliable pain relief in patients with low back pain and radicular symptoms but not axial back pain, as depicted by various studies in the literature. The epidural area is injected with steroids to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and avoid using drugs or surgery. The injections are used to relieve back pain brought on by inflamed and irritated spinal nerve roots. The study concluded that epidural steroid injections can be safely administered three to four times per year, with at least two weeks between injections. Two to three injections are frequently required to effectively relieve pain. If the injections do not provide significant relief, a consultation with the treating doctor is recommended to discuss additional treatment options.

Management of Pain due to Orthodontic Treatment

Sujit Panda

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 54-58

Pain is a common side effect of Orthodontic treatment. Various procedures of Orthodontic treatment such as separator placement, archwire ligation, t loop activation, intermaxillary elastics, debonding, placement of TADSs, result in varying degree of pain. This pain affects the quality of life. Studies have shown that Orthodontists often underestimate the pain of their patients due to Orthodontic treatment. This chapter attempts to focus on different management strategies to control pain due to Orthodontic treatment.

Role of Vitamins and Nutrition in Old Age as Immune Modulator with Future Prospective

Tahani Nasser Almofeed Altamimi, Fahmida Khatoon Zahid Balouch , Ruba Mustafa Elsaid Ahmed

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 59-66

Old age is best defined as age of retirement that is 60 years and above. Nutrition for old age is known as Geriatric Nutrition. Aging brings physiological, psychological and immunological changes which influence the nutritional status. Use of health food and Anti oxidant like Vitamin D, C and E can help the body immune response against Virus.Present Dementia and CVD may share risk factors like high intake of dietary total fat. Emphasis should be placed on reducing the intake of saturated fat and choosing mono saturated or poly saturated fat sources. Sufficient intake of ?-3 fatty acids helps in visual acuity, hair loss, tissue inflammation, improper digestion, poor kidney function and mental depression. Study discuss the role of these vitamin to for Host immune against aging. Due to decrease appetite and poor digestion, old people consume less protein which may lead to edema, anemia, and low resistance to infections. According to data from acute hospitalization studies of older persons, up to 71% are nutritionally vulnerable or malnourished, that’s increased their mortality risk.

Carcinoma Breast with Cerebellar Dysfunction Paraneoplastic Syndrome: A Rare Case Presentation

Anand Prasath Jayachandiran

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 67-72

We present a case of a 52-year-old female with carcinoma breast and symptoms and signs of cerebellar dysfunction, which was later determined to be anti-YO autoantibody positive paraneoplastic syndrome. Paraneoplastic Syndrome, as Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCN), in carcinoma breast is a rare entity due to the autoimmune responses. The patients’ neurological symptoms progressed in spite of chemotherapy, steroids and surgical removal of the initiating tumor and became wheelchair bound. Despite surgical and chemotherapy treatment, the patient's neurological condition worsened, indicating a poor prognosis.

Effect of Lecture versus Jigsaw Teaching Strategies on Maternity Nursing Students' Attitudes and Academic Achievement

Randa Mohamed Abobaker, Kamlah Ahmed AL-Olimat, Amal Mohamed AlRuwaili, Magda Mubarak Merghani

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 73-94

Introduction: The teaching-learning process is actively engaged in by maternity nursing students through the cooperative learning method known as "jigsaw learning." It also enables them to interact and participate in maternity nursing courses. The study's objective was to compare the att maternity nursing students' attitudes and academic performance in lecture and jigsaw teaching methods.

Research Design: A quasi-experimental study design was used. 

Research Setting: The study was conducted at the Technical Institute of Nursing, Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, during the course entitled "Maternity Nursing." 

Sampling: A convenience sample of nursing students in the 3rd level and 2nd years was recruited. Number = 160 was categorized into two groups: control group (80) "lecture group" and study group (80) "jigsaw group". 

Tools: The data was gathered using four tools: 1. self-administered questionnaire, 2. student’s knowledge assessment tool (pre-posttest), 3. Likert attitude scale to assess the student’s attitude toward the teaching strategy, 4. Students' Opinion Sheet. 

Results:  There Both groups had a significant difference in the student’s achievement (post and follow-up written exams). The students' theoretical achievement in maternity nursing lectures was higher in the study groups than in the control group on the post and follow-up exams. Students in the study group exhibited a more positive attitude concerning the teaching strategy than the students who were in the control group. 

Conclusion: Maternity nursing students' attitudes and performance during the course are improved by using the jigsaw learning strategy. 

Recommendations: Use the jigsaw learning strategy as a teaching strategy in all academic nursing courses.

Bi-directional Relationship between Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases

Farzeen Tanwir, Muhammad Wasif Haq , Saba Tabassum, Nabeel Hafeez, Mohammad Faraz Siddiqui , Saima Mazhar , Tauqeer Bibi, Ayesha Mehwish, Natasha Zaidi, Ahmed Bin Khalid Khan, Madiha Nawaz, Anum Baqar, Arsalan Khalid, Hira Ejaz, Bushra Ijaz, Seeme Nigar , Parma Kumari, Aqsa Younus

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 95-117

This chapter aims to determine the frequency of periodontitis in patients with systemic diseases admitted in the hospital. 

There are 450 patients in this cross-sectional study. The information was gathered from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Capital Development Authority, Islamic International Dental College, Islamabad and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. The patients in the study were suffering from diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders (with and without diabetes mellitus), respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic disorders, renal disorders, bone/joint disorders and hypertension. With the aid of a sterile dental mirror, periodontal probe, wooden tongue depressor, and torch, the condition of the periodontium was evaluated. The following systemic diseases have a negative impact on periodontal status and are listed in descending order of severity: Diabetes mellitus+cardiovascular disease> Diabetes mellitus> Cardiovascular disease> Bone/joint disorders> Renal p roblems> Hypertension> Hepatic disease> Gastrointestinal disorders> Respiratory problems. In terms of periodontitis, 37% of population experienced mild periodontitis, 28% had aggressive periodontitis, 27% had moderate periodontitis while 8% had gingivitis.

The results of the study indicate the bidirectional relationship between Periodontitis and  systemic diseases and development of severe periodontitis. This means Oral health is closely related to systemic health which implies that improvement of oral health can lead to betterment of the systemic health which will lead to better quality of life for the patient. Therefore we recommend collaboration between dentists and medical physicians through which focus on prevention and treatment of oral as well as systemic health can be achieved. Optimization of patients’ health is the goal of both the medical and dental professions.

Healthcare System and Managerial Implications

Antonia Rosa Gurrieri, Marilene Lorizio

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 118-124

The Covid-19 pandemic and the negative economic impact recorded in the last 3 years have highlighted the inefficiencies of the national health systems. The role of managers is crucial in addressing inefficiencies in healthcare and in proposing new business models.

The aim of this work is to analyze the main inefficiencies that have emerged and to focus on managerial solutions.

Theoretical Frameworks of Clinical Handovers in Healthcare Settings

Carlo Lazzari

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 125-147

Patient handover is the pivot for transmitting patients’ information among healthcare professionals. The current study explores the theoretical frameworks supporting corporate communication and patient handover, comprising their ontology and epistemology. Clinical handover is a direct transfer of information helping the transmission of clinical notes, liability and accountability between healthcare professionals to facilitate patients’ continuity of care, shared awareness of patients’ conditions and planned management. Several theoretical frameworks support the stages of handover. According to social theories and the frameworks proposed in the current study, clinical handovers are social constructions. Handovers’ final truth and form are thus attained through constant interpersonal interactions, sharing of meanings, and distributing collective knowledge within healthcare teams. Hence, due to handover complexity, the author discusses how different professionals use social conventions to make information about patients sharable and understandable to each member of a team or other teams, and how areas of misinterpretation are always a challenge when social constructions and handovers occur.

Psychosocial Impact of Lockdown Due to Novel Corona Virus COVID-19 among Medical Undergraduate Students

Rupali Sarode, Prakash Mohite, Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla, Shashank Gotarkar

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 148-158

The outbreak of Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) which started in the late 2019, in Wuhan in Hubei province of China because of its high infectivity and fatality rate, had a widespread psychosocial impact on people. This was evidenced as mass hysteria, economic burden and financial losses. Mass fear of COVID-19, termed as “Coronaphobia”, had generated a plethora of psychiatric manifestations across different strata of the society.

As a result, this study was conducted to define the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on Medical graduates with the goal of assessing the reasons for breaking the lockdown and the level of psychosocial impact of lockdown on Medical graduates during the COVID-19 lockdown period.  A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 285 MBBS students from first to final year. Data was collected using the Validated Psychosocial Impact Scale.  The outcomes demonstrated the severity of the negative effects of lockdown on the medical college students. 18.60% of students responded normally to the COVID 19 pandemic lockdown situation. Students in 47.72% showed a possible negative effect from lockdown. No student was found to be in the range of a severe negative impact of lockdown, while 29.12 students had a mild negative impact and 4.56% had a moderate negative impact.

Dental Radiology and Osteoporosis: The Importance of Using Radiographic Images to Assess Signs of Osteoporosis in Toothless Elderly

Plauto C. A. Watanabe, Giovani Antonio Rodrigues, Marcelo Rodrigues Azenha, Lílian Tedeschi Ramalli

Research Highlights in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 14 March 2023, Page 159-171

This study sought to analyse the importance of panoramic and carpal radiographs for the evaluation of edentulous individuals, demonstrating the contribution of different dental radiographic techniques in the detection of patients with signs of osteoporosis. 30 digital panoramic and carpal radiographs of women between 50 and 90 years old. In the panoramic radiographs, the thickness of the mandibular cortex was measured (Mentual Index - MI and Goniac Index - GA), and the morphology of the lower cortex was evaluated (Klemetti classification). In the carpal radiographs, the thickness of the cortices of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th metacarpals was measured (Metacarpal Index - IMC - or Nordin Index). The average age of the individuals was 68.43 years. In the analysis of the cortical thickness of the panoramic radiographs, the mean values of the mental index (MI) and the gonial index (GI) referring to the age group of 50 to 59 years had values considered within the normal range (? 3.1mm and ? 1.2mm , respectively). For the analysis of cortex morphology, group C3 corresponded to most cases (43.33%). For carpal radiographs, the highest metacarpal index (IMC) values were found in the younger age group (50-59 years). Finally, there was a positive correlation between age and quantitative (MI, GA, IMC) and qualitative (Klemetti analysis) assessment indices on panoramic and carpal radiographs.