Editor(s)
Prof. Arthur V.M. Kwena
Moi University, Kenya.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-975317-1-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-975317-8-1 (eBook)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4

This book covers key areas of chemistry and biochemistry. The contributions by the authors include antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration, hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity, Eugenia caryophyllata, neurotransmitter receptors, trace amine-associated receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors, psychiatric disorders, density functional theory, molecular electrostatic potential, molecular docking, mulliken charge distribution, genotoxic impurities, efavirenz, limit of quantitation, RP-HPLC technique, photocatalytic efficiency, phyto-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles, green synthesis, photocatalysis, tribo-electrochemistry, mechanochemistry, tribochemistry, electrochemical mechanical polishing, transition state theory, collision model, nanocellulose fibers, lignocellulosic biomass, solid-waste management, microfibrillated cellulose, solid polymer electrolyte films, ionic conductivity, PVA-ZnS nanocomposite films, DC conductivity, Wagner's DC polarization technique, open circuit voltage, meglumine, arylacetates, antithrombotic agents, anticancer activities, mono galactosyl diacylglycerol, carotenoids. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers, and academicians in the fields of chemistry and biochemistry.


Chapters


Synthesis of Nanocellulose Fibers from Lignocellulosic Biomass in Ionic Liquid: A Novel Approach

J.K. Prasannakumar, G.K. Prakash, B. Suresh, B.E. Basavarajappa, H.S. Onkarappa, Bharath K. Devendra, S.G. Prasannakumar

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 1-12
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/387

The purpose of this study is to synthesize nanocellulose from ragi stalks, mango wood and groundnut husk and to compare their properties using an ionic liquid. As a developing nation, India has battled for decades to comply with global environmental and solid-waste management norms, which has been a significant obstacle. The two most significant natural sources of cellulose on Earth are wood and lignocellulosic crop biomasses. The most popular and extensively used biopolymer in the world after chemical treatment is cellulose, which has excellent toughness, affordability, biocompatibility, and thermal stability.  In this study, nanocellulose was extracted from ragi stalk, mango wood and groundnut husk. The cellulose was alkali-treated with NaOH and bleached with sodium chlorite to remove lignin and hemicellulose. Ionic liquid (1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) solvent was used to treat the obtained cellulose. FTIR spectra highlight the functional groups and substantial conversion of cellulose to nanocellulose. The crystalline or semi-crystalline nature of synthesized nanocellulose was illustrated by XRD. The TEM images record the size of synthesized nanocellulose between 11.12 and 31.16 nm. The reduction in size is mainly due to ultrasonication and centrifugation. The thermal stability of the obtained nanocellulose was evidenced using TGA/DTA. The thermal studies insight that the synthesized nanocellulose samples possess superior degradation temperatures up to 473.8 ºC. This research seeks to demonstrate the remarkable practical applications of synthesized nanocellulose from agricultural biomass, which will undoubtedly meet India’s need for solid waste management and reduce chemical waste through a more realistic approach to nanocellulose manufacturing.

Anticancer Potential and Photocatalytic Efficiency of Phyto-mediated Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

Poojitha B. Sridhara Setty, Shiva Prasad Kollur

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 13-36
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/594

In a straightforward one-pot synthesis method, Moringa oleifera leaf extract was used to create copper oxide nanoparticles or CuO NPs. The prepared state physicochemical properties of CuO NPs were investigated by means of an array of analytical techniques. Finding the highest absorption peak at 293 nm, which was subsequently utilized to compute the band gap energy (3.82 eV), clearly suggests the existence of CuO nanoparticles. Good crystallinity was indicated by the assessed crystalline size of about 21 nm and the d-spacing value of 0.215 nm of the generated CuO NPs. Its extraordinary elemental purity and well-aggregated structure are confirmed by the EDAX spectrum of the generated CuO NPs. Our preparation method worked, as these facts convincingly show. To further evaluate the generated CuO NPs' potential for in vitro anticancer activities, MCF7 and A549 breast and lung cancer cells were employed. Its potential as a formidable cancer-fighting tactic was highlighted by these data, which showed that varying doses of CuO nanoparticles showed significant and proportionate toxicity toward the assessed cell lines. Furthermore, malachite green (MG) and titan yellow (TY) dyes were degraded using the as-prepared CuO NPs under UV light. Present results show that at the 140th and 110th minute, MG and TY, respectively, showed a noticeable degree of degradation of 84.7% and 79.03% in the basic medium. Upon additional examination of the collected data for the reaction kinetic tests, it was determined that the MG and TY dyes' first-order and zero-order kinetics, respectively, were aligned. The generated CuO NPs not only show great potential as a tool for creating new treatments for lung and breast cancer, but they also have the ability to degrade hazardous cationic and anionic dyes.

Genotoxic Impurities of N-Nitrosamine in Efavirenze Drug Substance Determined by Using Using RP-HPLC Technique

A. Devi Sravanthi, P. Bharath, P. Kiranmayi, D. Ramachandran

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 37-47
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/459

Aim: The main purpose of the research is to develop an effective, sensitive, economical and simple reverse-phase HPLC method for the determination of genotoxic N-Nitrosamine's impurities in the Efavirenz drug substance.

Methodology: The study adopted an HPLC-based quantification method at the Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh between April 2022 and August 2022. Determination of genotoxic N-Nitrosamines in Efavirenz drug substance. N-Nitrosamine's impurities were determined by RP-HPLC method using Zorbax SB C18 (150x4.6mm, 3.5µ) column as stationary phase. Column temperature maintained 25°C, injection volume 20 µL, flow rate 1.0 mL/min and sample cooler temperature 5°C and run time was 15 minutes. The mixture of 0.1% formic acid buffer and methanol in the ratio of 50:950 (v/v) was used as the mobile phase. wavelength 240 nm. respectively.

Results: There is no interference of blank at N-Nitrosamine's impurities peaks. The elution order and the retention times of impurities and Efavirenz obtained from individual standard preparations and mixed standard preparations are comparable. Six replicate injections were done for precision experiments. The peak regions of Efavirenz and its Nitrosamines were used to calculate the %RSD. The precision of the method was checked by injecting six different preparations at the specification level with respect to the test sample concentration. The % RSD for the results obtained from the method precision study was within the limit.

The accuracy studies were shown as %recovery for N-Nitrosamine's impurities at the specification level. The limit of % recovered shown is in the range of 80 and 120% and the results obtained were found to be within the limits. Hence the method was found to be accurate.

The technique has been validated in accordance with ICH rules, and all validation parameters meet the acceptance criteria of the ICH Q2 specification.

Conclusion: An RP-HPLC method that can evaluate genotoxic Nitrosoamines in Efavirenz at trace level concentration has been devised in accordance with ICH criteria. The efficacy of the approach was guaranteed by its specificity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. Because of this, the method is suitable for the objectives it was intended to fulfill and may be effectively applied to the release testing of efavirenz into the market. The procedure is well suited to their intended functions and can be successfully implemented for the release testing of Efavirenz into the market.

Effect of Friction on Electrochemical Reactions from a Thermodynamic Perspective

Chenxu Liu, Yonggang Meng

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 48-66
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/629

The effect of friction on the charged solid-liquid interfaces has received more and more attention, especially in the fields of batteries, electrocatalysts and electric vehicles. It is generally considered that friction can interact with electrochemical reactions, causing a rapid failure of materials. In most cases, such as corrosion wear or stress corrosion, the presence of friction or external forces can accelerate electrochemical reactions. Meanwhile, the electrochemical reactions can also increase the wear rate. In other cases, an appropriate friction can inhibit the reaction processes, or even assist the electrochemical processes in achieving unique localized functions of material surfaces. However, the mechanism of the phenomena under electro-mechanical coupling effects has not been revealed yet. In this chapter, the effects of friction force on electrochemical processes are discussed from a thermodynamic perspective. Then, a tribo-electrochemical potential window is introduced by combining the traditional electrochemical potential window with friction/wear maps. The tribo-electrochemical oxides on the wear track of metal surface are characterized, which provides intuitive evidence for the effect of friction on electrochemical reactions. The results provide a better understanding of the solid-liquid interface processes under the electro-mechanical coupling effects in various fields, such as electrocatalysts and electric vehicles.

Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb Essential Oil

Fatiha Abdellah

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 67-85
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/654

In the present study, the antibacterial activity and antioxidant properties of Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil and its protective effect against lipid peroxidation were investigated. Gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometrical analyses were used to determine the chemical composition of the studied essential oil. The antibacterial activity of E.caryophyllata essential oil was evaluated by using disc diffusion method and agar incorporation method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the tested essential oil against four pathogenic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33862, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using tree different tests, DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Our finding indicated that E. caryophyllata essential oil has shown a strong antibacterial effect against all the tested bacterial strains with inhibition zone diameters varied from 17.5 to 20.5 mm and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) ranging between 0.8 \(\mu\)L / mL and 4.4 \(\mu\)L / mL. Gram-positive bacteria, B. cereus and S. aureus are the most sensitive species with a MIC value of 0.8 \(\mu\)L / mL, however P. aeruginosa is the most resistant species to the inhibitory effect of the studied essential oil with a MIC value of 4.4 \(\mu\)L / mL. The result of the antioxidant effect demonstrated that E. caryophyllata essential oil exhibited a powerful antioxidant activity higher than that of standard antioxidants: gallic acid, vitamin C and BHT. The tested essential oil showed a protective effect against lipid peroxidation better than that of the standard antioxidants: gallic acid and vitamin C, confirmed by a significant decrease in malonic dialdehyde (MDA) levels. These results suggest that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata may be alternative natural source medicine to prevent and treat many diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and oxidative stress.

Assessment of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Films of PVA Doped with Different Compositions of Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) Systems

R. Venugopal, K. Sudhakar, N. Narsimlu, CH. Srinivas

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 86-105
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/490

The present paper investigates solid polymer electrolyte films of PVA doped with different compositions of zinc sulphide (ZnS) systems. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is well-known for its tremendous impact strength at low temperatures, especially its flexibility, good moldability, high strength, heat-stable and chemical resistance. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based Zn2+ ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte was prepared using a solution-cast method. To study the structure, measurements were made using Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To learn more about the material's optical characteristics, the 200–800 nm range optical absorption spectra were examined. The material's optical absorption edge, direct energy gap, and indirect energy gap were included in this data. The direct optical energy gap for pure PVA lies at 6.08 eV, while PVA doped with zinc sulphide ranges from 5.28 to 5.68 eV for the different compositions. It was evident that the energy gaps and band edge values transferred to lower energies on doping with ZnS up to a dopant concentration of 92 wt.% of PVA and 8 wt.% of ZnS. In order to learn more about the conductivity order and charge transport in these materials, the ionic conductivity and transference number of PVA polymer electrolytes were measured for this investigation. The charge transport in PVA polymer electrolyte was measured to be largely due to ions (tion=0.97), as indicated by the transference number. Increasing the ZnS concentration and the temperature were both found to raise the ionic conductivity. The discharge properties of solid-state battery cells made with this PVA polymer electrolyte were studied while operating under a constant load of 100 kW. The evaluated cell para- meters of the cell (Zn/92 PVA:08 ZnS)/(I2 + C + electrolyte)) offer a significant application for solid-state batteries. Hence, the analyzed properties of Zn2+ ions doped with PVA polymer electrolytes are highly acceptable and promising for battery applications.

Novel Neurotransmitter and Receptors: An Overview

Juhi Aggarwal, Mansi Modi

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 106-133
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/761

The nervous system's intricate network relies on neurotransmitters and receptors for signal transmission, orchestrating complex physiological and behavioural responses. While classical neurotransmitter systems have been extensively studied, recent research has unveiled novel neurotransmitters and receptors, expanding our understanding of neural communication. This overview provides a comprehensive synthesis of both classic and emerging neurotransmitter-receptor systems, delineating their functions and receptor subtypes. Additionally, it highlights recent discoveries in the field, emphasizing the role of advanced techniques in identifying previously unknown signalling molecules. By elucidating the intricate landscape of neurotransmitter-receptor interactions, this overview underscores the importance of ongoing research in shaping our understanding of brain function and informing therapeutic interventions for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The context of this study was to analyze 2-(2-formylphenoxy) acetamide’s potential antiviral properties. The compound was synthesized using the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, revealing that it crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the centrosymmetric space group P21/n. Spectroscopic techniques were employed and supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the optimized structure, stability, hardness, softness, Mulliken charge distribution, and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). Molecular docking studies indicated a good binding affinity of the compound for the SARS-CoV-2 target protein 6NUS, with a binding affinity score of -6.73 kcal/mol. These findings suggest the potential of 2-(2-formylphenoxy) acetamide as an antiviral agent, providing a basis for further development in antiviral research.

Anticancer Activities of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) - An Overview

Chhandasi Guha Roy Sarkar

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 157-169
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/1130

Aims: The target of the present article is to provide a short review of the anticancer and antiproliferative function of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) against various cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo

Background: Spinach is a significant functional food due to its rich content of vitamins and minerals, along with other bioactive chemical compounds viz., glycoglycerolipids, carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and many others.  The biological applications of spinach have received constant attention in the research field because of its interesting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties.

Discussion: A thorough literature review has disclosed that glycoglycerolipids, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the antineoplastic characteristics of dietary spinach. The spinach extracts have demonstrated antitumour character against various malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. The glycoglycerolipids have acted as a remarkable cytotoxic agent on both injection and oral administration in mice. One of the glycolipids present in spinach viz., mono galactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) has displayed a notable synergistic effect with irradiation resulting in greater shrinkage of tumour size when compared to the isolated application of MGDG and irradiation.

Conclusion: The article delineates the importance of spinach as a functional food with anticancer activity highlighting its importance in the study of new chemotherapeutic drugs.

Meglumine Catalyzed Efficient Synthesis of Coumarin Derivatives

S. Aravind, K. A. Emmanuel, T. Somasekhar, B. S. N. Murthy, Ch.Bhuvaneswari

Recent Developments in Chemistry and Biochemistry Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2024, Page 170-179
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdcbr/v4/1211

It has been found that meglumine a biodegradable basic organo-compound is an efficient catalyst for the C-O bond formation between 4-hydroxycoumarin and arylacetate, under mild reaction conditions at room temperature with high product yield. Various 4-(1-aryl ethoxy)-2H-chromen-2-ones are obtained in good to excellent yields using this method.