Dr. Vlasta Hus
Professor, Department of Elementary Teacher Education, University of Maribor, Slovenia.

ISBN 978-93-5547-332-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-362-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rdass/v4

This book covers key areas of Arts and Social Studies. The contributions by the authors include political authority, tribalism, max weber, trauma and memory, continual violence, dementia, orientalism, modernism, Israeli art, Israeli music, sign-object relationship, semiosis, focus group discussion, economic environment, Maritime defence industry, human resources, engineering and technology, shipbuilding design process, firm attitude, flipped classroom, learning strategies, teaching model, financial strain, primary education, stimulus fading, discrimination learning, fading, stimulus hierarchies, errorless learning, human moral, blameworthy, supererogatory, philosophical ethicists, marital satisfaction, married individuals in business, multiculturalism, Beatles’ music, social capital, journalism, digital technology disruption. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Arts and Social Studies


Media Promotion:


Study about the Modern State in Comparative Inquiry

Jan-Erik Lane

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 1-7

Norwegian macro-oriented Social Scientist Stein Rokkan often argued for the relevance of comparative historical inquiry. What can comparative longitudinal analyses of the state teach? The term “state” is core in politics. When do states appear on the real stage? My assessment is that F. Fukuyama’s The Origins of Political Order [1] attempts to demolish the established perspective. The separation between state and church has not been implemented in all countries. Fukuyama writes that prophet Mohammed laid the ground or foundation for an Arab state. I believe that he is incorrect.

In the current epoch, history and literature interact through the medium of narratives. Historians are starting to document diverse accounts of events, having reworked the practice of research exclusively based on written records for authenticity[1]. With a greater diversity in narrative styles than ever, literature has developed to function as a means of interpreting and communicating experiences and incidents[2]. Especially considering the emergence of the archive from the history field and the increase of literary production to report catastrophic experiences, the trend of rapprochement between history and literature cannot go unheeded.

Appreciating the interdisciplinary development of research in the humanities, this study aims to reclaim a neglected memory and acknowledge it as worth recording. It is expected that the current findings shall contribute to enrich the literature with subject matter on the boundaries where history, utterance, memory, and representation blur into one another.

Through an indirect approach using an oral history interview[3], the author salvaged the memory of a patient with dementia who was also a survivor of kidnapping, house arrest, and domestic violence. Theoretically, the analysis relies on the literary critic Cathy Caruth [4] who applies the concept of trauma to research in the humanities, thereby finding alternative ways of explaining things at the intersection of memories and records; telling and listening; psychoanalysis, sociology, history, and literature (see also Caruth [5]). As observed by several clinicians, the victims of violence may resort to pathological loss of memory to cope with their psychological wound [6]. This study envisions the potential of the archive as a replacement of such a type of memory loss.


[1] Although under radical criticism in the making of feminist scholarship since the 1980s, the authenticity of scientific research was questioned more thoroughly in the post-colonial review of history in the 1990s. Since then, alternative methods of the pursuit of knowledge have been sought outside of European tradition. For instance, see Linda Tuhiwai Smith’s Decolonizing Methodologies [1].

[2] The growing popularity of the genre of memoirs since the 2000s seemingly indicates the current of rapprochement between history and literature. Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s [2] Dictée and Rahna Reiko Rizzuto’s [3] Hiroshima in the Morning are fine examples of that form of literary work.

[3] Oral history is one of alternative methods invented in the feminist and post-colonial modification of historical research. For details of the significance of the methodology, see Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives by Penny Summerfield [7], specifically the “Preface and Acknowledgements.”        

Oriental Motifs in Israeli Art and Music: Dynamics of the Sign-object Relationship

Alexander Rosenblatt

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 17-26

This essay is aimed at examining the role of Oriental motifs in the establishment of sign-object relationship (semiosis) in Israeli art and music, created by the first two generations of national artists and composers in the period from the 1920s to the 1970s. This period is the most indicative from the point of view under consideration and sheds light on the further development of these types of national art, when the place of Oriental motifs has already been found, and they are not an end in themselves in the arsenal of the creator. The article explores Oriental rather than Jewish narratives (or at least a delicate balance between them) in Israeli visual arts and classical music from the first decades after World War I up to the postmodern era. The main milestones in this process are considered based on the analysis of several selected artifacts. The findings of the study show that artists' acquaintance with the local motif (in the artworks created by the first generation) proceeds to the work with and comprehension of various Oriental, Jewish, and Israeli symbols characteristic of the works created by the second generation. The direct and indirect effects of this process on art and music created in a later period up to the present can be recommended as a direction for further study of this topic.

Economic Determinants of Sexual Debut among Secondary School Students: A Case of Rural Kenya

Diana Kerubo Ondieki, Dalmas Ochieng’ Omia , Wanjiru Gichuhi, Caroline Marygorety Akinyi Otieno

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 27-41

Most people are driven by material gains and adolescents are no exception. The need for money and resources may predispose one to early sexual debut. We therefore sought to determine whether economic factors had an effect on sexual debut among secondary school going students. This was done through the lens of the Marxist theory. A mixed-approaches design was followed, which included both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The study focused on three types of adolescent participants: mixed-gender day secondary schools, girls-only boarding secondary schools, and boys-only boarding secondary schools, where a sample of 400 (200 females and 200 males) aged 14-18 years was recruited for a quantitative survey. To gather qualitative data, focus group discussions (FGDs), case narratives, and key informant interviews were used. According to the findings, 61% of pupils had ever had sex, with mixed day schools having a higher percentage (63.5%) than single sex institutions (58.5 percent ). Male students were more likely to have ever had sex compared to female students [OR=1.59(95% CI 0.83,1.85), p=0.03]. Most of the students got spending money (89%) and gifts (60%) from their parents. However, those receiving gifts from boy/girlfriends had four times the odds of ever having sex (OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.36-11.97). On the other hand, qualitative data suggested that the need for money for both basic requirements and pleasure played a big impact in adolescent sexual debut. Finally, the majority of Nyamira county's in-school teens had ever had sex. The majority of pupils were fed by their parents, signaling a pluralist setting in which peer pressure, cultural norms, and popular culture on social and mainstream media all had a role in early sexual debut. Those with money were regarded as having power over others' autonomy, and their economic environment was perceived as influencing their decisions, supporting Marxist theory.

Determining the Role of Indonesian Education for Preparing Human Resources

F. Danny , S. Dadang, F. Fridolini, P. S. Bayu

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 42-44

The maritime sector encompasses a wide range of areas, including the manufacturing sector, which supports the acquisition, building, and maintenance of ships and their components, the maritime defence industry, the marine management industry, and much more. In the realm of vocational education and at the tertiary level, educational institutions, beginning at the secondary school level, play a critical role. Graduates of these educational institutions are competitive and may be found in a variety of professions in the industrial world. There needs a breakthrough from the government so that the absorbed workforce does not lose their jobs by taking steps to improve labour competency and productivity through standardization and harmonization competency certification through cross-sectoral cooperation and the private sector, strengthening coordination between stakeholders, namely the government, business, workers, and regional governments.

Justice’s Performance and Firms’ Attitude

Annamaria Clary , Marilene Lorizio, Alessandro Marcel Siciliano

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 45-53

The slowness of justice affects the institutional environment and the choices and behaviors of economic agents, especially firms. In Italy the inadequacy of the judicial system weighs on firms that are forced to work in uncertain regulatory conditions, which leads to an increase in the variables negatively affecting the total efficiency of production factors and the national competitiveness.

Learning Strategies in Flipped Classroom: A Recent Study Approach

Ximei Qu, Rong Miao

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 54-60

The research mainly tries to explore two points from the perspective of learning strategies: Firstly, what are students’ learning strategies like in flipped classroom? Secondly, what effectiveness and impact can flipped classroom bring from the perspective of learning strategies? In recent years, the flipped classroom has grown in popularity in the educational sphere. The study examines learning mechanisms in an extracurricular English teaching institution that employs the flipped classroom teaching approach. The study items in qualitative research are four students and a teacher in a single lesson. After data analysis, the article gets three conclu- sions: Firstly, in flipped classroom, students’ learning strategies are passive and not rich. Secondly, in flipped classroom, compared to face-to-face teach- ing, taking notes is better to be applied in online learning before class. And the realization of students’ repeating learning needs the support of learning motivation and the supervision of parents. At last, in flipped classroom, teachers can practice teaching strategy of game-based teaching better. flipped classroom has freed teachers from constant speak- ing and explaining knowledge, so teachers can make better use of classroom time to use some teaching strategies such as teamwork and language applications, al- lowing students to collaborate, to express, to perform, to show, which must be a positive stimulus for students learning English. English learning is a process of long-term accumulation.

Achieving a Stable, Adequate, and Sustainable Financing of Primary Education in Nigeria

Ige Akindele Matthew

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 61-69

It needs not be overemphasized that primary education is the foundation on which the other levels of education rest. It can also be likened to the gate of a building, which controls the entrants into it. Despite the importance of primary education, the funding has been unstable, insufficient, and unsustainable in Nigeria. Primary education has over the years been plagued by a 'push and pull syndrome' between the three levels of government (i.e. federal, state, and local). Its funding has also been insufficient to address its problems, posing a financial strain on the government. The history of primary education funding in Nigeria is examined in this study. Specifically, it highlighted the maneuvering among the federal, state, and local governments; the inadequacy, as well as the non-sustainability of the financing. Joint financing by the federal, state, and local governments, the emergence of an Education Tax for public employees, enhanced private sector participation/contributions, enlisting the help of old students, organizing fundraising activities, engaging in farming production, and ensuring accountability in the management of primary education funds are all recommended to achieve adequate, stable, and sustainable financing of primary education.

Many children with intellectual or developmental disabilities and those with autism experience difficulty learning and often need more salient cues to prompt correct responding.  However, in order for generalization to occur, behaviors need to become prompted by less obvious more natural environmental stimuli.  Stimulus fading is a method to accomplish this goal.  It involves gradually reducing the level and degree of stimuli required to cue acquisition of discrimination learning.  It has been used for over 40 years, yet no systematic review has been conducted to determine its effectiveness.  The purpose of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on stimulus fading with children and adolescents.  Effect sizes were calculated using standard mean difference (SMD), improvement rate difference (IRD), and Tau-U.  The obtained effect values indicated that stimulus fading is a moderately effective method, with some effect sizes in the highly effective range, for helping children learn and perform skills.  Considerations and variables regarding the effectiveness of stimulus fading are discussed.  Specifically, results indicated that the body of literature reviewed was only moderately effective for improving children’s discrimination learning.  Rationale for this finding will be explained.  Also of note, the literature reviewed indicated that stimulus fading has been used in a wide variety of applications and settings.  Finally, problems interpreting effect sizes for single case research design (SCRD) studies with regarding to stimulus fading procedures will be presented.

Supererogation and Belief in God

Gregory Mellema

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 87-95

It's been argued that there can't be any supererogation from a theistic stance. I explain some of this objection to the concept of supererogation here, and I argue that, while it is a mistake to say that supererogation activities can never occur in human life, there are some significant lessons to be learnt from these opponents.

This review evaluates the past decade of research on the determinants of satisfaction and stability in marriage. The study depicts negative communication between spouses would be difficult to change, may not reflect definite change in relationships but might result in distress with change. Dyadic processes suitable for middle-class and more affluent couples compared to lower income couples. Marriage is a vital institution in almost every society on the planet. Multiculturalism has emerged in the twenty-first century as a result of industrialization, urbanization, globalization, and family system fragmentation. In current era of globalization, every individual is particularly concerned about his or her job development, especially at different stages of life.

According to the findings, females show a significantly positive correlation between marital    satisfaction and level of career success (r = 0.52, p < 0.01) while the score of males on marital satisfaction and career success were negatively related (r = -0.14, p < 0.01). When comparing males and females in terms of career success, there was a significant difference ('t'= 3.23, p < 0.05). While the ‘t’ value for the variable marital satisfaction for both males and females has not been proved (‘t’ =.950).

Different factors such as one's job involvement, professionalism, subjective aspects related to career success, and number of years one completes in his or her profession dominate one's level of career success, and how women cope with married and professional life may have reflected in their positive correlation with both variables in the female sample.

An Interpretation of The Beatles’ Music

József Pál Vas

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 105-112

The purpose of this paper is to define the components of the Beatles' impact on popular culture during the 1960s. Their new musical style has such characteristics that it can appeal to individuals all around the world. While listening to their music, these characteristics will be examined. The first inquiry is about their song's origins. They clearly have roots in both Western and Eastern folk music, not just rhythm and blues.

The second topic concerns whether or not standard tone functions alter the emotional impression. The answer is that the Minor tonality has got such function as the Major does: joy, brightness, and happiness. The third feature is their striving after synthesis between classical and pop music. The fourth feature can be seen as a synthesis between eras and cultures, i.e. modern and Baroque. Finally, I mention to hold such music groups for psychiatric patients when listened to music of The Beatles.

Social Capital during Post Disaster Event in Local Communities in the Philippines

M. D. L. Era

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 4, 26 May 2022, Page 113-119

The study examines how social capital aided and hampered disaster recovery for residents of the municipalities of Tolosa and Dulag in Leyte Province who were affected by Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. A survey of 201 male and female respondents was done utilizing a questionnaire to see how they were able to use social capital to reconstruct their lives, families, and communities. Some communities have more resilient behavior while others are having difficulties in terms of physical and psychosocial recovery from disasters. According to the findings, the community's low social capital may account for some of the respondents' moderate contentment with their level of recovery, such as having more permanent and stable housing and income. By re-building their social capital, the community residents of Tolosa and Dulag may be able to boost their happiness levels and improve their overall recovery and resilience.

“The present study aims to determine the cur-rent situation relevant to competency development in Journalism & Commu- nication in Thailand as well as future demands relevant to competency de- velopment in Journalism & Communication in Thailand. Thailand’s vision “Thailand becomes a developed country with security, pros- perity and sustainability in accordance with the sufficiency economy philoso- phy” is the country’s vision stipulated in the national strategy, which can be re- ferred to in short as the national motto of “security, prosperity and sustainability”. Mix methods are quantitative research with e-questionnaire among 48 academia and qualita- tive researches by Focus Group Discussion among 10 stakeholders from all levels. Descriptive statistics and narration were used for data analysis. The overall findings found that the functions of journalists and communicators acquiring the qualities of digital multimedia, digital multi-tasking, or mastering with digital media capacity such as working with information via modern digital technologies aligned with the current demands of this digital disruption era. Thus, journalism and communication education in this digital era must be integrated designed agilely among all sectors in the digital technology ecology: humanism, digital tech- nology and media with its well fit designed by all appropriated educational pedagogies.