Editor(s)
Dr. Vlasta Hus
Professor,
Department of Elementary Teacher Education, University of Maribor, Slovenia.

ISBN 978-93-5547-438-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-446-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3

This book covers key areas of Arts and Social Studies. The contributions by the authors include political goodwill, peace agreement, Suicide prevention, correctional lawsuits, deliberate indifference lawsuits, medical malpractice, reading and writing, dyslexia, constructionist educational research, social dreaming, Utopia method, household registration, economic and social factors, Wisdom education, Chinese traditional culture, California legal terminology, intellectual bravery, normal distribution theory, social services, African climate refugees, climate change, environmental justice, informal care regimes. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of  Arts and Social Studies.

 

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Chapters


Ethiopia and Eritrea are located in the Horn of Africa, sharing a border that previously led to bloody and most prolonged conflict. The most remembered and protracted war is the Badme border conflict that has resulted in thousands of loss of lives in both countries, famine and drought, support for rebel groups destabilizing each other’s regime, and instability in the Horn. Although they share similar ethnic groups, languages, cultures, etc., these shared legacies have resulted in different political, economic, and historical outcomes. In 2000, the international community managed to bring both countries to the table and convinced them to accept international arbitration. However, arbitration was a legal measure that both countries declined to actualize. In 2018, both countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding, a political step, and till 2022, both countries have enjoyed relatively a peaceful co-existence. This paper analyses factors fueling the conflict, the eventuality of the 2018 Peace Agreement that has brought peace in both countries after decades of antagonism, and how political goodwill played a crucial role in settling this conflict. This paper deployed in-depth desk review research, text analysis and interpretation, and official documents. In its theoretical and methodological approach, the paper adopted an interdisciplinary approach. In its findings, this study notes that political goodwill led to the 2018 Peace Agreement compared to the ‘external’ 2000 arbitration and Algiers Agreement, where although the parties ‘accepted’ these legal binding measures, they did not ‘consent’ to implement. For the 2018 Agreement, political goodwill led to establishing the enforcement mechanism and consequences of the breach, thus concluding that political ownership and leadership influence peace.

Prevent Suicide in Jails and Prisons: Avoid Lawsuits

Anasseril E. Daniel

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 10-23
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/2843C

Inmates in jails and prisons are at a high risk of committing suicide. Legal claims of medical negligence and §1983 -based deliberate indifference by correctional officials frequently follow. Most suicides are explained by unique stable and dynamic factors and circumstances, as well as their interaction. If used properly, a systematic suicide screening using a well-designed suicide screening questionnaire that captures known risk factors will recognise the majority of inmates at risk. The identification and subsequent mental health assessment of inmates sets the stage for preventive intervention, monitoring, and treatment. A multidimensional suicide prevention program as outlined in this chapter saves not only lives but also the best defense against liability lawsuits. Proper medication management of mentally ill suicidal inmates is a valuable tool for suicide prevention.

A (Re-) Constructionist Educational Research about Reading/Writing Difficulties

Florentine Paudel

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 24-40
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/2124A

The paper is aimed to (re-)construct the framework of action for teachers in integration classes at the secondary level. The focus on integration classes is set, because of the resources, which are given in Austria. In such classes, there can teach up to three teachers. Therefore, the question arises as to how these human resources are used regarding reading/writing difficulties.

The discourse about reading/writing difficulties is close related to dyslexia. So the theoretical and empirical discourse of it is used as a basis for the presented study. The results of the different research studies are also questioned in the context of the pedagogical discourse of teachers.

The present work assumes that teachers construct their framework for action. Reference can be made to Wortham and Jackson [1], who explain the construction of reading and writing skills. The authors assume differently constructed mechanisms that confirm the assumption that the attribution of the ability to read and write is socially constructed. This work focuses on the explanation and reconstruction of knowledge that teachers have in connection with those difficulties. Furthermore, the author of this work assumes that reading/writing difficulties are socially constructed and therefore the deconstruction and questioning of this construction are in the foreground.

The present work tries to take a different perspective in research by consciously choosing a qualitative design that deals with open research questions in the form of narrative-based interviews. Associated with this procedure is a theory formation from the data material. Methodologically, the work is based on the principles of reconstructive social research (Bohnsack, 2014). After the interviews (n=8) had been carried out, the evaluation was done using the documentary method according to Nohl [2]. The evaluation steps include the formulating interpretation, the reflective interpretation and the formation of types. In connection with the formation of types and the generation of theory in reconstructive procedures, these types can be generalized and will be presented.
In the orientation framework, different options of action in connection with those difficulties are discussed. The study shows that the statements made by the teachers are only partially compatible with current findings of the scientific discourse. In the discussion, these findings are linked to educational policy demands and teacher training.

The design proposed in the context of this work, which on the one hand selects a qualitative approach and on the other hand gives the participants the opportunity to design the data material primarily in the form of narrative-based interviews, paves the way to new or different findings that are useful for the scientific community and can open up new perspectives for research.

This view situates the book Utopia Method Vision: The Use Value of Social Dreaming edited by Tom Moylan and Raffaella Baccolini, contributes to a Time-Space Utopian Model as a critical method of sociology. Utopia has been characterised as a proper and separate device for assessing social systems and providing social remedies for a better future as a sociological method. Since the year 2000, the functions of Utopia have gotten more attention. Twelve well-known utopian scholars engaged in a two-year research seminar to address this topic.  They contributed their perspectives of the utopian method to the book Utopia Method Vision: The Use Value of Social Dreaming. Utopia’s time and space attributes are significant to make the abstract function of utopia more concrete. Several scholars have studied utopia in the time-space dimension in the art engagement and utopia’s mathematical boundary but fail to discuss time-space utopia as a sociological method. As an authoritative book in the utopian method fields in sociology, there is only one book review on Utopia Method Vision without mentioning the time-space attributes of utopia, not to mention developing them as a systematic model. To fill in the gap, this study will develop the Time-space utopian model after devising space and time models respectively through the method Bricolage. The products will be conducive to the systematic understanding of utopia methods in a time-space dimension and the promotion of a visualized Time-Space Utopia Model as a critical method of sociology.

Expectations for the Future Life of Migrants in Beijing, China: A Cross-sectional Study

L. Hu, S. N. Liu , Z. Q. Yan , Y. S. Liu

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 50-72
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/15929D

This paper aims to contribute to the theorisation of the expectations for the future life (EFL) of migrants whose household registration (hukou) is not in Beijing, China. Although the EFL of many rural-urban migrants is explicit, the EFL type of other migrants such as educated people and the formation mechanism of EFL of migrants are much less well understood. We argue that EFL is a person’s pre-judgment or estimation of living conditions in the future based on his/her perception of current human well-being or utility of life and its main concern is whether he/she expects to live in the city in the future. Based on the social production functions (SPF) theory, three types of EFL for migrants are identified by using data collected from in-depth interviews with 30 Beijing’s in-migrants. This paper reveals that the EFL of migrants is formed by comparing their current actual utility of life with the “normative utility” in the specific life course stage, which is the life utility that people should have in their specific life course stage expected by the society. Finally, these findings are checked out that the theoretical saturation has been reached by applying another 9 copies of transcripts of interviewees.

Moral Roots in Social Context – Discussing Wisdom Education in Chinese Culture

Wen Ma , Yanqin Zhu , Chunli Li, Bo Zhang , Xin Tian

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 73-81
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/2029B

China's traditional culture has left us a magnificent civilization and several wise and distinguished individuals who have had a significant impact on the evolution of human history. Chinese traditional culture represents the historical accretion of the wisdom of Chinese ethnicity. In this paper, I offer a new perspective on China's traditional culture by examining it through the lens of eight moral principles: "wisdom, honesty, loyalty, filial piety, rites, righteousness, purity, and shame." My hope is that this educational study will aid educational scholars in developing a proper mindset for approaching the essence of Chinese traditional culture.

Educating Jurors on Instructions and Legal-ease Objectivity in the California Legal System

Russ K. E. Espinoza , John Coleman, Jennifer V. Coons

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 82-93
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/15769D

Jurors often describe confidence in understanding juror instructions and legal terminology during criminal court trials. However, much research has demonstrated this not to be the case. In California, past legal terminology instructions (Caljic), has been replaced with newer, and purported to be easier understood, instructions (Calcrim). But do these newer instructions improve juror comprehension? The purpose of this research is to empirically examine these two forms of juror instructions. Three hundred and twelve native English speakers acted as mock jurors, reading from a trial transcript with varying Juror instructions (Calcrim, Caljic, or non-descript instructions). Jurors were required to render a verdict, propose a sentence, and be questioned on comprehension, the legal definitions of reasonable doubt, circumstantial and direct evidence, and intent after the trial transcript was completed. The new instructions were substantially better understood by jurors than the old instructions, according to the findings. Jurors given the new instructions were much more likely than those with the previous instructions to achieve a proper verdict. It was also demonstrated that in the novel instruction condition, jurors were considerably better at identifying reasonable doubt and evidence than in the old and non-descript circumstances.

The Philosophy – Psychology Dialogue

Amos Avny

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 94-102
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/2098B

The Essay explores two aspects of the issue. a. whether exist any linkage between Philosophy and Psychology, and b. what is the nature of this linkage? These questions are important, due to the Author's belief in the advancement of the holistic and comprehensive perceptions. Further, the Author argues, that because human behavior is the product of many causes and different factors, having a right picture, demands to use interdisciplinary means. Studying every discipline alone, separately, is not enough. More attention should be given to examine the common affect and the combined impact of different variables on people's final products – thoughts, feeling and behaviors. Further, the Author sees that some kind of a linkage already exists between the two disciplines since they act frequently as two sides of the same coin. Often, they act as complementary rather than competitive ones. For supporting his claim, the Author discusses 3 cases and explores the whole individual-organization complex. The Essay describes Adam and Eve's nature and curiosity - qualities that empower and lead them in their search for knowledge. Moreover, this behavior made Adam and Eve the fore-parents of all future scientific explorers and researchers. Finally, the author recommends that the "Normal Distribution Method" be used as the primary tool for teaching and studying Social Sciences.

The paper presents an example of measuring the quality of social services for the elderly and an analysis of the concept of the elderly as reflected in the quality management documents of the social work system. The classic steps of content analysis were followed in the analysis process: inventory of standards, indicators, procedures and tools; standardization of the information contained in the aforementioned quality standards, classification into units of analysis, establishment of the main categories of analysis, coding and final analysis of the data. Three categories of information emerged from the analysis: senior citizens in specific roles, the elderly in the relational system and the elderly in the dynamics of integration. The main conclusion of the paper highlighted the importance of developing intervention techniques and tools for social workers in conjunction with the dimensions resulting from the analysis of the quality management system.

The study's goal is to look at the implications of climate change on the African continent, which has seen the consequences of environmental and climate change, including "environmental displacement" or "climate refugees." The findings show that, despite the fact that the phenomenon of "climate refugees" has become visible in Africa, and despite Africa's concrete efforts, the lack of international recognition of the term "climate refugee," as well as a lack of environmental justice in distributing the burdens of global warming, remains an impediment to Africa's for solving this issue.  As a result, international collaboration is essential to find common ground. The study's significance lies in demonstrating the inadequacy of African efforts to eliminate the phenomenon of environmental refugees, as well as the lack of international efforts to build a legal framework to address the issue.  The main objective of this paper is to Clarify the problematic concept of “Climate Refugee”; Determining the negative effects on the African continent that are resulting from environmental degradation; which had been a result of climate change; and  Evaluating the African efforts to combat the phenomenon.

Informal Care Regimes and Aging: The ‘Care Chain' in Rural Greece

Aikaterini Ntaflou

Research Developments in Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3, 6 May 2022, Page 128-136
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rdass/v3/2321B

The gradual ageing of society has a considerable impact on the need for improved care services for the elderly and individuals with disabilities. This research aims to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of informal service provision, as well as the facilitators and constraints to such activities in rural Greece. This article's starting point is a field research conducted in communities in two distant Greek municipalities. This study aims to characterize the reality of dependent older and disability people regarding their demographic and residential characteristics, to describe their informal carers and understand the availability of informal care. The article compares and contrasts variances of the place of living as a factor in the creation of a distinct care and support regime provided to the elderly and disabled. The article examines geographical patterns and their implications for residents' access to social welfare and the health-care market. By incorporating the unique aspects of place of residency into the analysis of informal welfare regimes, the article makes a contribution.

The present analysis attempts to show if race is a predictor of the total amount of incarcerated individuals in the U.S. alongside some other potential predictors. Since the 1980s, incarceration rates in the United States have steadily increased. While the United States has about 4% of the world's population, it has about 22% of the world's incarcerated population. When the races of these jailed populations are broken down by state, it becomes clear that minorities are incarcerated at substantially higher rates than Whites. Some may argue that a person's race plays a role in whether or not they have bad experiences with police, get arrested, and convicted. In this study, regression analysis was used to analyze multiple possible predictor variables of the total incarcerated population in the U.S. to see which, if any, are significant predictors. We can conclude that there are multiple factors that influence the total amount of individuals incarcerated in the United States. Amongst these factors are an individual’s race, financial health, and the health of the economy. Further research on the rates of different types of crime would need to be conducted in order to make any further assumptions.