Dr. Angelo Mark P Walag
University of Science and Technology, Southern Philippines.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-975317-9-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-975317-7-4 (eBook)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/raeges/v6

This book covers key areas of environment, geography and earth science. The contributions by the authors include sacred groves, ethno medicine, in situ conservation, biodiversity protection, waste segregation and disposal, eco-citizenship, solid waste disposal, waste management practices, moisture absorption-desorption cycles, wood-plastic composites, high-density polyethylene, pinewood waste, animal feed technology innovation, potential of livestock, land use technology, waste utilization technology, treated urban wastewater, emerging contaminants, endocrine disrupting compounds, pesticides, vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography, curve matching, geo electric models, infectious medical waste, sorting stage, radioactive substances, biological waste, complex network simulation, forest system pattern changes, ecology vulnerability, forest corridor. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers, and academicians in the fields of environment, geography and earth science.


The response of the earth to the flow of electrical current is the basis of electrical resistivity, under which Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is the commonest resistivity field application for conventional examination of the subsurface. Much study has been done in the study area linking Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) interpreted results to lithologies in the subsurface though only tend to indicate the vertical changes with the aim of mapping the occurrence of groundwater aquifers. Several boreholes have been drilled in the study area, though not much has been done to compare the vertical and lateral lithologic changes in the study area.  This study has purposed to evaluate the lithological changes both laterally and vertically using VES as the main method of investigation. This research is based on VES modelled geoelectric layers compared from point to point and using borehole logs as control data to establish inferences of certain lithology in the subsurface. The inversion of each VES curve was obtained using an AGI Earth Imager ID inversion automated computer program and resistivities and thicknesses of a geoelectric model were estimated. The analyzed VES data interpretation achieved using the curve matching technique resulted in mapping the subsurface of the area as portraying H-type;p1> p2 <p3 , K-type;p1 <p2 >p3 ,  A-type; p1 < p2 <p3 ,  Q-type; p1 > p2 > p3, representing a 3-Layer subsurface and subsequently a combination of HK, HA and KHK types of curves representing 4-Layer and 5-Layer in the subsurface. The analysis further deployed the use of the surfer software capabilities which combined the VES data to generate profiles running in the west-east and the north-south direction. A closer analysis of the curve types indicates that there exists a sequence showing a shifting of the order of arrangement between the west and the east fragments which incidentally coincides with VES points 8, 9 and 10 in the West-East profiles. The lateral change is noted from the types of curves established and each curve indicates a vertical change in the subsurface. Control log data of lithologies from four boreholes BH1, BH2, BH3 and BH5 to show a qualification that different resistivity values portent different lithologies. Indeed, an analysis at borehole BH3 lithologies are dominated by either compacted rocks or soils, insinuating a scenario of compression experienced in this part of the subsurface which confirmed compression of subsurface formations.  A correlation of the VES curve types and their change from one point to another in the study area are evident. This change supported by the surfer-generated profiles from the modeled VES data shows that there exists and inferred fault line running in the north-south in the area. The inferred fault line by VES mapping, is magnificently outlined by the geological map. There is exuded evidence from this study that the application of VES is able to help map the lateral and the vertical changes in the subsurface of any area but the evidence of the specific lithologies has to be supported by the availability of borehole log control data.  The VES data was able to enumerate vertical layering of lithologies, lateral changes and even mapping vertical fault lines in the study area. Further analysis using surfer profiling confirmed the departure/transition area which was established to be a fault line through the further analysis of the borehole logs and the area geological map.

In the history of more than 2000 years of development, the original forest of the Pearl River Delta area was almost cut down, hilly low mountain area was secondary or sparse forest; Now, Plain water network area grown mulberry, tropical fruit lychee, longan, sugar cane and banana. Vegetation ecological function in the area is weak as the beach, and wetland-based water ecological services are the main components. Forest network construction uses the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of the forest network’s power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes' decaying index value of the network’s degree distribution. The parameters of the forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network’s main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc.) for networking a standard and base datum.

Sacred Groves: As Treasure of Ethnomedicine

Hetal M. Patel, Meghna Adhvaryu

Research Advances in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 6, 20 June 2024, Page 47-85

Traditional knowledge of indigenous people should be properly documented as books and PBRs and plant species require conservation and protection before they are obliterated. Biodiversity conservation is a need of a day when deforestation has reached its peak of destruction. Sacred groves (SGs) are specific types of forests where communities' religious and cultural beliefs are used as a tool for in-situ conservation. SGs protect a number of commercially, environmentally, and medicinally significant plant species. Groves are the remnant of virgin forests; it is a belief that they are abode of deities/GODs. It proves a repositories of some endemic, rare and threatened flora. A study was carried out to investigate the ethnobotanical significance of SGs in the Valsad district of Gujarat, India. Primary data collection was done by taking interviews, using questionnaires from ‘Bhagat’ (traditional healer), and local tribes living around these groves. There are 480 SGs documented in the Valsad district, which harbors valuable plant diversity. Among them, 48 SGs were large in size, more than 100 years old, and were selected for ethnobotanical documentation. 182 species have been enumerated as valuable ethnobotanical sp. from these SGs. A total of 76 tree sp. followed by 54 Herbs, 27 climbers and 25 shrubs are identified from the SGs.  Plant details such as local name, scientific name, and parts used for ethno medicine in various ailments like jaundice, piles, dysentery, diarrhea, fever, piles, conjunctivitis, ulcers, and kidney stones, etc. were recorded. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%) followed by root (21%), bark (19%), stem (11%), fruits (10%), seeds (6%), flowers (5%) and latex (2%).  In District areas, due to high levels of development, anthropogenic activities, modernization and erosion in traditional and civic values (corruption), the conservation of ethnomedicinally important species is affected largely. The existence of SGs and their conservation has made them more diverse; numerous conserved species can be found in large quantities in SGs' native habitats. Before SGs and/or traditional practices are destroyed, traditional knowledge from such conserved places needs to be maintained and should be recorded in books or the People Biodiversity Register (PBR).

Exploring Mechanical Behavior in Pinewood/Polyethylene Composites Under Influence of Moisture, UV Radiation and Coupling Agent

Javier Guillen-Mallette , Irma Flores-Ceron , Soledad Cecilia Pech-Cohuo, Edgar Jose Lopez-Naranjo, Carlos Vidal Cupul-Manzano, Alex Valadez-Gonzalez, Ricardo Herbe Cruz-Estrada

Research Advances in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 6, 20 June 2024, Page 86-119

The present study aims to comprehensively analyze the effects of moisture absorption-desorption (AD) cycles, the amount of coupling agent, and UV radiation (UV) on the absorbed-desorption moisture and the flexural and tensile properties of WPC made from pinewood waste and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Wood-plastic composites (WPC) incorporate lignocellulosic fillers into plastics to generate advantages in terms of stiffness, mechanical strength, cost-effectiveness and reduced weight. They use lignocellulosic waste to reduce the consumption of natural resources and promote better sustainable practices. First, the effect of UV radiation and the presence of anhydride-grafted polyethylene on the moisture absorption-desorption behavior of the compounds was evaluated, and then its effect on the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surfaces of the samples subjected to these factors and their subsequent damage in the fracture zones of the samples. A two-stage mechanism was observed in the water absorption-desorption process. The first stage is characterized by notable increases in absorption values over the first five cycles, while the second stage of stabilization starts from the sixth cycle. Initial absorption and delamination, capillary action and polymer-wood interaction, swelling, fiber-matrix interaction, and mechanical damage are all included in the first stage. The second stage involves the balance and stabilization step. Statistically, it was found that the changes in humidity values in the absorption and desorption cycles show that UV radiation has a significant contribution with the effect of increasing the absorption and desorption values, while the presence of polyethylene grafted with anhydride has a minor effect with an effect of decreasing those values. UV rays and moisture cycling had a major impact on the composite's tensile and flexural performances. Tensile and flexural characteristics showed only a modest increase of 5–12% when compared to the sample without anhydride–grafted polyethylene and without treatments; however, treatments with UV radiation and moisture absorption–desorption cycles reduced them by up to 45%. The SEM analysis confirmed the deterioration of the composites in the form of microcracks, delaminations, interfacial voids and mechanical failures in both the wood filler and the polyethylene matrix, especially in the samples exposed to ultraviolet radiation, where this deterioration was lower in the samples containing anhydride-grafted polyethylene. The mechanical properties of the composites are influenced by the interactions between the wood filler and the polymer matrix, where UV radiation and humidity cycles produce damage in the interfacial zone. UV radiation primarily contributes to the damage, while moisture absorption-desorption cycles play a secondary role.

Availability of Animal Feed Technology Innovation: Evidence from the Border Region of North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Agustinus N. Kairupan, Derek Polakitan, Paulus Cornelius. Paat, Gabriel H. Joseph, August Polakitan

Research Advances in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 6, 20 June 2024, Page 120-135

Indonesia's border areas have strategic value in national development. North Sulawesi which is administratively located in Eastern Indonesia in accordance with Presidential Regulation Number 78 of 2005 has 11 outer islands bordering neighboring countries. Each border region has diverse agricultural and cultural resource potentials, however, so far most of these resource potentials have not been managed properly and have not even been utilized. This is a review chapter that aims to present information on the availability and support of animal feed technology innovation in the border areas of North Sulawesi. Using writing design with scientific review method. sourced from various references, such as journals, books, proceedings, electronic and print media, and other relevant publication sources. As a production area for plantation crops and food, it produces a lot of waste that has not been used so far. Through several touches of technological innovation, this waste can be processed into a source of quality feed, so it is expected to increase livestock productivity and the welfare of farmers in the border area of North Sulawesi.

Evaluation of Storage and Disposal of Household Waste in the City of Kinshasa

Sylvestre Frey, Nestor Anzola Kibamba, Diansambu Makanua

Research Advances in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 6, 20 June 2024, Page 136-148

This study aims to analyze and describe the characteristics of household waste in the communes of Lemba, Mont-Ngafula and Kisenso in Kinshasa, as well as their storage and disposal methods while raising awareness of ecological citizenship. Solid waste disposal in households is an urgent issue that needs to be addressed. In cities without urban planning and health and environmental regulations, residents face inadequate living conditions.

The study was conducted from April 17 to May 3 2023, with a sample of 690 households, with 138 households randomly selected from each municipality. The main methods used are survey, maintenance and field observation.

The findings demonstrate that managing household garbage does not promote sustainable development in the cities under investigation. With the exception of the Kindule region, most homes use buckets and bags for their garbage cans; waste sorting is uncommon. The two most popular methods of disposing of waste are incineration and inappropriate local disposal. The two most popular ways to dispose of waste are combustion and improper disposal.  The average weight of waste varies by district, with values ranging from 8.67 kg to 13.99 kg per household. There is a significant correlation between the total weight of waste generated per household and the size of the household.

The results of the study indicate that the state of household waste management in these cities is worrying, with harmful consequences for the environment and public health. The building of landfills, new waste management regulations, the incorporation of waste management into urban development plans, and raising public knowledge of sanitation laws and the principles of waste reduction, reuse, and recycling are all included in the suggestions. It is crucial to develop effective and sustainable strategies to address household waste management in these communities in Kinshasa. The involvement of local authorities, stakeholders and citizens is essential to protect the environment. There is a need to find effective and sustainable solutions to solve the problems of household waste management in the communes of Lemba, Kisenso and Mont-Ngafula in Kinshasa.

Pollutants of Emerging Concern in Treated Urban Wastewater in Acapulco Guerrero, Mexico

Martinez-Organiz A., Mendoza-Ramos J. E., Herrera-Navarrete R.

Research Advances in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 6, 20 June 2024, Page 149-175

Treated urban wastewater is an important source of emerging contaminants (EC), since conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not designed to efficiently remove these contaminants, facilitating their entry into the aquatic environment through the effluents. This study focused on identifying EC in the influent and effluent of a conventional urban WWTP. Analytical methods such as high-performance mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) were used to analyze samples, using a non-target compound approach that seeks to identify all compounds present in the samples without prior selection. The results revealed the presence of a variety of ECs, including antibiotics such as sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin), drugs such as carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, metoprolol, alprenolol, lidocaine and metaxolone, as well as pesticides, predominantly insecticides and fungicides in the effluent. These contaminants can have toxic effects and bioaccumulate in marine organisms, threatening biodiversity and affecting human health by integrating into the food web. The importance of carrying out continuous monitoring studies of EC in aquatic ecosystems that receive treated water from WWTPs is emphasized, in order to identify priority sources of EC according to their toxicity. This knowledge would allow the treatment technologies used to be adapted to mitigate impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Implementing effective management strategies that address the presence of ECs in treated wastewater is essential to preserve water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems and human communities.

Reviewing the Impact of Medical Waste on the Environment and Methods of Disposal

Yusra A. Radeef

Research Advances in Environment, Geography and Earth Science Vol. 6, 20 June 2024, Page 176-183

Medical waste occupies an important part in environmental pollution, as it is considered one of the most dangerous pollutants of the environment and negatively affects human life and health due to the serious diseases it causes and spreads rapidly among people, becoming a major challenge facing elements of the contemporary environment in general and health institutions in particular. A person has the right to obtain the necessary health care, whether by providing the necessary medicine or whoever provides it. This service has known a great development throughout the ages until it reached its highest levels and is known today as these last medical services. Despite the advantages they provide for the benefit of human beings, especially since medical waste is not like all waste, but rather consists of toxic chemical and metallic substances, as it may also contain tools and sharp metals that are dangerous to the environment and living organisms. This study provides a review of the impact of medical waste on the environment and methods of disposal.