Prof. Mohamed Abdel-Raheem
National Research Centre, Egypt.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-972756-8-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-972756-0-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/racas/v7

This book covers key areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include biosciences and biotechnology, high-yielding varieties, green revolution, nitrogen-based fertilizer, rice production, technology gap analysis, HYV program, rootstock system, fruit crop improvement, scion breeding, phenolic content, trend pattern analysis, wheat production, cereal-based production, usefulness of dietary products, NPK fertilizers, growth response of cassava, cassava chips, monocropping, germination potential, seed invigoration, seeding rates, lentil, seed priming, micro-lysimeters, bimodal analytical convection dispersion equation, tracer transport, breakthrough curves, postharvest effects, banana genome, respiration intensity, temperature influence, climate change, food security, crop productivity, transformative farming methods, off-season multiplication, vine planting methods, value chain challenges, meat probes, feed back and feed forward, transect, meat quality, genetic similarities, candidatus phytoplasma australasia, phyllody disease, crop losses. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers, and  academicians in the field agricultural sciences.

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Impact of Bioscience and Biotechnology Developments on Increasing Agricultural Production

Made Antara, Made Sri Sumarniasih

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 1-19

The development of biosciences and biotechnology in agriculture has an impact on increasing agricultural production and livestock populations. The increase in food production, especially rice, was generated by the discovery of high-yielding varieties (HYVs), which are one of the five pillars of the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution that hit the world around the 1960s, especially in Latin America was marked by the discovery of superior varieties of corn and wheat in Mexico and soybeans in Brasilia. In Asia, especially in the IRRI-Philippines, IR-8 superior rice was found, so the annual rice production of the Philippines increased drastically, which made the Philippines the first rice exporter in the 20th century. India adopted and planted the IR-8 variety and managed to almost double the yield of rice agriculture, which made India one of the most successful rice producers in the world. Implementation of the Green Revolution in Indonesia by the New Order through a mass extension program (Bimas), one of the efforts of the five management programs was the use of High Yield Varieties (HYV) - Superior Varieties Resistant to Brown Planthoppers IR-26 and IR -36 in the 1980s, has significantly increased rice production, this is evidence of the successful application of bioscience and biotechnology.

Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medikus) is an important food legume cultivated in rainfed areas in many countries including India. Field experiment to investigate the germination potential, seedling vigour and yield of lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) var ‘PL-4’ against three seed rates with hydro-primed, osmo-primed, sprouted seeds and unprimed seeds under tilled soil situation was conducted during rabi seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10. The treatment was laid out under split-plot design using hydro-primed, osmo-primed with 1% KH2PO4, sprouted and unprimed seeds in the main plot and three seeding rates of 40, 50 and 60 kg/ha in the sub-plot. Yield attributes were recorded at harvest. Data were analyzed by OPSTAT software with split plot design, and priming methods in the main and seed rates in the sub-plots.

The result revealed that the highest germination rate was reflected with hydropriming which was significantly superior to other priming methods. The hydro-primed seeds significantly increased the percent germination (96.13%), nodules/plant (11.05), pods/plant (43.27) and seeds/ pod (1.91) as compared to rest of the priming methods but sprouted seed indicated better results statistically at par with hydro and osmo-priming in respect of root length (18.63 cm) and shoot length (28.63 cm), seedling vigor (4.35). Branches/plant (13.12) and test weight (2.11 g) showed insignificantly higher values in osmo-priming. The highest yield was achieved with sprouted seed (844.90 kg/ha) which was statistically at par with the rest of the treatments except unprimed seed. All the seed rates indicated no significant differences among them in respect of germination %, seedling vigor and other growth parameters, seeds/ plant and test weight except nodule count, branches/ plant, pods/plant and grim yield in which medium seed rate (50 kg/ha) was superior over rest of the seed rates. Interaction effect indicated that, sprouted seeds with medium seed rate (50 kg/ha) resulted in a significantly higher yield (856.27 kg/ha). A higher seed rate resulted in a significant increase in yield for hydro-primed or osmo-primed (KH2PO4) seeds. Sprouted seed and all priming agents indicated better yield than unprimed seeds while medium seed rates gave higher grain yield over lower and higher seed rates. Sprouted seeds with 50 kg/ha seed rate were optimum in rainfed lentil cultivation under conventional tilled soil conditions.

In order to evaluate the effects of rice production under Frontline Demonstration (FLD) in terms of yield, yield gap/extension gap, technology gap, and economic gains during the kharif season from 2018 to 2022, a study was carried out in the Chandel district of Manipur state. The current FLD on rice variety RC-Maniphou-13 was conducted at 40 hectares in 92 farmers' fields across several villages of Chandel district, Manipur by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chandel, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Centre for North Eastern Hill Region (ICAR-RC for NEH-Region), Manipur Centre. The findings showed that throughout the experimentation years, the average grain production of rice in the demonstration field varied from 57.60 to 60.60 q/ha during 2018 to 2022, while in farmers' practices, it was between 42.50 and 47.33 q/ha during 2018 to 2022. The range of the production percentage increase for Demonstration Practices over Farmers' Practices was 28.04 to 35.53 during the five years of studies. The yield gap/technological and extension gaps, in that order, were from 9.40 to 12.40 and 13.27 to 15.10 q/ha, respectively. Likewise, over the course of the study, the technology index dropped from 17.71 to 13.43 percent. Under demonstration, the benefit-cost ratio ranged from 1.98 to 2.65, but under farmer practices, it ranged from 1.09 to 1.91. The yield potential of rice was greatly enhanced by FLD on improved practices with High Yielding Variety of proven technologies in farmers' fields, leading to an increase in production and productivity. Additionally, by closing the technology gaps, farmers' income levels improved the standard of living for the farming community in the region.

Signal Analysis in Meat Probes and Transects

Swatland H. J.

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 37-50

Meat probes were invented many years ago, attempting to predict meat quality. Now they are used industrially in many countries to predict the meat yield of pork carcasses with a feed back of information to pork producers. The feed forward of information on meat quality is far more difficult and as yet unreliable for industrial use. But meat probes may still be used scientifically.

A Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Climate Change on Food Security and Crop Productivity

Malaisamy A, Praveena. K

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 51-73

This comprehensive review delves into the intricate change of climate, assessing its profound impact on global food security and crop productivity. Climate change and its variability are serious concerns for humankind, as the consequences may include the rapid melting of glaciers, changes in precipitation patterns, more frequent extreme weather events, shifting seasons, the spread of pests and diseases, and other socio-economic impacts. Examining the effects of climate change on agriculture and addressing important issues, the study puts particular emphasis on the difficulties faced by sensitive areas like South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. While navigating the challenges of mitigating crop growth pattern changes caused by climate change, the review emphasizes the urgency of adaptive measures for sustainable global agriculture. In addition, it examines how biodiversity may be affected by climate change while taking into account the interdependence of natural systems. Highlighting the imperative for innovation, the review underscores the pressing need for transformative farming methods to tackle the multifaceted challenges posed by climate change. The emphasis is on ensuring the resilience of global agriculture in the face of climatic shifts. In conclusion, the review provides a compelling call to action, advocating for the prompt implementation of innovative farming practices to fortify the global agricultural sector against the evolving challenges brought about by climate change, fostering sustainability and adaptability. Overall, the review underscores the intricate relationship between climate change, food security, and biodiversity, emphasizing the critical importance of proactive measures to mitigate the adverse effects and safeguard planetary health.

Effect of Different NPK Doses for Growth Response of Cassava Varieties in Rivers State, Nigeria

Lawson T. S., Gbaraneh L. D.

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 74-84

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of two NPK fertilizers on the growth response of three cassava varieties. The most of cassava varieties can tolerate marginal soils thereby playing a vital role in food security in Africa as a major staple food. Nigerian farmers in cassava-growing regions plant it as either a main or supplementary crop, and use bush fallowing and crop rotation to keep the soil healthy. Study on the growth response of three cassava varieties (TME 419, TMS 95/0289, TMS 96/0523) using two levels NPK fertilizers (NPK 20-10-10, NPK 15-15-15kg/ha) was carried out at the Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study was designed using Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated thrice. Parameters measured were number of stands, number of stems, stem weight, fresh leaves weight, dry leaves weight and stalk weight. Result showed that cassava variety TMS 96/0523 interacting with NPK fertilizer level 15-15- 15 kg/ha produced the highest number of stems while TME 419 interacting with NPK 20-10-10 produced the least number of stems at harvest. Cassava variety TMS 95/0289 interacting with NPK 15-15-15 produced the highest stem weight (57.3) and stalk weight (27.0) while TME 419 interacting with NPK 15-15-15 had the highest mean value in fresh/dry leaves weight respectively. The monocropping of cassava leads to rapid depletion of major plant nutrients especially N and K and will require fertilizer supplement to give economic yield.  In varietal differences, TME 419 was higher (P<0.05) in number of stands and fresh/dry leaves weight, TMS 95/0289 produced the heaviest stalk weight and stem weight while TMS 96/0523 was higher in number of stems. NPK 15-15-15 was highest in number of stems, stem weight, number of stands, fresh/dry weight and NPK 20-10-10 was high in stalk weight. Thus, NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer is highly recommendable as it improved stem number, stem weight, fresh leaves weight and dry leaves weight of the studied varieties.

Rootstock System for Fruit Crop Improvement

Lalit Dhurve, Deepu Mathew, Ajith Kumar K., Annjoe V. Joseph, Halkebhaiya Mehara

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 85-103

India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world with different fruit growing zones viz., temperate, arid and semi-arid, subtropical, and tropical zones. In this present era of climate change, fruit growers are facing environment-related problems such as sudden changes in temperature, irregular and heavy rainfall, and soil-related problems like compaction, salinity, alkalinity, and acidity. In addition to this, pest and disease incidence also play a major role in limiting fruit production. Rootstock is the working part of the plant which interacts with the soil to nourish the growth of new plants. This study aims to evaluate the role of the rootstock system in fruit crop improvement. Objectives of rootstock breeding include resistance or tolerance to biotic stress, adaptability to soil and environmental conditions, dwarfism, precocity in bearing, high yield, and good fruit quality. The purpose of rootstock breeding varies with crops and geographical locations. Developing rootstocks resistant or tolerant to biotic stresses in apple (fire blight and woolly apple aphid), citrus (root rot, nematodes and viral diseases), grape (Phylloxera spp. and nematode) and mango (mango fruit fly and stone weevil) for specific tree characters (dwarfing, canopy management) and horticultural traits (yield and quality) are the important aspects in rootstock breeding. The reported rootstocks that are impactful in fruit cultivation like apple (MM-111), grape (Dogridge, 99-R, 110-R, and 1103-P), and mango (Turpentine, Deorakhio, and Olour). The use of rootstocks which are tolerant or adaptable to adverse climatic situations and biotic stress can be an alternative option for scientists and fruit growers to face the challenges encountered by the fruit industry. This study recommends that rootstock evaluation methodology should be standardized for different fruit crops. Molecular analysis of rootstock can play an important role in multiple stress tolerance in rootstock breeding.

The Genetic Similarities and the Potential Threat of Candidatus Phytoplasma Australasia Associated with Phyllody Disease of Seasame

V Venkataravanappa, CN Lakshminarayana Reddy, M Manjunath, Neha S Chauhan, M Krishna Reddy

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 104-131

Phyllody disease in sesame results from the abnormal conversion of floral organs into leaf-like structures due to phytoplasma infection, often transmitted by insect vectors. This condition significantly impacts yield and seed quality. Ongoing molecular-level investigations in sesame growing in North India aim to identify specific phytoplasmas causing crop losses, providing insights for targeted management strategies. Leaf samples from sesame plants exhibiting Phyllody disease were collected from Varanasi and Mirzapur districts of Uttar Pradesh, India during the survey conducted between month of September to December, 2012-14. Incidence of sesame Phyllody in the farmers at different location was ranged from 30-70 percent indicating its prevalence in Uttar Pradesh. The Phytoplasma infection in sesame plants was confirmed by PCR using universal primers of 16s rRNA (R16F2n/R16R2) and SecY gene (SecYF2 and SecYR1). Amplified 16s rRNA and SecY gene was sequenced and sequence comparisons were made with the available Phytoplasma 16srRNA and SecY gene sequences in NCBI Gen Bank database. The restriction pattern of Phytoplasma samples collected from different fields was identical, which indicates that, the same Phytoplasma is responsible for causing Phyllody disease in different locations. The 16srRNA and SecY gene sequence of Phytoplasma in the current study, shared highest nucleotide identity of 97.9-99.9% and 95.8 to 96.3% with subgroup 16Sr II-D the peanut witches’-broom group. A Comprehensive recombination analysis using RDP4 showed the evidence of inter- recombination in F2nR2 and SecY gene fragment of Phytoplasma infecting sesame. The most of the F2nR2 fragment is descended from Ash yellows-[16SrVIII] and Apple proliferation-[16SrX] group. While for SecY gene, most of the part was descended from Peanut witches’-broom- 16SrII-A (GU004331) and aster yellows 16Sr I-A (GU004345). The genetic similarities and the potential threat of this new Phytoplasma belong to 16Sr II-D subgroup of Peanut witches’ broom’ group infecting to sesame in north India are discussed. This report added one more member of 16Sr IID subgroup from Peanut witches’ broom group in addition to, two Phytoplasma strains belonging Ca. P. asteris (16Sr I group) are responsible for causing sesame Phyllody in India.

Production of Planting Material of Selected Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) Clones under Different Multiplication Methods

Bahati Abdallah, Hemedi Mkuzi Saha, Stephen Mwangi Githiri, Wariara Kariuki

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 132-150

Sweet potato is a staple food that contributes to food security for communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its storage roots are rich in energy, proteins, vitamins and other important micronutrients. The crop is among the traditional food crops grown in Kenya. Production of sweet potato in coastal Kenya is low and this has been associated with scarcity of planting material at the onset of rains. A study was therefore conducted at the Pwani University farm to evaluate different methods for the production of sweet potato planting material. The methods (treatments) evaluated in this study were: Planting in pits without lining, planting in pits with lining, planting on flat ground, planting in sacks without lining and planting in sacks with lining. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used, with factorial arrangement of treatments which were replicated three times. Vine yield data was collected from the experimental plots and subjected to the analysis of variance using the General Linear Model. In the long rains season, sweet potato in the treatments without lining produced longer vines than those in the treatments with lining. Different vine planting methods produced similar vine lengths in the off-season multiplication under irrigation. The planting methods without lining are recommended for use by farmers during the long rains season multiplication of planting material. It is also recommended that farmers start the multiplication during off-season and continue up to the beginning of the long rains season, so as to obtain enough planting material at the onset of the planting season for sweet potato. This will also lead to the production of excess planting material which may be used to expand the area under sweet potato.

Postharvest Effects of Temperature and Food Wrap on Three Banana Varieties (Musa sp.)

Truong Trong Ngon, Tran Nguyen Nguyet Thanh

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 151-170

The objective of this study was to determine optimal factors for conservating banana fruit postharvest. Bananas are agricultural products being susceptible to quality changes after harvesting. The experiment was conducted to determine factors affecting storage condition and the ripening process leading to changes in post-harvest quality of 3 popular banana varieties grown in Vietnam within 20 days after harvest. Experimental results showed a statistically significant difference between the three banana varieties: (1) evaluating the influence of temperature and wrapping on the increase or decrease in reducing sugar and soluble solids content of the banana varieties. During storage, fruit samples stored at room temperature rapidly increased the reducing sugar content and soluble solids compared to the original sample after only 2 days of storage; (2) sample volume gradually decreased over storage period. Unwrapped samples at room temperature had a larger mass loss than unwrapped samples at cool temperature; samples using cool temperature wrapping had the least mass loss, only about 3% of the initial mass. The loss of volume and quality of bananas after harvest for many reasons affect farmers' income. At the same period, the results of this project can contribute to limiting post-harvest damage of bananas and prolonging ripening period as well as ensuring the nutritional value and quality of the fruit during storage.

Computational Framework for Trend Pattern Analysis of Wheat Production in Some Wheat Growing States of India

Manish Kumar, Gyan Prakash, Shiv Kumar Rana

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 171-189

The present study deals with the trend pattern analysis of wheat production in some wheat growing states of India on fitting well-known statistical models. The analysis was carried out on utilizing secondary time series data on wheat production. The trend values were obtained on fitting the statistical models, and the goodness of fit of the models was tested using chi-square test. Furthermore, statistical measures, viz. coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and relative mean absolute percentage error (RMAPE) were computed for revealing the model accuracy. The model with R2>0.5, and least values of RMSE and RMAPE, is regarded as the best model. Among the models considered under study, the cubic model was found to be the best in terms of precision for exploring the trends of wheat production in the concerned states. The findings of the study provide some useful insights on statistical modeling techniques for forecasting the scenario of wheat production in the concerned states.

Interrelationship between Breakthrough Curves and X-ray Computed Tomography Analyzed Macropore Characteristics: An Update

A. Spangenberg, Y. Nagarajarao, C. Hinz

Research Advances and Challenges in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 25 April 2024, Page 190-212

The present study aimed to study the role of pore contact of micro-lysimeters in the soil column on tracer transport in relation to the structure, as assessed by X-ray CT under different initial conditions and irrigation. As it is not possible to carry out these investigations under field conditions, non-destructive CT data were used, making it possible for 3-D reconstruction of the structure of the investigated soil columns. Quantitative relationships between soil structure (especially macropore characteristics, namely their size, number, type, distribution and continuity) and soil hydraulic properties are essential for improving our ability to model flow and transport in structured soils. Ten undisturbed soil monoliths of clayey Pelosol at Gottingen, Germany covering the horizons Ah and P were collected. Some columns were left at natural humidity, some were oven-dried to simulate drought situations in forest soils in consequence of climate change. In seven columns, four micro-lysimeters, each, were installed at half height in order to obtain data for analysis of single solute pathways. A fixed amount of KBr tracer was applied to the humus layer. The columns were irrigated with CaCl2. Column output and lysimeter output were collected and analyzed to record breakthrough curves. Bimodal analytical convection dispersion equation (CDE) solutions were fitted for the column outputs using a non-linear least square fit. A simple CDE solution did not fit well. This supports the model of two overlaying transport phenomena. After breakthrough recording was complete, all columns were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). From the CT data 3-D reconstructions of the porous system were created for visual inspection, and the exact pathways for macropores along the micro-lysimeters were determined. Additionally, indices of the pore structure were computed to compare with the slow and fast dispersivity values from the bimodal CDE fit.  The three-dimensional reconstruction could be used to explain the difference in micro-lysimeter performance. Following the conclusion of irrigation, no statistically significant variations were found in the pore structure of the wet and dried columns. In general, there is a positive linear relationship between the pore index and slow dispersivity and a negative linear relationship with rapid dispersivity. In topsoil, these relationships are more robust. The CT images and 3-D reconstructions offer a fascinating look into the soil pore system and could be useful in understanding drought issues caused by climate change that are caused by humans.