Dr. Asma Hanif,
Assistant Professor, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Pakistan.

ISBN 978-93-5547-735-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-736-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/rabs/v4

This book covers key areas of Biological Science. The contributions by the authors include Phytochemical Analysis, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, seaweed, marine algae, Mammals, wildlife translocations, zoonosis, parasitic protozoa, Sexual reproduction, corals, Morphometric, shell dimension, allometric growth, nitrogen,  aziridine, carbamate, Coronary artery, myocardial bridge, ultra-structural, Insect diversity, paddy field,  species richness, species abundance, flora, floristic composition, vegetation, wound healing activity, methanolic extracts, epithelization, merigold and gel, Microbiota, microbiome, metagenetics, intestinal homeostasis, microbial dysbiosis, industrial additives, Biomass fuel, socioeconomic condition, socioculture practice, health ailments, cigarette smoking, respiratory health, cataract, asthma, low birth weight, morphology, phylogeny, traditional medicine, Transport phenomena, diffusion, viscosity, thermal conductibility, electric conductibility crossing-effects, and biophysical modelling. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Biological Science.

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Calendula officinalis is one of those plants which have medicinal importance due to its leaf and flowers have pharmacological activity the important pharmacological parameters have been less investigated properly and can be scientifically proved by reverse pharmacology. Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent.  It was found of interest to evaluate these properties of extract of leaf of Calendula officinalis. Excision wound models in albino mice were used to test wound healing activities of gels produced from Methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Extract formulations were produced in carbopol gels individually and in combination in an equal ratio. Excision wound models revealed a significant reduction in epithelization time and wound healing activity in the treated animals. The improved wound healing activity of hydro alcoholic extracts could be related to free radical scavenging action and phyto-constituents found in it, which, either alone or in combination, accelerate wound healing. Calendula extract improved wound healing activity, as seen by increased connective tissue synthesis, particularly collagen. The granuloma tissue has increased significantly. It was discovered that the wound contraction and enhanced tensile strength were statistically significant.

Morphology and Phylogeny of Five New Ganodermataceae (Polyporales) Species for Vietnam

Trang Thi Thu Nguyen, Nhung Thi Trang Le , Tan Khanh Nguyen, Huynh Van Thi Nguyen, Hoang Duc Nguyen, Linh Thuoc Tran, Kim Thuong Pham Van, Manh Hung Tran

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 17-47

Members of the Ganodermataceae are used in traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Vietnamese Traditional Medicine, these mushrooms are used to treat several diseases since the 15th century. In this study, five new Ganodermataceae specimens as Ganoderma multiplicatum, Ganoderma sinense, 2 strains of Ganoderma lingzhi, and Amauroderma subresinosum collecting from Kon Ka Kinh National Park, Vietnam, were classified by morphology and 5.8S-ITS rDNA phylogenetic analysis. Colour photographs of macro-micro features and a phylogenetic tree were provided and discussed. This is the first report of new records of Ganoderma multiplicatum, Ganoderma sinense, two strains of Ganoderma lingzhi, and Amauroderma subresinosum for Vietnam. This research contributed to the distribution of new Vietnamese Ganodermataceae in geography, morphological characteristics, and rDNA sequences.

The Biophysical Modelling of Transport Phenomena and of Crossing-effects in Living Organisms

Janos Vincze, Gabriella Vincze-Tiszay

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 48-56

The change in time and space of generalized forces when they generate flows for which conservation principles apply is referred to as transport phenomena. After that, we go through mass, impulse, energy, and electric-charge transport, as well as their mathematical equations. From the biophysical study are well-known the next laws: diffusion, viscosity, thermal conductibility, and electric conductibility. Flows are formed in living beings not only by conjugated generalized forces, but also by the simultaneous action of other forces, resulting in frequency of crossing-effects in the human organism. The biophysical modelling uses very frequently the general laws of isomorphisms. Through modelling, we can find the system’s transfer function (the way the system acts upon the entry size) or when it is known, the entry size can be found. The modelling of some bio-medical systems eases the analysis of the processes which take place in that particular original and allow the study of their action in the conditions which are difficult or even impossible to organize. The biophysical modelling offer a language” of quantitative and qualitative processing of experimental data, being compatible and adequate to the laws of biology.

Ultra-Structural Alteration of Human Coronary Arterial Endothelium with Myocardial Bridge

Sann Lin Ko, Thin Thin Win, Khine Zaw Oo, Tun Tun Win, Aye Moe Moe Kyaw

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 57-70

The cardiac muscle fibre over the segment of the coronary artery was known as “myocardial bridge”. The myocardial bridge was associated with coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia because of endothelial damage of coronary with myocardial bridge. The present study explored the ultrastructural changes of coronary arterial endothelium in human adult autopsy hearts with the myocardial bridge. The aim of the study is to compare the scanning electron microscopic features of the endothelium and calcium depositions between four segments of the coronary artery. The sample was collected from North Okkalarpa General and Teaching Hospital, Yangon. Forty-five adults autopsied hearts with myocardial bridge among the 243 cases had measured the length and thickness of the myocardial bridge. Then, four pieces of the coronary artery were taken in proximal, under, and distal segments of the coronary artery with a myocardial bridge and a segment from the coronary artery without a myocardial bridge in the same autopsy hearts to be used as control. The endothelial features and elements composition of each specimen was examined with a scanning electron microscope (Phenom Pro X) operated at 15 kV with energy dispersion X-ray spectrometry (EDS). In the present study, forty-five bridges (18.5%) were observed among the 243 hearts and there were located on the Left Anterior Descending Artery (LAD) (100% in all cases. The mean length of the myocardial bridge was 18.3 mm \(\pm\) 11.7 (range 1.5-59 mm). The mean thickness of the myocardial bridge was 2.8 mm \(\pm\) 1.5 (range 1-6.3 mm). Comparing endothelial cell gradings, the proximal segment was significantly different endothelial grading from the under-bridging segment, distal segment, and control segment. The under-bridging segment was significantly different from the distal segment. The control segment was not significantly different from both the under-bridging segment and the distal segment. Calcium deposition in the proximal segment was significantly different from the under-bridging segment, distal segment, and control segment. The under-bridging segment was a similar deposition of calcium in the distal segment and control segment. The distal segment was not significantly different from the control segment (P<0.05).

The proximal segment was the most endothelial damage site due to haemodynamic changes affected by the myocardial bridge. The under-bridging segment was the least endothelial damage site which might be due to the atheroprotective effect of the myocardial bridge in the under segment.

Seaweeds since ages are excellent source of biologically active ingredients and source of phytochemicals namely agar-agar, carraggeenan and algin, which are extensively used in various industries. Various seaweeds are used in traditional medicine in several Asian nations. In this study, methanolic extract Cladophora glomerata, a marine green alga was subjected to preliminary phytochemical and Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) which revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes and carbohydrates. The major compounds were Dibutyl phthalate (27.07%), Hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester (9.58%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (8.11%), Octatriacontyl trifluoroacetate (6.81%), Cholesterol (6.66%). Thus, the current phytochemical and GC-MS analysis of Cladophora glomerata provides crucial new information to enable ongoing investigations to evaluate the structure of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties.

Assessment of Human Genome Sequencing on the New-World Order

A. Hameed Khan

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 84-133

In this paper, we describe the story of three such rebels, Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei and Gordano Bruno. Their findings and observations of the nature of the Heliocentric world system brought a seismic shift in the Catholic Church’s teachings of Geocentric World system. This study also describes the creation of Life in the Lab. The day we discovered that the RNA, a molecule that codes for Life, can self-replicate, self-organize and self-evolve, it also has the ability not only to store the information like DNA, can catalyze reaction like protein, we know that we embark on a New-World Order to create Life in the Lab. The New World Order would be based on the truth, experimental evidence, facts, reproducible and verifiable results. Our elders imagined the Old World Order of the seven-day genesis of Life on Earth based on beliefs, fiction, magic, and mystery without any evidence or verifiable proofs. The New World Order discovered that information is the core of life, and that information is stored on four chemical molecules known as nucleotides: Adenine, Thiamine, Guanine, and Cytosine. They can be found in the nuclei of all living things, from a single blade of grass to a massive elephant, including humans, mice, monkeys, and microbes. The most significant success is that we were able to not only synthesis these molecules in our laboratories, but also arrange them in a certain three-letter order known as a codon, which codes for an amino acid. The four-nucleotide text might be arranged in 64 different ways to code for all twenty amino acids needed to produce proteins that conduct all of our biological functions. A cell is made up of thousands of proteins that interact. A Tissue is made up of millions of cells, hundreds of tissues are made up of organs, and a Human is made up of multiple organs. Once we synthesize RNA molecule in the Lab, we can create novel microbial life forms, a series of biological machines which carry instructions to produce new food, new fuel, and new medicine to treat every disease known to mankind.

Studies on Sexual Reproduction of Two Reef Building Corals Seriatopora hystrix and Lobophyllia corymbosa in the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea

Yahya A. M. Floos, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani, Talal A. Zari

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 134-150

In Sharm Ubhur, the sexual reproduction of the scleractinian corals Seriatopora hystrix and Lobophyllia corymbosa was investigated for a year. S. hystrix is hermaphrodite brooders with internal fertilization and larvae development within their polyps, according to the researchers. The L. corymbosa, on the other hand, is a hermaphrodite broadcaster with external larval development, therefore embryos are not visible in histological investigations. The reproductive period of S. hystrix was discovered to be limited (January to April). The quantity of eggs and testes seen during this time was also low, and the first planula larvae were discovered in March at a temperature of 27.420C. The gonads in L. corymbosa polyps were found all year, with two cycles of oogenesis and one cycle of spermatogenesis. The S. hystrix egg size was ranged from 158 \(\mu\)m (in January) to 241 \(\mu\)m (in April). The first visible size of eggs of L. corymbosa were observed in August (187.2 \(\mu\)m) and in April (689.96 \(\mu\)m). In S. hystrix, zooxanthellae were found in mature oocytes. They were not found in L. corymbosa

In this article the study of gap in the health parameters as well as socioeconomic constraints and socio cultural trends of women who adhere to the use of biomass fuel has been outlined. Biomass fuel has long been associated with pollution and health problems. Most previous research in this field has been focused on respiratory health, eye disease, and other health issues such as asthma, TB, COPD, cataracts, low birth weight and even cancer. Researchers discovered that cigarette smoking and health problems are a top priority. Huge amount of toxic substances are produced due to combustion of different fuels. Burning of biomass fuel produces large amount of carbon monoxides. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas; long time exposure may prove fatal. Animal rearing is a rural citizen's auxiliary occupation to farming. Cow dung cake preparation has been discovered to be a socio cultural practice. Regardless of their awareness of the negative influence on their health the use of readily available natural fuel has been observed as an old natural social habit. The current study looked into the health of rural women while also taking into account their economic situation and socio cultural practices. Hematological and immunological markers were chosen for health status evaluation.

Documentation and Investigation into the Floristic Composition of Barakat Area (Gazira State) Sudan

A. H. Abdallah, N. Mahmoud, Negood Elmahi

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 167-180

A floristic composition research was conducted in the Barakat Area in Gazira State, Sudan. Plant specimens were collected at random from various habitats during two field surveys. Samples were prepared and stored in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Science at the University of Khartoum.  Angiosperm species from 43 botanical groups were discovered, totaling 127. There were 110 dicotyledons from 36 families, with the Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Caesalpinaceae families having the most species. There were 17 monocotyledon plant species found, divided into seven families, with the Poaceae and Cyperaceae families being the most prominent. The less frequent families were: Polygonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Vitaceae, Cleomaceae and Commelinaceae. Hundreds of these species were indigenous flora while 27 were cultivated .Parasitic plants belonging to the families Loranthaceae and Scrophulariaceae were also recorded, in summary the flora consisted of 26 trees, 15 shrubs, 81 herbs and 5climbers. Euphorbia was the most common genus with 4 species followed by Acacia with 3 species. The cultivated species represented 21.3% of the total flora, while the indigenous flora represented 78.7%.

Three layers of vegetation were observed in the study area: the upper most was the tree layer, dominated by Acacia nilotica (Sunut), Acacia nubica (Laot) and Ziziphus spina-christi (Sidir). The second (intermediate) layer was the shruby layer, dominated by Colatropis procera (Ushar), and the third herbaceous layer, which was dominated by Cynodon dactylon. This study will contributes positively to regional floristic knowledge of the Sudan and stimulate further studies on the flora of Sudan.

Morphometric Study of the Black-Lip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera from North Sulawesi Waters, Indonesia

Ockstan J. Kalesaran, Cyska Lumenta, Gybert Mamuaya, Rizald Rompas, Juliaan Watung

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 181-194

The marine waters of North Sulawesi province cover 314,983 km2 and have a 1,837-kilometer coastline, with a high level of marine life. The black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, with the local name "Bia Kapi-Kapi," is one of the aquatic biotas found there, but information on this population is still scarce. The need for pearl oysters aquaculture still comes from natural catches, exploitation is increasing, and the population is threatened with extinction. Morphometric studies can be used to estimate the potential of organisms and resource management, having an important role in the survival of organisms in their habitat.

This study aims to analyze the morphometric of P. margaritifera from North Sulawesi waters. The biometric parameters observed were shell length (SL), shell width (SW), and shell thickness (ST) measured using Digital Vernier Calipers; and total weight (TW), wet meat weight (WMW), and shell weight (Sw) were obtained using Ohaus digital scales. Quantitatively, this research can be used to assess the availability of pearl oyster stocks in North Sulawesi waters.

Medium-sized shells ranging from 8 to 11 cm in length (43.52%) dominated the size of P. margaritifera, with an average length of 8.72 cm. The oysters are still in the process of growing, according to this record. When all shell dimensions were taken into account, the biometric relationship of P. margaritifera from North Sulawesi waters revealed a very strong correlation. There is a negative allometric growth in this outcome.

Nutrigenomics and Microbiomics, Contrasting Interpretations of Dismetabolic Diseases

Bruno Riccardi, Sergio Resta, Giacomo Resta

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 195-213

In this paper, we examined current interpretations based on Nutrigenomica and Microbiomic research, according to which, at the root of many pathological and dismetabolic manifestations, there'd be or variations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (Snps) in the Nutrigenomic perspective, or modifications in the normal gut microbiota in the Microbiomic perspective.We have examined rigorously the singular pathogenic coincidence, which raises questions about Snps mutations or the presence of specific Microbiota changes for the same illnesses.

As a result, other possible causes of detected disorders are overlooked.
We will give an alternative understanding of pathogenic causes based on the research reviewed.

Wild Mammal Translocations and Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases: A Potential Pandemic Risk?

João Carlos Araujo Carreira, Cecilia Bueno , Alba Valeria Machado da Silva

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 214-302

Several advancements have been made in conservative programs involving wildlife translocations and the assessment of potential disease transmission risk. Other circumstances, such as the vast number of species received at screening facilities from various regions, rescued after being hit by automobiles, taken by the public, or confiscated by authorities from illegal commerce, have raised the likelihood of zoonosis spreading, emergence, or reemergence. Aside from the notorious necessity of improving processes for managing wildlife, having access to as much information as possible regarding the incidence of dangerous illnesses on each species can be a very useful tool for reducing disease risk.

The evolution of methods for wildlife translocations, especially involving mammals, was shown in this work. We also examined some characteristics of sylvatic animals as reservoir hosts of zoon-osis, and lastly, various tables were shown, listing a variety of mammals hosts and associated parasitic protozoa.

Diversity of Insects in the Paddy Fields of Mundakam Vayal, Kannur District, India: A Recent Study

Vinni Mathew, Ananthi Rachel Livingstone

Research Aspects in Biological Science Vol. 4, 4 July 2022, Page 303-312

The purpose of this study was to assess the variance in insect populations in paddy plots in the Mundakam Vayal area of Nedungome village, Kannur district. A total of 71 insect species were found in this investigation. A total of 52 species were identified, divided into eight orders. Lepidoptera (12), Odonata (10), and Coleoptera (9) were recorded as the most dominant orders, followed by Araneae (7), Hemiptera (6), Orthoptera (5), Hymenoptera (2), and Diptera (1). Lepidoptera had the largest population density, and both Lepidoptera and Coleoptera had the most species diversity. Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a member of the Order Lepidoptera, and Leptocorisa oratoria, a member of the Order Hemiptera, were the most abundant species found. During the blooming and milky phases of the rice plant, the overall insect variety and richness rose. The findings show that insect variety in paddy fields achieved a favorable balance between pest populations and paddy's beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids). Insect diversity has the potential to be an effective approach to protect, use, and enhance biodiversity in the Mundakam Vayal area's agricultural ecosystem, ensuring food security.