An Overview on Male Infertility and Stress Factors
Perspective of Recent Advances in Medical Research Vol. 9,
13 February 2023
Infertility is a social issue that adds to the difficulties of marital life. Sex is the most powerful instinct and drive in all living beings, including humans. Infertility can be caused by a decrease in the number of sperms, the absence of sperms, or an increase in the abnormal form of sperms in male sperm, as well as the sperm's inability to move with sufficient vigour towards the ovum. Infertility is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Depending on the nature and concentration of the ROS deeply engaged, these ROS can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on sperm functions. The hormones initially evaluated for infertility in males include follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and prolactin. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major toxic ROS for human spermatozoa, causing sperm immobilisation at low concentrations. H2O2 at high concentrations causes lipid peroxidation, which leads to cell death. The superoxide anion (O2-) on the other hand appears to have a significant role in the process of sperm hyperactivity and capacitation.
- Male infertility
- metal exposure