Editor(s)

Dr. Gnana Sheela K
Professor,
Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

ISBN 978-93-91882-98-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91882-08-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2

This book covers key areas of science and technology. The contributions by the authors include lead glass, tin content, probiotics, TGA-DSC, quality control, integrity test, food ingredients, supplements,  strategic communication, bandung, smart city, ministry of education and information, plant pathology, geotagging, computerization, database, information and communication technology, gratification, ethnography, rocacitonin, sepsis, septic shock, regional cooperation, connectivity, large infrastructure, trade, DFI, joint venture, project finance, guarantees, private sector, commercial financing, affected communities, governance, social, climate, environment, physical growth, socio-economic status, coeliac trunk, variations, left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery, right gastric artery, left inferior phrenic artery, health care services, occupational health, reinfection, Center for Disease Control, antibacterial, antifungal activity, very small incinerator, heating system, computational fluid dynamics, refuse derived fuel. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

Media Promotion:

### Chapters

##### A Brief Study on Tin in the Old Russian Lead Glass

A. N. Egorkov

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 1-5
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/4088F

Lead is frequently accompanied by tin with extremely low content in lead glass, which was widely employed in medieval Russia, primarily during the pre-Mongolian period X-XIII cen., for the manufacture of artefacts, primarily bracelets. Tin is undoubtedly introduced into glass with lead, despite the fact that it is not a native impurity in lead ores.  The use of slag, mainly litharge with variable tin content from pewter alloying, is proposed for lead glass manufacture.Simultaneously, the question of whether slag production can meet the demand for lead glass fabrication remains unanswered.

##### Application of a Rapid Micro-calorimetry Coupling Method in Quality and Integrity Control of Probiotic-Based Products

Hary Razafindralambo

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 6-11
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/1881C

The objective was to apply a rapid and reliable method in quality and integrity control of probiotic-based products. For this purpose, various food grade ingredients and supplements, in pure or formulated forms, from European and American manufacturers, distributors, universities, and institutions coordinating microorganism collections have been analyzed. The method is based on the thermal profiling and fingerprinting of powder samples, using a coupling thermogravimetry - differential scanning calorimetry technique (TGA-DSC) under well-defined conditions. More than 100 monostrain and multistrain probiotics have been tested with this method, and each sample has shown a unique qualitative profile and significant different quantitative thermophysical data. This approach reveals not only the probiotic strain features but also those of molecular functional ingredients (e.g. cryoprotectors, antioxidants, etc.) added into the formulation (fingerprints, purity, water and volatile content, mineral compound amount, etc.). Moreover, the method is highly reproducible, sensitive, and adaptable to a high throughput analysis while requiring a small amount of sample. Besides the pure analytical aspects, it can also provide some relevant fundamental information such as the probiotic strain and product formulation thermostability.

##### Strategic Communication for Bandung Smart City in Globalization Digital Era

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 12-22
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/11982D

In this digital era, the City Government Bandung has 394 Smart City applications built since 2014. All the applications were built with the aim to facilitate the work of all Regional Apparatus Organization as well as facilitate public services. All applications were developed by a team from the Office of Communications and Informatics of Bandung city in cooperation with programmers and communication experts from universities and professionals. The built application is intended to facilitate services to the public. Logically this is important considering that many people in Bandung City who have a smartphone wherein the play store there are 1000 applications, while we only install as many as 394 Smart City apps mean still many that have not been utilized. Of the many applications built by Bandung City Government, some applications are replicated by dozens of municipal district governments throughout Indonesia. One application that is replicated is Performance Accountability System Government Agencies (PASGA) used by the City Government of Tangerang and the Paya Kumbuh Government. So far, local governments that have signed a Cooperation Agreement (CA) with the office of Communication and Information district like Bandung, there are 34 districts/cities throughout Indonesia. This paper aims to find out about a number of descriptions of Bansund as a smart city, including: (1) How the position of communication strategy in a smart city; (2) How far the opinion of Bandung City society about Smart City policy as New Paradigm in Developing Country based on six indicators; (3) What is Smart City City Manager Bandung's opinion about the demands of completion of Government tasks in Indonesia; and (4) How far is the opinion of Bandung City society about Smart City Mobile Utilization in Indonesian Building as Smart Country.

##### Design and Development of GETMOSYS: A Plant Pathologists' Geotagging and Monitoring System for Infected Banana Plant

Mark Van M. Buladaco, Frank Lou Ubay

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 23-34
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/4187F

Technology sets a new record as people discover novel ideas of the application of technology. Some of these innovations paved the way for solutions to problems in various fields, especially in agriculture. The identified problem is that plant pathologists use different applications such as Google Earth and Microsoft Excel in managing the data given by the growers that will lead to disorganization of location data. Moreover, handling a large amount of data with the GPS coordinates as the only identifier on the map can be tedious and consume significant effort when retrieving the specific data or information needed. To address the issues, a plant pathologists' geotagging and monitoring system for the infected banana plant was designed and developed to remedy the problem of the plant pathologist's recording, tracking the sample with diseases in the vast hectares of banana plantations. It is called GETMOSYS. The GETMOSYS application has two parts: a website specially created to be used by the Pathologist and the mobile app designed to be used by the growers for their grower representatives. The predictive prototyping model was used as the system development method in developing and implementing the software. Black box testing was used for the software testing functionality of the website and mobile application. One plant pathologist and 24 personnel of a banana plantation evaluated the system usability using the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ). The system shows excellent results in Attractiveness, Perspicuity, Efficiency.

##### Investigating the Problems Facing Computerization of Records in Secondary Schools in JOS, Nigeria

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 35-41
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/3805F

The study looks into the issues that have arisen as a result of the computerization of records in selected secondary schools in Jos, as well as the vulnerability of the prevalent manual data processing to human errors.  Information was gathered through observations made during physical visits to the schools' computer labs, questionnaires, and personal interviews with selected school Information and Communication Technology (ICT) employees. Administrators and information technology employees were among the people who took part in the survey.In Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, seven private schools, one Federal Government College, one Federal Command Secondary School, one State Government owned school, and one Federal Government College were utilised. According to the findings, the most significant impediment to the computerization of academic records in the schools is a lack of funding. Funding plays a significant role in the purchase of proprietary School Management application packages.

Yerodin L. Carrington

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 42-54
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/4125F

Radio Consumption and Perception is a research study probing the social and moral values conveyed to audiences through broadcast radio. The uses and gratifications theory provides insight into the exchange of information reciprocated through disc jockeys, and their viewership. This examination incorporates an ethnographic interview-style using the snowballing technique, of 15 core open-ended questions, for honest and casual answers from respondents in their environments. The researcher, Yerodin Carrington, has never seen nor met anyone of the personalities of the Ebro in the Morning show. There is no association with anyone employed at WHQT-FM, Emmis Communications, or the personalities of Ebro in the Morning. However, Yerodin Carrington found viewers enjoyed the messages disc jockeys conveyed on-air through segments, their form of expression in a relatable manner, and the clarification of press releases for the understanding of their viewership. Further research is suggested with room for negative feedback, a competitive source, and a whacking variety of radio listeners for precise findings will be needed.

##### Study on Procalcitonin as a Prognostic Indicator and as an Early Biomarker in Grading of Sepsis

Chidanand G. Chivate, Gajanaan Belwalkar, Rahul V. Patil, Jayashree C. Awalekar, Shrinivas S. Kumbhar, Shubhaangi V. Deshmukh

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 55-60
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/4228F

Aims and Objectives: To investigate the pattern of PCT elevation in sepsis.To see if PCT rises earlier in severe infections than other sepsis indicators. To see if PCT levels may be used to grade sepsis severity. To examine if the rise and fall of PCT levels has any bearing on prognosis.  Introduction: PCT is a very good biomarker of sepsis. PCT (Procalcitonin) is a new biomarker that is being utilised to diagnose and grade bacterial sepsis all over the world.PCT distinguishes between infectious and non-infectious disorders and aids in sepsis and septic shock prognosis.

Materials and Methods: The study included 100 patients admitted to medical or surgical departments. The PCT was calculated, as well as other sepsis markers, and the results were compared. The severity of sepsis was graded based on clinical criteria as well as PCT levels.

Observations: PCT values associated well with the degree of sepsis in the entire sample, with a median of 8.89 ng/ml. Normal PCT levels were detected in 24 patients, while very high PCT values were noted in 4 patients.PCT levels more than 7 ng/ml were linked to a higher risk of death. When compared to Gram positive sepsis, Gram negative sepsis showed higher PCT values. Consistently rising PCT readings suggested that sepsis severity was greater, as well as a high fatality rate in this class.

Conclusions: PCT is a sepsis biomarker that can be detected early.In severe sepsis, PCT can be utilised as a prognostic indicator.PCT is an excellent measure for grading sepsis and other clinical characteristics.

##### Ensuring Sustainability in Financing Cross-border Infrastructure Investments

Jyoti Bisbey, Lili Li, Qingyang Gu, Ching-Yuan Chu

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 61-95
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/12069D

Cross-border infrastructure projects offer significant economic and social benefits for Asia. If the required investment of $8 trillion in pan-Asian connectivity was made in the region’s infrastructure during 2010–2020, the total net income gains for developing Asia could reach about$12.98 trillion (in 2008 US dollars) during 2010–2020 and beyond, of which more than $4.43 trillion would be gained during 2010–2020 and nearly$8.55 trillion after 2020 [1]. Infrastructure connectivity helps improve regional productivity and competitiveness by facilitating the movement of goods, services and human resources, producing economies of scale, promoting trade and foreign direct investments, creating new business opportunities, stimulating inclusive industrialization and narrowing development gaps between communities, countries or sub-regions. Nevertheless, due to limited financing, progress in the development of cross-border infrastructure in the region is low.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the key challenges faced in financing cross-border projects and discuss the roles that different stakeholders—national governments, state-owned enterprises, private sector, regional entities, development financing institutions (DFIs), affected people and civil society organizations—can play in facilitating the development of cross-border infrastructure in the region. In particular, this paper highlights the major risks that deter private sector investments and FDIs and proposes that more attention should be paid to the sustainability-linked measures and adaption standards for the achievement of the multiple United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) [2]. The integration of environment-social-governance (ESG) elements help establish an enabling environment where cross-border infrastructure projects are more inclusive, sustainable, and resilient. Recommendations are also provided based on the international examples to address the financing needs and risks when cross-border projects are undertaken.

##### Study on Physical Growth in Urban and Rural School Children from 5 to 13 Years of Age: A Comparative approach

Sunil M. Kolekar, Sunita U. Sawant

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 96-102
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/12919D

The present study was undertaken to carry out a comparative approach of physical growth in school children (5 to 13 Years) in urban and rural areas of Sangli district, Maharashtra, India.. Growth is influenced by biological factors such as sex, birth weight, and genetic makeup. The presence of dietary inadequacies, parasite diseases, and psychological problems appears to generate the effect of socioeconomic and environmental factors. A total of 2300 school children were taken for study, out of which 1390 were urban school children and 910 were rural school children. The anthropometric measurements like height and weight were taken. Height and weight of urban school children were statistically (p<0.05) higher than those of rural school children. This was attributable to nutritional and socioeconomic inequalities between urban and rural locations. In comparison to rural areas, urban areas had a greater grasp of dietary requirements, the availability of varied meals, the prevention and treatment of recurrent diseases, the level of hygiene, and parental literacy.

##### A Descriptive Study on Anatomical Variations in Coeliac Trunk and Its Branches

Sunita U. Sawant, Sunil M. Kolekar, N. Harichandana

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 103-109
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/12920D

The present study aims to describe the anatomical variations in Coeliac Trunk and Its Branches. At the level of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, the coeliac trunk is the first anterior branch of the abdominal aorta. The three primary traditional branches of the celiac trunk are the hepatic, splenic, and left gastric arteries. The variations of the coeliac trunk are common but asymptomatic; they may become important during surgeries and in some radiological procedures. During routine dissection on adult cadavers in Anatomy department, we found some variations in the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The first branch of the coeliac trunk is the left gastric artery, which then divides into the splenic and hepatic arteries. The left hepatic artery is considered as the origin of the right gastric artery. In addition, one right aberrant hepatic artery is visible entering the right lobe of the liver from the superior mesenteric artery. Left inferior phrenic artery and dorsal pancreatic artery are found originating from the coeliac trunk. Left gastric artery normally originates from the coeliac trunk, but in our study it is arising directly from the abdominal aorta. Knowledge of the variations is very useful in surgical, oncologic or interventional procedures and should be kept in mind to avoid complications. Complications in abdominal surgeries can be avoided with an accurate knowledge of the anatomical variations of the coeliac trunk.

##### Study on How to Established National Occupational Health and Safety at Institute in Saudi Arabia

M. Almasoud

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 110-115
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/11721D

The field of occupational health and safety presents a large variety of job opportunities for those who are interested in promoting workplace health and safety. Broadly speaking, occupational health and safety workers are responsible for maintaining a safe working environment. In the public sector, health and safety workers primarily enforce health and safety legislation, and in the private sector, they primarily focus on risk management, employee productivity, and reduction of liability. Occupational health and safety are a new medical field in our Arab region, compared to the major industrialized countries. With the tremendous industrial development here, we must keep pace with globalization with these services.

##### COVID-19 Reinfection and Its Diagnostic Approach

Ashish William, Ravinder Kaur

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 116-127
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/4321F

COVID-19 caused by Coronavirus strain “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2)” has been responsible for the significant threat to the world and its pandemic has become the most important matter of concern in health care systems. The cases of reinfection with virus have been noted in the patients after the discharge. The lack of reporting of COVID-19 virus in asymptomatic cases of reinfection was observed on basis of various studies. Genetically distinct SARS-CoV-2 rules out persistent viral shedding or reactivation. There is not any protocol for the diagnosis of reinfection on the basis of single specimen, therefore it has been advised to test Paired specimens for the diagnosis of reinfection. To minimize the spread of transmission of virus in India, certain necessary steps of prevention has been taken by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), India. For the control of the COVID-19, the surge in awareness along with guidelines have been posed as a part of preventive measure in the country. The protocol for diagnosis of reinfection is needed to combat the problem. This is a review article to study the diagnostic approach and diagnostic criteria of reinfection after few cases were studied so far with Indian Scenario. The whole genome sequencing done in these patients provide valuable evidence for reinfection.

##### Studies on Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Derivatives of Tributyltin (IV) of Salicylic Acid

Pankaj Mittal

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 128-132
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/3899F

Organotin compounds are commonly used as biocides. Some derivatives of Tributyltin (IV) of salicylic acid have been synthesized in various molar ratios. Elemental analyses and various instrumental techniques were used to examine the synthesized products. The antibacterial properties of the synthesized derivatives were assessed using their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values on both gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram -ve (Staphylococcus epidermidis) bacteria (Escherichia coli). The synthesized compounds' antifungal investigations on Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans fungus were evaluated using their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values. The discussion shows that the compounds so obtained were found stable at room temperature. These compounds outperformed the ligand in terms of antibacterial and antifungal activity.

##### Energy, Exergy, Economic, Environmental and Computational fluid Dynamics (CFD) Assessment of a Very Small Incinerator Combined with a Heating System: An Advanced Study

Nattaporn Chaiyat, Chaithawat Kaewmueang

New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 2, 24 August 2021, Page 133-151
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nvst/v2/12154D

This research presents a very small incinerator combined with heating production (VICH). The objective of this study, a novel VICH system is designed, simulated, tested, and analyzed in terms of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), energy, economic, environmental, and exergy (4E-CFD) analysis methods. The CFD assessment using three hot fluids—hot water, steam, and hot oil—the results implied that hot water was the best working fluid at an increased temperature of 116.57 °C for integration with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Moreover, the testing results implied that a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) at a low heating value of 16.62 MJ/kg could increase the hot water temperature to 111.18 °C, which was close to the CFD simulation result. The energy and exergy efficiencies were approximately 23.35% and 20.93%, respectively. A life cycle assessment (LCA) at a functional unit of 1 kgRDF-1 and a lifespan of 20 y found a climate change of 3.30E-03 kg CO2 eq, an ozone depletion of 1.52E-10 kg CFC-11 eq, a particulate matter formation of 8.36E-06 kg PM10 eq, a terrestrial acidification of 1.30E-05 kg SO2 eq, a freshwater eutrophication of 1.83E-06 kg P eq, a human toxicity of 1.81E-03 kg 1,4 DB eq, a terrestrial ecotoxicity of 2.25E-07 kg 1,4 DB eq, a freshwater ecotoxicity of 1.04E-04 kg 1,4 DB eq, a fossil depletion of 8.02E-04 kg oil eq, and a metal depletion of 6.69E-04 kg Fe eq. The LCA impacts were driven from 36.07% construction, 63.41% operations, 0.52% landfill decommissioning and 3.99% recycling. In the economic results, the levelized cost of the waste disposal combined heating process was approximately 0.006 USD/kgRDF.