Dr. Slawomir Borek
Assistant Professor,
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.

ISBN 978-93-90149-88-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90149-89-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nvbs/v1

This book covers key areas of biological science. The contributions by the authors include GC-MS analysis, medicinal plants, nutritional evaluation, proximate composition, fodder value, hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocytes, specific reproductive activity, resource of lymphopoiesis, lung cancer therapy, liver transplantation, death rate, trophic guilds, bird diversity, denatured rock, phosphate and potassium solubilization, weathered materials, non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, oil spillage, 16SrRNA, oil degradation, biosurfactant, GC-MS, petroleum, hydrocarbons, Alzheimer's disease, neurotoxic metal, histopathological studies, animal model, evolution biology, DNA molecules, mass extinctions, histogenesis, gestational period, pancreas, serous acini, islets of Langerhans, microanatomy, ducts, alpha fetoprotein, soil nutrient, nutrient uptake, split application, subclavian artery, cervical vertebrae, foramina transversaria, brachial artery, profunda brachii artery, zooplankton, biological indicator, water quality, neocortex multilayer neural networks, mangroves, phytochemicals. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biological science.


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Determining the Bioactive Constituents in Calotropis gigantea Leaves by GC-MS, HPLC and FTIR Techniques

S. Uthirasamy, T. Chitra, A. Murugan, G. Manjula, P. Arulmanickam, T. Kavitha, M. Thinakaran

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 1-11

Medicinal plants have initiated in many countries because of their contributions to health care.  Calotropis gigantea is a biological ingredient with potential therapeutic qualities that belongs to the Asclepiadaceae family.Calotropis gigantea leaves have long been used to treat abdominal pain, tumours, skin problems, wounds, and insect stings.This plant's therapeutic characteristics make it an important source of a medicinal compound. Calotropis gigantean's bioactive components were studied using GC-MS, HPLC, and FTIR. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) study reveals major bioactive chemicals. Only leaves contained the chemical compounds Androstane-11,17-Dione, 3-[(Trimethylsilyl)Oxy]-, 17-[O-(Phenylmethyl)Oxime], 3.Alpha.-(Trimethylsiloxy)Cholest-5-Ene, Urs-12-EN-28-Oic acid, 3-Hydroxy-, Methyl ester, (3.BETA.)-, Pseduosarsasapogenin-5, 20-Dien Methyl Ether, Beta. Carotene, 1.Alpha.,2.Alpha.-Epoxy-1.Beta.-Methylcholesta-4,6-Dien-3-One, 3-O-Acetyl-6-Methoxy-Cycloartenol  whereas the rest of the compounds were similar in plants.

Determining the Nutritional Value of Fodder Tree Leaves and Shrubs of Scarcity Zone of Maharashtra

U. S. Gaikwad, A. B. Pawar, A. D. Kadlag

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 12-17

The goal of this study was to determine the nutritive value of fodder tree leaves and shrubs from a dryland area in the Solapur district of Maharashtra. The climate of this region is characterized by a relatively low annual rainfall (594.8 mm), which varies from year to year and ranges from 594.8 to 655.6 mm. The winter temperature is 22.5°C, and the summer temperature is 40.1°C. The annual total evaporation is 2817.7 mm on average. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicelluloses, and proximate composition were measured in leaves of fodder trees and shrubs. DM, CF, CP, NDF, ADF, and hemicelluloses had mean percent values of 32.66, 22.60, 4.79, 55.75, 47.97, and 7.81 percent, respectively. The average percentages of ash, calcium, and phosphorus in fodder tree leaves and shrubs were 8.28, 2.18, and 0.235, respectively. Where, iron, zinc and manganese were 3419, 51 and 252 \(\mu\)g g-1 respectively.

The aim of this work was to compare how the different reduction of lymphocytopoietic status affect the viability of people with malignant and non-malignant pathology, expecting the similar results according generally accepted immune defense doctrine. The changes in rates of death among the adult population in the range of age + (55-62) years are opposite for malignant and non-malignant diseases and thus reflect a deficit of protumor activity along with the common morphogenic activity of lymphopoiesis due to its physiological weakening rather than due to the generally accepted of enhancing antitumor immunity.  The numbers of CD133+ and CD31+ lymphocytes and those in the G2-M phases in the total fraction of circulating lymphocytes from patients with fatal liver cirrhosis and advanced lung cancer were investigated by flow cytometry during a long period of conventional treatment with OLT or palliative surgery followed by myelosuppressive chemotherapy. The relationships of specific reproductive activity, sRA (G2-M/CD133+), and the number of committed liver a-fetoprotein-positive (AFP+) cells with the rate of patient deaths, characterized by exponential approximation survival curves for both diseases, were investigated. Subnormal sRA in patients after OLT and excessive sRA in LC patients above a healthy level were associated with higher death rates and lower survival, coinciding with strong immunosuppression caused by anti-rejection and anti-cancer therapies. These findings may be explained by morphogenesis (feeding) activity of circulating lymphocytes targeted toward both normal and malignant tissues rather than in terms of cellular immunity. The sRA changes may be a useful indicator for monitoring the potential for engraftment or tumor growth.

The Bird Assemblage of the Cubanacan Protected Area and Its Ecological Relationships: Villa Clara, Cuba

Rafael Armiñana García, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, María Patricia Zambrano Gavilanes, Freddy Eli Zambrano Gavilanes

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 34-47

This paper describes an ecological study of bird assembling carried out in Cubanacán Protected Area in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in the months of June and July. The ornithological work was carried out in an area with xeromorphic shrub plant formation on serpentine soil. For the data collection, the area was sampled by the linear transepts method, two in total, 250 m long and 15 m wide on both sides of the observer. A total of 4 counts were made in the months of June and July, which were executed by the visual and auditory method, supported by a binocular. The data obtained were quantified and the different ecological indexes were applied. In the study area, there are 22 bird species belonging to 12 families of 8 orders, Passeriformes being the best represented order with 5 families and 10 species. Of the total number of birds reported, 2 genera (25%), 5 species (53.8%) and 10 subspecies (14.0%) are endemic. In the plant formation, 7 trophic guilds are distinguished in the months of June and July. A density of 59.25 individuals / ha was found in June, while in July it was only 53.93. The similarity index between both months was 70%, very similar to that obtained in this plant formation for other months. The diversity was 2.22 and 2.52 for June and July, respectively, while the richness was 13.0 for both months. Equity varied very little 0.79 in June and 0. 88 in July, so the distribution of the number of individuals is fairly uniform.

Phosporus (P) and potassium (K) are the major essential macronutrients for plants. Utilization of bio-fertilizers contained phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria is an alternative solution to maintain the available P and K in the soil. In order to develop such as bio-fertilizer, it is necessary to find out phosphate- and potassium-solubilizing bacteria from weathered materials of denatured rock mountain. Twenty-five strains were isolated on modified Aleksandrov medium from samples of soils/weathered rocks of HaTien Mountain, KienGiang, Vietnam. Their colonies were round or irregular, white to yellow and their cells were rod-shaped and motile. Seventeen of twenty-five bacterial strains were identified by PCR technique with specific primers fd1 and rP, showed that they were capable of dissolving both phosphate and potassium. Among of them, the seven strains had high phosphate and potassium dissolution capacites (>10 mgL-1 P2O5 and >50 mgL-1 K2O) effectively. The seven strains were chosen to sequence DNAs and then compared with GenBank database of NCBI by BLAST N software. The results showed that DNV16 strain was 99.30 % of identity with Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum strain A3RC1 (JQ689178); TC1D strain was 99.27 % of identity with Flectobacillus rhizosphaerae strain PeD7 (MN258894); CH9E strain was 99.43 % of identity with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain ICMP5856 (KX621317); TC1A strain was 99.90 % of identity with Bacillus paramycoides strain 2914 (MT611870); CH7D strain was 99.88% of identity with Bacillus megaterium strain LCR107 (FJ976616); TD6B strain was 99.81 % of identiy with Bacillus subtilis strain R0-14 (MN330151) and CH7A strain 99.80 % with Bacillus albus strain FORCN138 (MW363338). The strain TC1A was the high phosphate and potassium solubilizing ability and its potential for use in bio-fertilizer prodution in the future.

Non-Saccharomyces yeast strains consume a diverse range of sugars, capable of producing ethanol at different quantities and concentrations. The ability of such wild type indigenous strains to do so and compete with industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae is not common in Nigeria. This study aimed at comparing the ability of Meyerozyma guilliermondii with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to consume sugars (fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, sucrose and molasses) and to convert them into ethanol during fermentation. Yeast extract (6g/L), peptone (10g/L), malt extract (6g/L) broth was supplemented with different concentrations (5g/L, 10g/L, 20g/L, 30g/L) of fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose and sucrose respectively. Sugar utilization post incubation for 96 hours at 120 rpm, 30oC was measured using a refractometer. The alcoholic yield using molasses for Meyerozyma guilliermondii 9.2±0.45 (mg/ml) was significantly higher than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain T (4.8±1.15 mg/ml) at 96 hours. Ethanol production from the consumption of fructose as the sole carbon source was more favourable for M. guilliermondii 2.1, 3.0, 8.11 and 9.06 (mg/ml) compared to 1.08, 3.12, 8.06 and 6.0 (mg/ml) for S. cerevisiae. Both strains displayed similar adaptation to galactose metabolism at all tested concentrations. With glucose, M. guilliermondii yielded more than its S. cerevisiae counterpart at 1.0% (4.15, 3.18 mg/ml) and 2.0% glucose (4.25, 3.3 mg/ml). At 3.0% glucose broth content, 8.15 and 9.08 mg/ml ethanol was obtained for M. guilliermondii and S. cerevisiae respectively. Sucrose utilization resulted in a 10.18 mg/ml yield of ethanol compared to a 7.06 mg/ml yield for M. guilliermondi and S. cerevisiae respectively at 3.0% sugar supplement. Meyerozyma guilliermondii displayed its ability as a highly adaptable non-Saccharomyces yeast specie capable of producing ethanol from a variety of sugars indicative of local feedstock as a suitable alternative.

Study on Isolation and Characterization of Crude oil Degrading Bacteria from Oil Spill Sites of Ennore Port

Gokulalakshmi Elayaperumal, M. Vanitha Chinnathambi, K. Ramalingam

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 73-80

The present study was aimed to isolate and identify the bacterial strains and access their crude oil biodegradation potential under in vitro conditions. Oil spillage is a major source of pollution and is a continuous threat to marine ecosystem. In order to address the issue, Crude oil degrading organisms were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of native bacterial strains to utilize the crude oils as the sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. A total of seven isolated bacterial strains from the oil spill contaminated areas were assessed for their oil degradation efficiency. Biodegradation experiments were performed in 1% crude oil for 12 days using selected bacterial cultures. Of the seven isolated strains, only three strains P. aeruginosa (AMETOS02), P. stuartii (AMETOS01 & AMETOS03) demonstrated the maximum oil degradation potential. P. stuartii (AMETOS03) showed a promising biosurfactant activity and the type of hydrocarbon being degraded was further studied using Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Our data indicate that P. stuartii (AMETOS03) is a potential strain that can be exploited for bioremediation of crude oil (hydrocarbon).

Aluminium is a neurotoxic metal, exposure leads to neurodegenerative disease like alzheimer’s. Chronic exposure to it is a real eventuality due to its presence in food, air, water, in medicines and as floculating agents in water purification process. It is an important task to control its toxicity by natural source, so the present work aimed to investigate the neuroprotective activity of of Sargassum ilicifolium against aluminium induction. Aluminium chloride of dose (100mg/kg b.wt) was given orally to induce cognitive dysfunction in rats. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of dose 100, 200, 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg respectively were selected and administered from 21st day of aluminium induction up to 40 days and in drug treated animals behavioural studies, antioxidant studies, neurotransmitter estimation and finally histopathological studies were performed. The study has revealed the potential neuro protective effect by improving the learning memory status in behavioural studies, reversing the stress induced free radicals and boosting the neurotransmitters level responsible for memory consolidation.

Each DNA molecule consists of a base pair of nucleotides, either guanine (G) coupled with cytosine (C), or adenine (A) coupled with thymine (T).  GC and AT base molecules linked together in long chains is analogous to binary computer coding in which each molecule is either a “GC” or an “AT” (rather than a “1” or a “0”).  Advanced species have significantly less DNA encoding than primitive species.  The amphibian that evolved from a fish no longer needs those parts of its DNA that were exclusive to fish and so loses them.  Similarly, the lizard loses those parts of its DNA that were required by amphibians, and so on up the evolutionary scale.  Every species carries with it disproportionately huge amounts of inactive DNA that they themselves cannot possibly use.  This is for the sole purpose of keeping biological codes in reserve as a backup contingency plan in case of mass extinctions.  Every organism is thus preprogrammed with a binary encoded genetic template for what it could evolve to as a species plus endless possibilities for the evolution of new species.  Darwinian natural selection is merely a small incidental part of this evolutionary process.

Microanatomy of Human Foetal Pancreatic Tissue: A Chronological Study

T. V. Ramani, M. Pratyusha, S. Saritha

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 94-103

Introduction: The word pancreas comes from the Greek word pankreas. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer are disorders that involve the pancreas. It comprises Endocrine cells, also known as Islets of Langerhans, which release insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, all of which help to regulate blood glucose levels [1]. Exocrine pancreatic acini release pancreatic enzymes and alpha fetoprotein, which regulate pancreas growth and differentiation by changing expression levels during development [2]. Diabetes is caused by endocrine illness, which affects at least 200 million people globally and is expected to double by 2025 [1]. The exocrine portion causes pancreatic cancer, which kills roughly 65,000 people every year in Europe and is largely incurable.

Aims: The goal of this research was to look at the microanatomy (Histogenesis) of the pancreas in aborted fresh human embryos that did not have any congenital abnormalities. As a result, the current study was carried out to learn more about the development of acini and islets, as well as their clinical association.

Materials and Methods: Fetuses aged between 12 to 40 weeks of gestational age, and they were collected from Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narkatpally, Nalgonda (Dt), Telangana, (India) and Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research centre, L.B. Nagar, Hyderabad.

The histogenic techniques were used at all gestational ages and evaluated to the literature even though several research have shown that pancreatic islets are required for pancreas transplantation, only a few studies have shown the necessity of pancreatic acini.

Results and Conclusion: The parenchyma generates primitive tubules with small lobes and lobules of acini, as well as small spherical islets, in the early weeks (12-18 weeks). The size and number of Islets increase with age (18-24 weeks) due to encapsulation and acinar cell proliferation.

To summarise, the foetal pancreas is suitable for organ transplantation in patients with diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer at the age of 18-24 weeks.

Uptake and Availability of Potassium and Nitrogen in Wheat as Influenced by their Split Application under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir: Experimental Investigation

Sabia Akhter, Ambreen Nabi, Rukhsana Jan, Vaseem Yousuf, Khurshid Ahmad Sofi, Mir Nadeem, Iram Farooq

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 104-111

An experiment was carried out at the University Research Farm, SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar (J&K) to assess the effect of split application of potassium and nitrogen on their uptake and availability in wheat. The experiment was designed as a split plot with 15 treatment combinations, viz.,3 levels of potassium (K) @ 30 kg ha-1 [K1: 100% K as basal dose –[recommended fertilizer dose (RFD)]; K2: split 50:50; K3: split 25:75] and 5 of nitrogen (N) @ 120 kg ha-1 [N1: 50:25:25 (RFD); N2: 25:75, N3: 25:50:25, N4:50:50 and N5: 0:75:25]. Using K in equal splits (basal + active tillering) increased grain yield by 10.6 and 11.6 percent, straw yield by 11.6 and 13.4 percent, K uptake by 17.2 and 18.8 percent, and N uptake by 16.4 and 17.2 percent, respectively, over RFP in 2013-14 and 2014-15. The available K decreased steadily with the recommended application but remained constant when applied in split doses. The N management plays a key role in improving crop growth, environmental safety and economics of crop production.  The available N in soil remained constant with RFP; however, it decreased when K was applied in splits. During both years, N application in 25:50:25 ratios (basal + active tillering + booting) increased grain yield, straw yield, and total K and N uptake. Furthermore, K and N content in soil decreased when N was applied in three splits as opposed to two splits, where it remained constant after harvest of the second year crop. This suggests that an increase in N dose may be required to maintain soil N status.

Arterial variations are quite widespread in various arteries throughout the body, and they are crucial from a surgical and diagnostic standpoint. The purpose of this research is to discover variations in the origin and course of the vertebral artery. The primary arteries of the neck are the vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries and their major branches, collectively known as the vertebro-basilar system, primarily supply blood to the upper spinal cord, the brain stem and cerebellum, and various parts of the posterior cerebral hemispheres.Variations in the origin and course of the vertebral artery were discovered.  Spondylosis, a herniated intervertebral disc, tumour, infection, and trauma are all surgical reasons for the cervical region. Apart from understanding the clinical implications, the data derived from gross anatomical dissections of cadavers can be a useful guideline for surgeons for careful pre-operative planning in cases where the vertebral artery follows an unusual path and can help them avoid potentially life-threatening complications..

Surgical Significance of the Variable Branching Pattern of Brachial Artery

Preeti Sonje, Neelesh Kanasker, P. Vatsalaswamy

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 120-128

Objective of the present study is to study the branching pattern of brachial artery, as the arterial variations are very common, variations in the branching pattern of Brachial artery were studied at D.Y.Patil Medi- cal College, Pune. The variations of the Brachial artery were investigated in 50 upper limbs.Variations of many kinds were discovered. In 2% of cases, a high origin of the radial artery was discovered, and in 4% of cases, a high origin of the ulnar artery was discovered.  Other type of variation like common interosseous artery from Radial artery, Superior ulnar collateral artery from the Profunda brachii artery, common stem for the posterior circumflex humeral artery and Profunda brachii artery and many more were also seen. These differences are significant in a variety of diagnostic and surgical procedures. These variations' embryological source has also been examined.

Study on Zooplankton Diversity of Cauvery River in Erode District, Tamil Nadu

S. Uthirasamy, T. Chitra, P. Stalin

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 129-135

Many places in Tamilnadu rely on the Cauvery River for their water supply. The Erode District is heavily polluted as a result of poor textile effluent control. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of the Cauvery River in Erode. Planktons are an aquatic ecosystem's primary food source. One of the most significant ecological indicators for assessing water quality is zooplankton diversity. The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of Zooplankton in the Cauvery River in Erode from July to November 2018, and the results were documented on a periodic basis. The findings demonstrated that Zooplankton diversity is a valuable indicator for the river ecosystem and is impacted by river water quality.In the Cauvery River, the Rotifers are the most regularly observed and prominent zooplankton species. Water quality can be related to variations in biodiversity in a body of water.Zooplanktons are also effective biological water quality indicators.

The purpose of this article is to summarily describe how the discoveries made by Donald Hebb about the manner in which the neocortex multilayer neural networks processes and stores information can explain the relation between our sensory perceptions and the words of articulated languages that we use to describe them. Summary description of how the discoveries made by Paul Chauchard of the relation between level of intelligence and density of the synaptic network of interconnections established during infancy in the verbal areas of the neocortex harmonize with Hebb's discoveries. Summary description of how the automatic correlation mechanics of the neocortex neural network allows the generalization ability discovered by Ivan Pavlov as being due to the use of articulated languages, and how it also explains why the reasoning method defined by Alfred Korzybski is so effective in helping to establish a clearer understanding of our environment, with a summary description of the reasoning mode by successive perceptions of coherences that Korzybski established.

A New Research on Chemical Composition and Rumen Fermentation Profile of Mangrove Leaves (Avicennia marina) from West Sumatra, Indonesia

Novirman Jamarun, Roni Pazla, . Arief, Anuraga Jayanegara, Gusri Yanti

New Visions in Biological Science Vol. 1, 10 August 2021, Page 165-176

Jamarun N, Pazla R, Arief, Jayanegara A, Yanti G. 2020. A new research on “Chemical composition and rumen fermentation profile of mangrove leaves (Avicennia marina) from West Sumatra, Indonesia”, has been published in Biodiversitas Journal 21: 5230-5236. This study aimed to determine the potential of mangrove leaves of Avicennia marina for ruminant animal feed. Laboratory tests were carried out on A. marina with three replicates. Parameters measured were proximate and fiber contents, rumen fluid profile (pH, NH3 and VFA), digestibility of nutrients (DM, Ash, CP, CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose), macro and micro mineral contents, and phytochemical compounds. The results showed the nutritional content of A. marina were CP 13.37%; Ash 7.17%; lignin 7.34%; TDN 79%, rumen fluid profile is in reasonable condition, digestibility of food substances is more than 50%, rich in macro and micro minerals and contains phytochemical compounds such as phenols, steroids, triterpenoids, and tannins. Macro and micro minerals content of Ca 0.38%, Na 0.20%, Mg 0.20%, K 0.48%, P 0.51%, S 0.01%, Cl 1.03%, Fe 388 ppm, Zn 164 ppm, Mn 211 ppm, and Cu 128 ppm. This research concludes that A. marina is very potential to be used as a ruminant animal feed.