Editor(s)

Dr. Shi-Hai Dong
Professor,
Department of Physics, School of Physics and Mathematics, National Polytechnic Institute, Building 9, Unit Professional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, A. P. 07738, Mexico D. F., Mexico.

ISBN 978-93-90888-34-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-41-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include remote sensing, multichannel imaging, DCT-denoising, vectorial (three-dimensional) filtering, BM3D-based processing, reference, quality criteria, waste battery powder, leachants, electrochemical properties, health screening, pre-malignancy, malignancy, biomarker, tumour related-marker, DC-traction, energy efficiency, power quality, braking energy recovery, on board energy storage, wayside energy storage, reversible substation, magnetic nanowire, electrodeposition process, Anodic Aluminum Oxide, magnetic properties, nanostructures, nanoparticles, ZnO semi-conductor, X-ray diffraction, scanning, electron microscope,  cosmology, Einstein’s elevator, canonical form of the metric, autoregressive Integrated moving Average model, optical waveguides, proton exchange, IR spectroscopy, phase composition, mechanical stress, kinetic energy, photoelectron, photodetachment cross sections, electron affinity, Lorentz-bubble potential models, interferometric technique, piezo-optic and elasto-optic coefficients, acousto-optic efficiency, langasite and catangasite crystals. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.

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### Chapters

##### Enhancement of Component Images of Multichannel Data by Denoising with Reference

Sergey Abramov, Mikhail Uss, Vladimir Lukin, Benoit Vozel, Kacem Chehdi, Karen Egiazarian

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 1-22
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/1981F

Multichannel (multispectral, hyperspectral) remote sensing data may include junk component images which have quality considerably worse than other components. This can be due to intensive noise or low dynamic range of information component in such junk channels (sub-bands). Such component images are sometimes ignored (not used in further processing or analysis). Meanwhile, they can be subject to pre-filtering (denoising) in order to enhance them. To do this effectively, we propose to exploit the so-called reference images – component images that have relatively high quality and that are characterized by high similarity with respect to the image subject to pre-filtering. Within the framework of this general idea, we study several particular problems: how to choose component images that can be exploited as references, what transformations of reference images can be used, and how to perform the denoising. It is shown that one can employ as references component images of the same resolution as junk ones as well as component images of a better resolution. Not only one but also two references can be exploited. Different filters can be used after decorrelation. Enhancement of filtered images according to different quality criteria is provided. Examples of denoising for real-life multichannel images are given demonstrating high efficiency of the proposed approach.

##### Electrochemical Properties of MnO2 Nanoparticle Obtained from Waste Battery Powder by Reductive Acid Leaching Method

M. Mylarappa, S. Kantharaju

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 23-35
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8180D

The present work is focus on the recovery of manganese dioxide (MnO2) nano particle from spent battery waste using ecofriendly leaching materials. The concentration of metals has been evaluated by using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The basic composition of recovered metals from dry cell batteries were confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. The leaching studies shows both Zn and Mn were higher at 90°C and 4M sodium hydroxide was used as precipitating agent to recover Mn as MnO2 nanoparticle. From electrochemical studies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) reveals the more reversibility of the electrode and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicate charge transfer resistance (Rct) and capacitance of electrode. The electrode using 0.5M NaOH has lowest Rct and more capacitance among all the electrolytes, indicating better conductivity and confirmed that the charge transfer resistance and capacitive behavior is faster.

##### Serological Thymidine Kinase1 is a Biomarker for Early Risk of Tumours Progression —Real World Data from a Health Screening Study on a Cohort of 35,365 People

Zhi-Heng Chen, Xia Cao, Shou-Qing Huang, Guo-zhan Zhao, Ai Zeng Yang, Jian Wen, Xiao-Hong Xu, Yan Chen, Qu-Bo Chen, Ying-Hong Wang, Ellen He, Ji Zhou, Sven Skog

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 36-65
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/1960F

Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1p) is a reliable proliferation marker for prognosis, monitoring tumour therapy, and relapse. Here we investigated the use of STK1p in health screening for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant diseases. The investigation was based on 35,365 participants in four independent health screening studies in China during 2005–2019 based on Real World Data. All participants were clinically examined. The concentration of STK1p was determined by a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot ECL assay. The ROC-value of the STK1p assay was 0.96. At a cut-off STK1p value of 2.0 pM, the likelihood (+) value was 236.5, and the sensitivity and the specificity were 0.78 and 0.99, respectively. The relative number of city-dwelling people with elevated STK1p values (>2.0 pM) was 0.8% (198/26,484), while the corresponding value for the group of oil-field workers was 5.8% (514/8,355). The latter group expressed significantly higher frequency of refractory anaemia, fatty liver, and obesity, compared to the city dwellers, but no cases of breast hyperplasia or prostate hyperplasia were observed. Furthermore, people working in oil drilling/oil transportation showed higher STK1p values and higher frequency of pre-malignancies and benign diseases than people working in the oil-field administration. In the STK1p elevated group of the city-dwelling people, a statistically significantly higher number of people were found to have malignancies, pre-malignancies of all types, moderate/severe type of hyperplasia of breast or prostate, or refractory anaemia, or to be at high risk for hepatitis B, compared to people with low STK1p values (<2.0 pM). No malignancies were found in the STK1p low group. In the elevated STK1p group 85.4% showed diseases linked to a higher risk for pre-/early cancerous progression, compared to 52.4% of those with low STK1p values. Randomly selected people with low STK1p values (n=6,352/26,484) and elevated STK1p values (170/702) that were follow-up for 132 months showed 4 times higher risk to develop malignancies among people with elevated STK1p values, compared to people with low STK1p values. The risk value was calculated from an expected cancer incident rate of 0.2% among the people with low STK1p, based on official cancer statistic in China. We conclude that serological TK1 protein concentration is a reliable marker for risk assessment of pre/early cancerous progression.

##### Energy Efficiency Improvement in DC Railway Systems: The State of the Art

Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 66-106
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8457D

This study is focused on the topical issue of increasing the energy efficiency in DC railway systems, in the context of global concerns for reducing the CO2 emissions by minimizing the energy consumption and energy loss. The main achievements in this complex issue are synthesized and discussed in a comprehensive review, emphasizing the implementation and application of the existing solutions on concrete case studies. Thus, all specific subtopics related to the energy efficiency are covered, starting with power quality conditioning and continuing with the recovery of braking energy, of which a large part is lost in the classic DC-traction substations. The solutions of onboard and wayside storage systems for the braking energy are discussed and compared and practical examples are given. Then, the achievements in transforming the existing DC-traction substations in reversible substations with capabilities of power quality improvement are systematically reviewed by illustrating the main results of recent research on this topic. They include the equipment available on the market and solutions validated through implementations on experimental models. Through the results of this extensive review, useful reference and support are provided for the research and development focused on energy efficient traction systems.

##### Investigation the Effect of Composition and Annealing on Electrodeposited CoxPt1- X Nanowires

Manvendra Singh Khatri, Shivani Agarwal, Jen-Hwa Hsu, Chia-Hua Chien, Cheng-Lung Chen, Yang-Yuan Chen

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 107-112
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/2024F

Highly ordered CoxPt1-x (x ? 0.82) magnetic nanowire arrays of 60 nm diameter have been fabricated successfully by electrodeposition process into the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The electrodeposition method was chosen because it is one of the most straightforward, cost-effective, and easy-to-control methods for creating nanowires. It was found that deposition potential is a key factor to control the composition and thus the magnetic properties of the nanowires. The as-deposited CoxPt1- x nanowires were characterized by XRD to have fcc structure with preferred orientation of (111) or (001) along the nanowire. Co- rich nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior in contrast to near superparamagnetic response of the Pt-rich nanowires. Upon annealing the effects of crystallization cause the decrease of anisotropy along the wire axis for Co82Pt18 nanowires due to the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy perpendicular to the wire axis. In the next phase of our work segmented CoPtP/Pt multilayers nanowires are deposited within the AAO template. Such multilayers nanowires are expected to have the high anisotropy due to the formation of ordered Co-Pt alloy phase at the interface. The deposition potential, we discovered, is an important factor in controlling the structure and therefore the magnetic properties of nanowires.

##### Structural Studies of ZnO Nanostructures and Nano Powders: A Recent Approach

T. V. Banumathi, B. Nirmala

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 113-120
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8240D

Nanostructures and Nano sized particles has diverted considerable attention among researchers due to their unique properties. Researchers have shown interest in Zinc Oxide as it may be used as a cheap replacement for Si and GaN. Zinc oxide is one of the most promising semiconducting material due to its piezo electric and transparent conducting properties. It has high electrical conductivity and optical transmittance in the visible region and a good absorption in the UV region. Therefore it can be used as window and sunscreen materials. The nanostructured ZnO has normal applications in sensors, transducers, biomedical devices, optoelectronic devices, solar cells etc. The oxidation of high purity Zinc at high temperatures in a muffle furnace yields nanostructures on the surface of metallic Zinc.  ZnO particles are synthesized using high energy ball-milling technique. ZnO is widely used due to its large direct band gap of 3.37 eV, a high exciton binding energy at room temperature. The structure and morphology of ZnO Nano structures is analyzed using X- Ray Diffraction method and Scanning Electron Microscope. This paper focuses on the structure and morphology of the furnace melt ZnO Nano particles.

##### Einstein's Elevator in Cosmology

Rainer Burghardt

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 121-131
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8413D

The metrics of gravitational and cosmological models are brought into canonical form in comoving coordinates. The FWR curvature parameter k  is read from this and it is shown that k=0  does not correlate to a flat model, but for a spatially positively curved geometry in which exist reference systems which are in free fall. This also corresponds to Einstein's elevator principle. Moreover, we show that our subluminal cosmos is associated with the Rn = ct model of Melia, assuming that k=0 is concerned to a free-falling system in the sense described above.

##### Estimating the Availability of Underground River Water Based on Rainfall in the Maros Karst Region, South Sulawesi

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 132-139
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8471D

Maros Karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros Karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros Karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros Karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014. Maros Karst region is composed of clay and limestone soil. The analysis showed that clays have a greater tendency than limestone in water weight, porosity, water content, permeability and pore volume.

##### Phase Composition and Stress in Proton Exchanged Waveguide Layers in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3

M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, K. Christova

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 140-151
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/2074F

The phase composition of Li1?xHxNbO3 and Li1?xHxTaO3 waveguide layers produced ?t different modifications of the proton exchange (PE) technology and having complex phase composition with different quota of the phases present is analyzed based on their mode and IR spectra. The intrinsic stress caused by crystal lattice deformations at a relatively high level of hydrogen doping in the PE layers is estimated by the optical integral method. An attempt to explain the level of stress is made based on the phase composition of the studied samples. The results contribute to a better understanding of the properties and characteristics of such waveguides.

##### Doubly-charged Negative Ion of $$C_{60}$$ Molecule

A. S. Baltenkov, A. Z. Msezane

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 152-163
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8709D

Within the Dirac- and Lorentz-bubble potential models an electronic structure of the doubly-charged negative ion $$C_{60}^{2-}$$ has been studied by a variational method. It is shown that even in the first approximation of this method when a trial wave function of the two electrons is represented as a product of one-electron functions the total energy of the system is negative, a manifestation of the existence of a stable state of the doubly-charged negative ion in these models. The second electron affinity of C60 according to estimation is about $$\epsilon$$2 $$\approx$$ 1 eV. The photodetachment cross sections $$\sigma$$($$\omega$$) of this ion have been calculated as well. Near threshold $$\sigma$$($$\omega$$) is found to exhibit peculiar and interesting behavior. The first cross section accompanied by the transformation of the doubly-charged negative ion into a singly-charged one is exponentially small near the process threshold. The second cross section corresponds to the photodetachment of a singly-charged ion; it increases at the threshold as a power function of the kinetic energy of the photoelectron. These cross sections are of the same order as the photodetachment cross sections of atomic ions with the same electron affinity.

##### Elasto-optic Effect and Its Spatial Anisotropy in Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 Crystals

Bohdan Mytsyk, Yuriy Suhak, Nataliya Demyanyshyn, Oleh Buryy, Nataliya Syvorotka, Dmytro Sugak, Serhii Ubizskii, Holger Fritze

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 5, 26 May 2021, Page 164-180
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v5/8594D

An interferometric approach according to a single-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to investigate the photoelasticity of the Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) crystal. The highest number of sample orientations for piezo-optic studies was used to demonstrate the accuracy of piezo-optic coefficient determination. Basing on the matrices of piezo-optic coefficients and of elastic stiffness coefficients, all the coefficients pik of the elastic-optic matrix are computed. The acousto-optic efficiency is assessed for the highest value of pik coefficient. The data from CTGS are validated with the similar values for La3Ga5SiO14 (langasite) crystals. CTGS M2 = 1.66·10-15 s3/kg has the greatest acoustooptic figure of merit, which is two to three times higher, compared to langasite, and strontium borate, respectively and are frequently employed in the UV spectral range for acousto-optic light modulation.