Editor(s)

Dr. Thomas F. George
Chancellor / Professor, Department of Chemistry and Physics,  University of Missouri-St. Louis One University Boulevard St. Louis,  USA.

ISBN 978-93-90768-16-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-29-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include thermal treatment, chemical oxidation, X-ray diffraction, nanostructures, annealing,  source spectrum, optical measurements, spectral composition, wavelength, turbulence, optical wave measurements, conformal mapping, fisher statistics, real gas, atomic interaction, bond energy, equilibrium constant, elastic repulsion, coefficient of extinction, index of refraction, transmittance, reflectance, optical properties, CFD Modeling, plate heat exchangers, big bang theory, aerosol, planetary boundary layer, light emitting diode, motion compensated frequency, scannerless architecture, wave 3D coherent, motion sensitivity, Gravitational waves, double-slit experiment, wave-particle duality, mobile augmented reality, nanocrystalline layers, hybrid voltage control model, Artificial Bees Colony algorithm. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical sciences.

 

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Chapters


Nano-sized WO3 Structures via Novel Chemical Approach: Temperature Influence

Rhizlane Hatel, Mimouna Baitoul

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 1-7
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/7458D

Tungsten trioxide (WO3) has attracted considerable attention due to its promising and remarkable properties. In this study, tungsten carbide (WC) was used as starting material for WO3 nanostructures preparation. The obtained samples were annealed at different temperatures and were characterized by different techniques to confirm the transformation of WC to WO3 and to investigate the temperature effect on these nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed that the prepared WO3 nanostructures crystallized into a monoclinic phase after annealing at 500 and 600°C for 5 h in air atmosphere. The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images highlighted the temperature effect on the nanostructures morphologies. After annealing at 500°C the nanostructures have a rods-like shape with uniform distribution. However, under 600°C SEM image indicates the exceptional porous morphology, which consisted of hollow sphere-like shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the structural composition and the purity of the formed WO3. The experimental results proved that our simple approach offers a promising route to prepare WO3 nanostructures as high-performance materials for advanced applications.

 

It is considered how the source spectrum influences the measurement accuracy of optical wave arrival angles, as well as the estimation of the path-averaged structure parameter of the refractive index fluctuations. Two reasons that can cause the wavelength dependence of the variance of fluctuations of wave arrival angles are analyzed. The first one is connected with the fact that phases depend on a wavelength in the approximation of smooth perturbations. The second reason is associated with the wavelength dependence of the refractive index and, consequently, its fluctuations. All the methods based on scintillations of optical wave measurements allow one to work only with restricted weak intensity fluctuation, based on smooth perturbation approximation. Strict equations are obtained to take into account the influence of the source spectrum on the measurement accuracy of the variance of arrival angle fluctuations and, indirectly, on the estimation accuracy of the path-averaged refractive index structure parameter. It can be stated that for most radiation sources (even nonmonochromatic) the influence of the source spectral composition can be neglected.

A Very Rapid Scan for Hypocentre Foci Driven by a Conformal Transformation

G. R. Daglish

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 17-36
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/1636F

This paper aims to suggest and demonstrate a method whereby very rapid scans for the Hypocentre foci can take place in real-time or near real-time. These scans are executed by point-to-point (P2P) ray-tracers, which, for each depth-point in the scan construct rays from the depth-point in question to each of the active seismographs which are in possession of a P-wave or S-wave onset timing. The P2P tracers may employ any of a set of 1-D (radial) Earth velocity models. Two methods are available to construct the set of segments that are to form the rays: Varying the radius, or varying the subtended angle, in the construction. The crux of the method is to use a conformal complex mapping from a disc on the z-plane to a rectangular area on the w-plane. The required ray-traces can take place in the w-plane. The geometry developed for any ray can be transformed back into discoid form in the z-plane and ray-path timings and path-lengths can be extracted. The indicators chosen here to define the possible depth coordinates of the Hypocentre foci, during and after scanning are the Fisher F-statistic and Fisher z-transform It can be suggested that a conformal mapping from the w-plane rectangular strip can proceed to an ellipse, (and hence encompass spheroidal Earth geometry), on a u-plane via the discoid on the z-plane. Otherwise, this suggested scanning system encompasses a spherical Earth model only.

Thermal Physics of Clusters in Atomic Gases

Boris Sedunov

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 37-53
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/6810D

The chapter presents a review of the author's discovering in the cluster physics of equilibrium atomic gases. The pure atomic gas system has been deeply investigated experimentally and theoretically by many researchers, but the nature of clusters was poorly understood. The clusters are considered now as a new state of matter. To study them is both challenging and educative. The pure real atomic gas presents an advanced platform for thermodynamics education: It is the first step after the atomic ideal gas simplified model towards more realistic model accounting for the atomic interactions. The author bases his research on a wonderful feature of pure real atomic gases: The universal basic particles' chemical potential for atoms in all clusters. It permits to find the monomer fraction density from an experimental pressure dependence of the total density. The author's analysis is based on the gas potential energy density series expansion by the monomer fraction density. The author applies his computer aided analysis of precise thermophysical data to atomic gases to demonstrate the unknown and no trivial properties of clusters in them. For this analysis precise experimental thermophysical data have been taken from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) online Webbook. The found temperature dependences of the atomic interaction bond energies signal about the directional bonding of atoms in clusters near the triple point due to the lack of rotational symmetry of their electronic outer shells. The analysis accounts for the elastic repulsions’ contribution to the potential energy of the gas at elevated temperatures. The discovered anomalous density dependences of the constant volume heat capacity in gaseous Helium and Neon tell about unusual atomic interactions in clusters of these gases.

Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films for Smart Windows: Numerical Study and Improvement of Their Optical Properties

I. Derkaoui, M. Benkhali, M. Khenfouch, A. Rezzouk

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 54-62
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/7383D

In recent years, both monoclinic (M) and rutile (R) phase vanadium dioxide (VO2) has attracted considerable interest as a promising candidate for smart windows, owing to the reversible semiconductor-to-metal transition near room temperature. A numerical simulation of the optical properties of VO2 thin films, including index of refraction, coefficient of extinction, reflectance and transmittance, is reported in this work. For this purpose, we used the Model of Drude-Lorentz to calculate coefficients at from the optical parameters n and k using the determination of the dielectric constant ? ( , T). Given that the semiconductor-metal transition temperature of VO2 is 68°C, we studied the effect of thickness on the optical properties of VO2 thin films using transmittance simulations. Hence, a significant change in the optical properties of VO2 thin films has been revealed, which leads to many interesting applications, especially for smart windows.

The subject of this paper is turbulence modeling of fluid flow in channels of plate heat exchangers for heating domestic hot water in heating substation in Belgrade.

For testing of turbulence phenomena in the channels, this paper uses the standard K-? model of turbulence.

It is of particular importance that in this paper the modeling is made for different flow rates of fluids through channels, adopted in boundary conditions.

The rate of flow in the input area of the channels was taken as the assumed average values of 0.01 m / sec and 0.1 m / sec, which presupposed minimum and maximum values based on the measured values of these fluid velocities in the heat substations.

On the basis of these assumed speeds, the values of the exchanged kinetic energy and the character of the change in the intensity of the projections of these velocities in the direction of all three axes are obtained.

On the basis of these projections, we can determine the unsteadiness of the velocity and the return currents along these channels and in their contour surfaces as well as the "dead spots" in which there is no movement of the fluid.

This work presents the calculated values of the Reynolds number of the streamline for the assumption velocity of fluid in channels.

These phenomena can cause different problems in the transmission of heat and dirt in the channels of the plate heat exchangers where there is no circulation.

Therefore, the obtained results can serve as a basis for dimensioning and selection of heat exchangers as well as for determining their optimal working conditions.

The Big Bang – An Alternative Theory

Gerald Kessler

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 72-74
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/1748F

The Big Bang theory attempts to explain the origin of the universe from a very small and dense entity called a singularity. The most prevalent explanation is the inflation theory which posits a “metric” expansion of space [1,2] that initially  expands faster than the speed of lights and then continues to expand  This theory is disputed by some physicists [3]. Here is presented an alternative theory that the Big Bang resulted from a clash of two singularities.

Aerosols play an important role in the Earth’s radiation budget through the reflection of incoming solar radiation and formation of cloud droplets working as cloud condensation nuclei. The understanding on aerosol optical properties in troposphere, especially their behavior near the ground level, is still insufficient for precise evaluation of their impact. Although a sunphotometer can provide the aerosol optical thickness, its application is limited to daytime under near cloud free conditions. A visibility meter, on the other hand, can give the value of visibility, but the operation wavelength is limited to a single wavelength, e.g. 875 nm. To attain the multi-wavelength observation of aerosol extinction coefficient near the surface level, here we propose the use of a four-color light emitting diode (LED) source emitting at 455, 530, 590 and 625 nm as a light source for the long-path measurement of aerosol extinction. A near-horizontal light path with a round-trip distance of around 630 m has been established inside the campus of Chiba University. A collimated light beam is produced with a 130 mm diameter telescope, and the reflected beam from a retro-reflector is detected using a 200 mm diameter telescope connected to a photodiode. A sinusoidal wave modulation is applied to the LED source, and the resulting modulated signal amplitude is detected and recorded using a digital oscilloscope (Iwatsu, DS-5614A). The results of the recent observation are discussed in conjunction with the concurrent records of a visibility meter (Vaisala, PWD52) and a nephelometer (TSI3563) that can measure the aerosol scattering coefficient.

Study on Motion Compensated Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave 3D Coherent Imaging Ladar with Scannerless Architecture

Brian W. Krause, Bruce G. Tiemann, Philip Gatt

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 86-114
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/7502D

A principal difficulty of long dwell coherent imaging ladar is its extreme sensitivity to target or platform motion. This paper describes a motion compensated frequency modulated continuous wave 3D coherent imaging ladar method that overcomes this motion sensitivity, making it possible to work with nonstatic targets such as human faces, as well as imaging of targets through refractive turbulence. Key features of this method include scannerless imaging and high range resolution. The reduced motion sensitivity is shown with mathematical analysis and demonstration 3D images. Images of static and dynamic targets are provided demonstrating up to 600 × 800 pixel imaging with millimeter range resolution. The motion compensation decreases motion sensitivity by a factor of thousands to tens of thousands depending on the ratio of the carrier frequency to the waveform bandwidth.

An Experiment on Wave-Particle Duality

. Prashant

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 115-117
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/1832F

An intuitive way of performing young’s double slit experiment has been proposed which can mark an end to the long-lasting debate of wave-particle duality. Insights related to it have been derived from the understanding of nature which include a hypothesis. Observer effect went obsolete and observed result matches with classical physics results.

Research on Development of Physics Learning Media Based on Self-Efficacy Use Mobile Augmented Reality for Senior High School

Muhammad Nasir, Z. Fakhruddin, Rizo Budi Prastowo

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 118-124
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/7234D

It was found that the value of self efficacy in physics learning in high school (SMA) is still low in one school. Self-efficacy was found at the level of 48%. And this is supported by OECD data (3) which also states that the performance of Indonesian science more than 55% of students score below level 2 out of 5 levels. The development of self-efficacy media in learning physics astronomy is an effort made to improve students' self-efficacy. Media self-efficacy is designed using mobile augmented reality which is considered capable of giving students a better learning experience so as to be able to improve student learning abilities so that students' self-efficacy also increases. To be able to improve self-efficacy better this media must be supported by teacher assistance as a motivator to students so that the effects given are even better. This research can be an alternative solution in dealing with the problem of students' low self-efficacy.

Effect of Layer Thickness and Preparation Conditions on the Properties and Ethanol Sensitivity of ZnSe Thin Films

V. Dzhurkov, Z. Levi, D. Nesheva, T. Hristova-Vasileva

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 125-134
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/8080D

Nanocrystalline layers of ZnSe with thickness in the range 30-150 nm are deposited on Corning 7059 glass substrates at room temperature by thermal evaporation of ZnSe in vacuum. Periodically interrupted vapor deposition is used at various deposition rates. Some films are kept at ambient conditions for up to 60 days, others are annealed at 200° C and 400° C. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to investigate structure, morphology and optical properties of the films. Ethanol sensing experiments are carried out at room temperature in air and the results show an increase of the layers sensitivity with decreasing thickness and deposition rate. The sensitivity behavior is related to films porosity.

Hybrid Voltage Control Model for Hybrid Renewable Energy System

K. Mahendran, S. Velmurugan, P. Jeno Paul, C. Santhakumar, S. U. Prabha, V. Kumaresan

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 3, 9 March 2021, Page 135-160
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v3/6496D

This paper proposed a hybrid control model – based voltage control of Hybrid Energy System (HES) that includes both solar and wind energy conversion systems. The proposed hybrid voltage control model is the combination process of both the Artificial Bees Colony algorithm (ABC) and Proportional Integral controller (PI). The novelty of the proposed method is intelligent foraging behavior of honey bee swarm, which provides random reduction and ability to adapt complex optimization problems. Here, the ABC optimizes the gain parameters under various operating conditions using the minimized Square Error (SE). It considers the actual voltage outcome of the buck converter and the set point voltage. By using the optimized gain parameters, the PI controller is operated. Each separate energy conversion system is controlled by the separate proposed hybrid voltage control model. The proposed method is implemented in MATLAB/simulink platform and the performance is verified using the comparative analysis with the existing techniques. The comparison results prove the superiority of the proposed method.