Dr. Sebahattin Tüzemen
Professor, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-90768-01-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-09-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v2

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include  Fresnel reflection, quantized electromagnetic field, quantum correlators, normality, distribution functions, Shewhart control charts, Fraunhofer diffraction, two-dimensional Fourier transform, digital micro-image, mechanical twist, binary mixtures, phase equilibrium, nanocrystalline composites, high energy milling, electromagnetic wave, absorption, absorber and triple band absorber, conservation laws, projection postulate, quantum measurements, DNG metamaterial, Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, logical paradoxes, conformal mapping, lagrange control, spheroidal geometry, geodesic pathways, solid glass microspheres, epoxy matrix, wear resistance, mechanical properties, Lomax distribution, broadband detector, magnetic suspension, variable reluctance motor, gravimetric calibration, Vicker’s micro hardness method. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical sciences.


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On of Quantum Theory of Fresnel Reflection

B. A. Veklenko

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 1-7

A new method for solution of quantum electrodynamics equations is proposed. This method makes it possible to avoid the procedure of breaking the quantum correlators and bridges the gap between the theories of Maxwell gases and the theories of superconductivity and super fluidity. The Maxwell gas interacting with a transverse quantized electromagnetic field is considered. As an example the quantum theory of Fresnel reflection is considered. It is shown that even outside the scattering layer, there are photon states associated with the scattering layer by quantum correlations. In particular, such photons form two reflected beams previously unknown.

Assessing the Role of Distributions and Control Charts in Metrology

Yu. Adler, T. Polkhovskaja, V. Filichkina, V. Shper

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 8-13

In this paper we suggest a radical change in the existing metrology paradigm for measurement data analysis, namely a rejection of searching the appropriate Distribution Function (DF) in favor of using nonparametric methods for uncertainty estimation in all circumstances. This way we can avoid the limiting and improbable assumptions that often lead to invalid conclusions. We also propose the use of Shewhart Control Charts (ShCC) as an indispensable method to assess and monitor the current state of a measurement system. This approach has many advantages and does not require any assumptions about specific type of DF.

The paper proposes a non-hardware diffraction method for computer control of the filament twist value using a program of two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform of a digital micro-image of the filament under investigation. The method consists in the sequential application of a two-dimensional Fourier transform. First, using this program, the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern from the micro-image is calculated, then using the same program, the second diffraction pattern is similarly calculated from the image of the first. The second diffraction pattern does not contain speckles, which allows you to calculate the twist of the thread automatically with the output of digital values ??on the display. The efficiency of the method is illustrated on model samples of twisted yarn and samples of industrial synthetic yarns.

Equations describing the experimental data on liquid-vapor equilibrium in binary mixtures of methane with argon, carbon dioxide and helium have been compiled. The equations describe the dependence of pressure of liquid or vapor on temperature and composition. When compiling them, the program selected most significant coefficients of the equations. The standard deviations of experimental values of pressure from the calculated values range from 1.8 to 5.0%. The equations make it possible to determine the composition or temperature of the phases at known values of other parameters of phase equilibrium. These equations would be valuable for the computer-aided optimization of calculations for separating binary mixtures and creating automated systems for controlling air separation facilities.

Detailed Multiband Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Study on Nanocrystalline (1-x)NiFe2O4/(x)BaTiO3 Composites

E. Sukirman, Y. Sarwanto, S. Ahda, Y. Taryana, S. Purwanto

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 35-48

Multiband electromagnetic wave absorption have been studied on nanocrystalline (1-x)NiFe2O4/ (x)BaTiO3 composites. The samples were synthesized by solid state reaction from the powder raw materials of BaTiO3 (BTO) and NiFe2O4 (NFO) compounds using high energy milling (HEM) instrument. Then the BTO and NFO were calcined and manually mixed with a weight percent ratio of NFO:BTO was 0:100, 34:66, 50:50, 60:40, and 100:0, hereinafter referred to K-1, K-2, K-3, K-4 and K-5, respectively. Then the five samples were pressed into pellets and then sintered. Then the five composite samples were characterized to determine whether or not the phase of the synthesized materials have been formed as expected. Therefore, a qualitative analysis with X-ray diffraction technique using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) was performed. X-ray diffraction data was analyzed with the help of GSAS software. The magnetic properties of the material were observed with the aid of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) instrument. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the samples show single phase and free from impurities. The sample K1 can be indexed to a single cubic crystal structure of NFO with a space group of Fd-3m, No. 227. While, the sample K5 can be indexed to a single tetragonal crystal structure of BTO with a space group of P4mm, No. 99. While K2, K3, and K4 is a composite consisting of two phases, namely NFO and BTO. All the samples show soft magnetic performance. The mass magnetization is in the range of 20.0–49.0 emu/g. The electromagnetic parameters of the composites were measured by a vector network analyser in the frequency range of 2 GHz to 18 GHz. The results indicated that (1-x) NiFe2O4 / (x) BaTiO3 composites display three-band electromagnetic wave absorption. The 0.5NiFe2O4 / 0.5BaTiO3 composite displays three-band reflection loss which is larger than the other one and the three-band reflection loss are almost the same, i.e., below the -15 dB. From these experiments it can be concluded that the 0.5NiFe2O4 / 0.5BaTiO3 composite is good candidate for electro-magnetic wave absorption.

Advanced Study on Very High Q-factor Based on G-shaped Resonator Type Metamaterial Absorber

Khalid Saeed Lateef Al-Badri

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 49-55

High Q-factor based on absorption can be achieved by tuning (the reflection and the transition percentage). In this work, the simple design and simulated in S-band have been investigated. The simulation results of G-shape resonator are shown triple band of absorption peaks (60%, 91.5% and 70.3%) at resonance frequency 2.7 GHz, 3.26 GHz, and 4.05 GHz respectively. The results exhibited very high of the Q-factor (271) at resonance frequency (3.26 GHz). The high Q-factor can be used to enhance the sensor sensing, narrowband band filter and image sensing. The proposed G-shaped resonator has significant potential in practical applications, especially when it scaling to THz such as detection, imaging and sensing.

Validity of Conservation Laws in Quantum Processes

María Esther Burgos

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 56-62

The validity of conservation laws is analyzed in spontaneous processes and in measurement processes. It is shown that conservation laws are strictly valid in processes ruled by the Schrödinger equation. By contrast, in processes ruled by the projection postulate they have only a statistical sense.

Recent Study on Patch Antenna Miniaturization Using CSRR

Varindra Kumar

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 63-78

A novel metamaterial structure has been proposed for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) applications. A patch antenna with dimension of 18 mm x 13.9 mm and resonance at 5 GHz has been designed and the effect of Double Negative (DNG) metamaterial loading for the patch size reduction as well as a lowering in resonance frequency for the fixed size patch antenna has been proposed. A size reduction of 72.5% in the patch antenna has been obtained with the loading of this metamaterial structure as well as the effect of loading the metamaterial shows that without reducing the size, the patch antenna can work at 3.7 GHz resonance, providing a lowering in resonance frequency by 26%. The metamaterial structure consists of two concentric loops with an outer radius of 3.1 mm, the width of the ring is 1.0 mm and the split is 0.5 mm and has been designed over a 1.57 mm thick Fr4 substrate. The bending effect of the patch antenna with and without metamaterial loading and its comparison with the planar patch antenna has been also shown here. The metamaterial structure has shown its resonance at 5 GHz and its permittivity and permeability behavior over the desired frequency range has been plotted. The simulation of traditional patch antenna and patch antenna over metamaterial has been compared for its return loss, VSWR, gain and efficiency. The design has shown that the loading of CSRR reduces the patch size by 72.5% while loading the CSRR for the same size patch lowers the resonant frequency by 26%. Although the full field solver tool provides a circuit response within its 3D environment the simulation is slow and resource consuming. Finally a spice circuit for the S parameter of the metamaterial, patch antenna and patch antenna loaded with metamaterial has been obtained using Matlab and ADS for its equivalence to 3D field solver and its comparison has been plotted for its verification. Hence an equivalent spice circuit and RLGC parameters for the CSRR, patch antenna with and without CSRR loading has been obtained for its inclusion in electrical circuit.

Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem and Universal Physics Theories

Uri Ben-Ya’acov

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 79-89

An ultimate universal theory – a complete theory that accounts, via few and simple first principles, for all the phenomena already observed and that will ever be observed – has been, and still is, the aspiration of most physicists and scientists. Yet, a basic principle that is embodied in the results of Gödel’s incompleteness theorems is that self-referencing leads to logical conflict or failure, as in the liar paradox or Russell’s paradox. In physics theories self-referencing necessarily occurs when it is realized that the observer is also a participant in the experienced phenomena – we, humans, are part of the universe while observing it. Therefore self-referencing, and consequently logical conflicts, are unavoidable, and any theory pretending to be universal is bound to be incomplete.

This paper concerns a method for performing a very rapid scan for the localization of the foci of Earthquakes (Hypocenters) while taking the Earth spheroidal geometry directly into account. This scanning process is divided into two parts: firstly the geodesic pathways are laid down on the spheroidal surface between the known epicenter and each of the active sensors (sensors for which a substantial number of P-wave onsets are known) and then secondly, the scan can take place using these pathways as guides for the P2P ray tracing necessary to form the scan itself.

This research work is carried out to study the mechanical and wear behaviour of inorganic particle filled polymers. The usage of polymers especially epoxy resin is of considerable significance in the engineering field for a substantial period of time. Epoxy matrix filled with varying ratios of Solid glass microspheres (SGM) were fabricated using mechanical stirring process. The weight percentage of SGM were varied from 0 – 30, with a step size of 5wt%. Effect of weight percentage of SGM particles on bending strength, compression strength and compression modulus of the composites was evaluated. The Wear resistance of the composites against En-32 steel disk, was evaluated in terms of mass loss for various ratios of SGM using pin-on-disk test rig. Besides these, density of the composites was also evaluated. Mechanical and wear properties of the composites were improved by adding suitable percentage of the filler. Moreover density increased with the increase in percentage of SGM particles in the composites. Thus, the mechanical and wear properties of the epoxy can be improved by including solid glass microspheres in suitable percentage.

On 2-Parameter Estimation of Lomax Distribution

Jubran Abdulameer Labban

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 114-120

Preference among the three methods which are (Moment Method, Maximum Likelihood Method, Term Omission Method) that selected to estimate parameters of Lomax distribution is the purpose of this paper, where we using simulation of different sample sizes (n=25, 150, 250) and different values of parameters using Mean Square Error and Total Deviation criterions.

Modelling an Experiment to Measure the Speed of Gravity in Short Distances

C. Frajuca, F. S. Bortoli

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 121-130

In order to investigate the behavior of gravitational signals while travelling through a medium an
experiment was designed, aimed at measuring the speed of these signals over short distances. The
experiment contains 2 sapphire devices that behave as a detector, which are suspended in vacuum
and cooled down to 4.2 K. The amplitude of the detecting device is measured by an ultralow, phase-
noise microwave signal that uses resonance in the whispering gallery modes. Since sapphire has
a quite high mechanical Q, the detection band is expected to be small, thus reducing the detection
sensitivity. A new shape for the detecting device is presented in this work, yielding a detection band
of several hundred Hertz. With the aid of a Finite Element Program the normal mode frequencies of
the detector are determined.

Ultra-High-Speed Variable Reluctance Motor (VRM) Applied on Gravimetric Calibration Device with Magnetic Suspension: An Advance Study

E. Sanchez, C. Frajuca, D. Mariano da Silva, F. S. Bortoli, C. A. Fabrcio Junior

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 2, 3 March 2021, Page 131-142

Variable Reluctance Motors (VRM) have great advantages for applications in the most diverse areas
of the industry and equipment, due to its versatility, robustness, stability and the possibility of precise
control of rotation, power and torque. In view of these advantages, it was decided to develop and
simulate this type of motor for the on-screen prototype, which is intended for the calibration of
gravimeters, intended for the detection of gravitational waves through the effect of these waves on
rotating objects in ultra-high rotations of the order of 500,000 rpm. The proposed device requires
a 1: 10,000 rpm error control, which will be possible due to the stability characteristics of the MRV.
Due to the extremely low permissible vibration, the system uses magnetic bearings of the Lenz type
in the rotor, with neodymium magnets interacting with the aluminum shaft, ensuring low friction and
vibration. All of these aspects can be simulated using Matlab / Simulink, allowing a MRV performance
perspective on the prototype. The robustness of the SRM coupled with the advances observed
in todays microelectronics and power electronics are key to success in screen design and future
detection of gravitational waves.

Ruminant fasciolosis infection is a serious problem in animal production, especially in Indonesia. Fasciola gigantica is parasitic species, also called liver trematode, is endemic in Malang district with higher rate of infection. The investigation was aimed to identify the prevalence of fascioliasis in Malang District, East Java during Eid Qurban 2019. Data was collected from 68 cutting points in 9 sub-districts. A total of 265 cows, 895 goats, and 112 sheep were analyzed based on questioner emphasis on age, origin, body condition, and post mortem abnormalities. The prevalence of fasciolosis was higher in cattle (57%) than goat (18%) in Gondanglegi sub-district Meanwhile, in Wajak, there was 100% fasciolosis in sheep.  Overall, total of 86% of fasciolosis in cattle have good body conditions came from Malang District. About 82% in goat and 78% in sheep infected came from Malang District too. Abnormalities in liver were found in adult cattle (2-3 years) about 53%, adult goat and sheep (1-1,5 years) were 78% and 89%. Adult livestock is more resistant to Fasciolosis infections. The monitoring of fasciolosis infections in large and small animals in Malang district must be improved. The fecal egg examination should be carried out in the endemic area to understanding the distributions of fascioliasis and control the disease by taking educations to people about public health impact.


In this depiction, the single crystals of tris thiourea zinc magnesium sulphate were synthesized and obtained from an acidic solution by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal X ray diffraction was carried out to make out the lattice parameters and structure of the crystals. SEM analysis shows the surface morphology of the grown crystals. FTIR and FT Raman studies confirm the presence of the expected functional groups. The absorption and transmission spectrum of the crystal shows the lower cutoff wavelength of the crystal at 230.4 nm. The thermal stability of TZME crystal was confirmed by TG-DSC analysis. The mechanical behavior and strength of the crystals were reviewed by Vicker’s micro hardness method and revealed that this crystal material has good mechanical strength.