Editor(s)

Dr. Thomas F. George
Chancellor / Professor,
Department  of Chemistry and Physics,  University of Missouri-St. Louis One University Boulevard St. Louis,  USA.

ISBN 978-93-90149-80-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90149-81-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include  relativistic formulas, dark energy, dark matter, total suspended particulates, indoor-outdoor air pollution, cloud technologies, agricultural technology management, models and algorithms, precision farming, negative mass, energy angle, special relativity, mass attenuation coefficient, synchrotron radiation, severe plastic deformation, nanostructured metals, dislocation acoustic relaxations, low temperatures, synthetic hydrocarbons, thermal decomposition, thermal stability, Imaginary numbers, invisible universes, multiverse, hyperverse, heat transfer, artificial roughnesses, discrete rib, gap arrangement, artificial geometry, Cajuput oil, Optical HSR, beam splitting/combining, traffic performance, port locking. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical sciences.


Chapters


What Physical World do We Live in?

Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 1-11
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/6009D

It is shown that the hypothesis of the Monoverse corresponding to the existing version of the special theory of relativity is erroneous. The existing version of the special theory of relativity itself is also erroneous. A revised version of it is presented, the relativistic formulas of which allowed creating a hypothesis of the hidden Multiverse. The hypothesis of the hidden Multiverse is based on the general scientific principle of the physical reality of imaginary numbers proved by the author. It is shown that this hypothesis, in contrast to numerous other hypotheses of the Multiverse and the hypothesis of the Monoverse, is already verifiable. And the experimental proof of the reality of the existence of the hidden Multiverse is the phenomenon of dark matter and dark energy. Other experimental evidence is also proposed. As a result of processing the data obtained by the WMAP and Planck spacecraft, the structure of the hidden Multiverse, which turned out to be quaternion, was determined, and its parameters were determined. According to these calculations, the hidden Multiverse contains from twenty to twenty-two parallel universes, of which five to six neighboring universes create the phenomenon of dark matter, and the rest of the parallel universes create the phenomenon of dark energy. In addition, it has been shown that our hidden Multiverse is adjacent to other Multiverses, which are inaccessible to our observations not only by electromagnetic, but also by gravitational manifestations, with which in aggregate it forms the Hyperverse.

Lagos State, Nigeria, like most megacities globally, is faced with deteriorating air quality as a result of rapid industrialization, accelerated urbanization, economic development, unprecedented population growth, poor town planning and lax/non enforcement of laws governing air quality standards. This study aims at investigating Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), its elemental concentrations and source emission signatures in the indoor and outdoor microenvironments of a residential area in Lagos State. Samples were collected from July 2016 to April 2017 with the aid of a portable air sampler (Hi-Q CF – 901). Thereafter, the weight of the samples were determined by gravimetric method. The elemental content of the samples were then extracted by wet acid digestion method and quantified by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic (AAS) method. In order to identify the probable sources of pollutants emissions to the study area, the elemental concentrations obtained, were subjected to Enrichment Factor Analysis (EF) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). To further elucidate the relationship among pollutants in the sampling sites, correlations analysis, cluster analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were carried out. The result of the mass concentrations of the particulates obtained revealed high base-line concentrations during both seasons of the sampling period. During the wet season, a concentration range of 833.33-1944.45 µgm-3 and 1111.11-1944.45 µgm-3 was obtained in the indoor and outdoor micro environment respectively. While, during the dry season, a concentration range of 1111.11-2777.78 µgm-3 and 1388.89-2222.22 µgm-3 was obtained in the indoors and outdoors. The PCA analysis identified road dust, combustion activities and marine as the predominant sources of pollutants emission in the environment. The results of the correlations analysis and cluster analysis were in agreement with the results of the EF and PCA. The results of ANOVA showed that, there was no spatial variation in the elemental concentration of most of the metals (P>0.05). In conclusion, results obtained revealed that, pollutants concentration in the study area were higher than air quality standard limits.

Study on Expert Strategic Management Systems in Precision Farming

Ilya M. Mikhaylenko, Valery N. Timoshin

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 34-44
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7142D

When assessing the modern Internet of Things market, one should consider equipment, solutions, applications connected into a single network along the entire product chain, including the end user. In this work, such linking is carried out on the basis of cloud information technologies. Through these technologies, the intellectualization of agricultural technology management is implemented by creating expert management decision support systems (DSS). The aim of the work is to consider the methodology for constructing the DSS of strategic management in precision farming systems, where this type of management has not been implemented to date. We refer to this type of management the task of forming strategies for the introduction of mineral fertilizers and ameliorants of prolonged action for all years of crop rotations of various types. To solve the problem, an algorithm for the formation of optimal strategies for the introduction of mineral fertilizers and ameliorants is substantiated, which is implemented in the analytical automated control system for agricultural technologies (ACSAT), through which a knowledge base (KB) is formed, transmitted from the cloud system to local DSS. The pattern recognition method is used to select the best option from the knowledge base. The technique is tested on arbitrary initial conditions of local systems, including extreme combinations of initial conditions. Based on the analysis of optimality losses associated with the mismatch of the initial conditions on local DSS and knowledge base, a methodology for controlling the formation of knowledge base, aimed at reducing these losses, has been substantiated.

Energetic Angle

Edward Tannous

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 45-64
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7088D

This article presents a physical model, which describes the ideas of special relativity, in a more rational, logical, simple and understandable manner, while using basic mathematical tools. The model is based on Albert Einstein’s formula, which describes the “rest” energy of a body with mass m, given by the formula E = mc2. Based on this formula, and in accordance with the theory of special relativity, we present here a model of a body, moving at a constant velocity in space with speed equal to the speed of light in space-time, determined by an “energy angle” and negative mass. This model also presents a method for creating negative mass, a calculating method for the relative velocity, and a method for calculating energy and momentum, in a completely elastic collision and plastic collision, differing from contemporary nowadays methods, using classical and modern physics. In addition, the new model solves better the problems and paradoxes known in special relativity physics, such as the Twin Paradox and others.

All this in Part 1, in Part 2 we will discuss the application of the model to the body under the influence of gravitational forces and in Part 3 we will see how phenomena in quantum physics can be explained according to the same model.

Study on X-ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients of Nb2O5 over the Energy Range 18.9132- 19.6882

G. Manjula, S. Jyothsna, A. Mahesh Kumar, Bunty Rani Roy, Ashok Kumar Yadav, A. S. Nageswara Rao

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 65-69
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7151D

X-ray attenuation measurements near the absorption edge using radioactive source are very limited. We use the Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to measure the mass attenuation coefficient of Nb2O5 Niobium compound in the X-ray energy range 18.9132 - 19.6882 keV. The results represent the most extensive experimental data set for Nb2O5 and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the region of extended x-ray absorption fine structure. Comparison of  the  results  with  tabulations  of  calculated photo  electric  absorption  coefficients indicate  the differences between the calculated and observed values with the theoretical predictions.

Analysis of Data on the Evolution of the Dislocation Structure of Nanostructured Zirconium Obtained by the Low-temperature Acoustic Technique

P. P. Pal-Val, A. P. Rybalko, L. N. Pal-Val, E. N. Vatazhuk

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 70-90
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7268D

The temperature dependences of acoustic properties of nanostructured and polycrystalline zirconium are investigated in the temperature range 100 - 340 K. The effect of severe plastic deformation and subsequent annealing on key parameters of the Koiwa-Hasiguti acoustic relaxation in zirconium is studied in detail. It is established that due to intensive plastic deformation the relaxation strength considerably increases and the temperature and the width of the corresponding relaxation peak systematically decrease with reduction of the mean grain size in the samples. Annealing leads to a partial recovery of the relaxation strength and the peak temperature back to the initial values in undeformed samples but the width of the relaxation peak shows an additional decrease. The majority of the effects observed can be explained by changes in dislocation subsystems of the samples during intensive plastic deformation and annealing. An influence of a random scatter of the relaxation time on the main parameters of the Koiwa-Hasiguti peak is established using the statistical analysis based on the lognormal distribution. It is shown, that the parameter b of the lognormal distribution determines the width, height and asymmetry of the peak and also allows estimating the relaxation strength from the peak height. An algorithm of retrieving of the parameter b from experimental data is presented.

Thermophysical Properties and Thermal Stability of High-Density Frame Hydrocarbons

A. A. Molokanov, L. S. Yanovskiy, A. I. Kazakov, N. A. Plishkin, N. I. Varlamova

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 91-98
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7237D

The vapor pressure, enthalpy and entropy of evaporation, boiling point, critical parameters and kinetics of thermal decomposition of four high-density frame and spiranic hydrocarbons of interest for use as aircraft synthetic fuels or their components have been investigated. The data obtained in the research are necessary both at the stage of creating new fuels and for improving existing fuel compositions.

Phenomenon of Dark Space

Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 99-116
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/6473D

The phenomena of dark matter and dark energy are the most significant scientific discoveries of the 20th century in astrophysics. But until very recently they were completely inexplicable.

And nevertheless, attempts to explain them still continue to be made mainly with the help of research at the Large Hadron Collider. At the present time in astrophysics it is generally accepted that the phenomena of dark matter and dark energy can be explained by the existence of some still unknown physical entities only in our visible universe. Moreover, this assumption seems to be quite reasonable, since the Monoverse hypothesis following from the postulate about non-exceedance of the speed of light in the special theory of relativity, leaves no place for dark matter and dark energy nowhere, except in our visible universe. However, in fact, this assumption is erroneous, because, as shown in the article, dark matter and dark energy are just gravitational images of invisible parallel universes coexisting with our visible universe in the Multiverse, which is therefore called hidden. The study, which made it possible to prove this, was carried out using previously unknown radio-electronic experiments that proved the general scientific principle of the physical reality of imaginary numbers. And this principle in the existing version of the special theory of relativity refuted the postulate of non-exceeding the speed of light, as well as the statement following from it about the existence of the Monoverse. It also made it possible to detect the fallacy of existing relativistic formulas and correct them. And from the corrected relativistic formulas the existence of the hidden Multiverse follows. Moreover, the mathematical analysis of the experimental data obtained by the WMAP and Planck spacecraft made it possible to prove that in nature, in addition to the invisible universes of the hidden Multiverse, there are other invisible universes connected with it through portals, creating the phenomenon of dark space. And the Multiverses of the dark space together with the hidden Multiverse form the Hyperverse. The article shows that the existence of invisible universes included in these Multiverses can be experimentally proved by astronomical observations in portals.

Artificial roughnesses in the form of ribs are an advantageous technique to increase solar air heaters' warmth efficiency. This research work presents new roughness utilized in a roughened channel and assesses the effective efficiency for a gap of inclined discrete rib with staggered connection geometry. A strong system for enhancing the heat transfer between the roughened plate and the working fluid is the use of artificial geometry on the absorber roughened surface. The present new roughness geometry has parameters such as roughness pitch of rib of 8.0, attack angle of 75°, gap positions are varied between 0.3 & 0.1 – 0.3 & 0.4, aspect proportion of 8.0, rib height of 0.045 and rib gap width of 1.0. The Reynolds number range of 3000-14000. The maximum improvement coefficient of friction (ƒ) and Nusselt Number (Nu) is achieved as 3.43 and 3.03 respectively, compared to the smooth channel. For the combined gap position of 0.3 & 0.3, a higher THP is achieved.

Assessment of Quality and Chemical Composition of Cajuput Oil from Moluccas and Papua

S. Idrus, M. S. Radiena, . Sumarsana, H. Smith

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 126-135
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7071D

Melaleuca leucadendron Linn is a type of cajuput oil producer was found in the Moluccas are mostly on the Buru Island and West Seram, while Asteromyrtus brasii is a type that is found in Wasur National Park, Merauke, Papua. The main product of cajuput plants is cajuput oil that obtained from distillation of cajuput leaves. The main markets for cajuput oil include The United States, Japan, Singapore, France and the Netherlands. This study aims to decide on the chemical content and physical properties of cajuput oil that distilled from Melaleuca leucadindron leaves from Moluccas and A. brasii which grow in meet Wasur National Park. Analysis of the chemical content of essential oils was carried out using the Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer method. Physical properties analysis was carried out using the method according to SNI 06-3954-2006. The test results showed that the quality of cajuput oil from Melaleuca leucadendron the SNI 06-3954-2006 standard, while type A. brasii did not meet the quality requirements based on SNI 06-3954-2006. The results obtained from the test using the GCMS method showed that there were 26 peaks with the highest peak being 1.8 cineole. The content of 1.8 cineole from Central of Moluccas at 55.22%, Buru Island at 61.69%, West Barat at 70.22% and Wasur National Park at 34.88%.

Studies on Optical High-Availability Seamless Redundancy (OHSR)

Ibraheem Raed Altaha, Jong Myung Rhee

Newest Updates in Physical Science Research Vol. 1, 15 February 2021, Page 136-155
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nupsr/v1/7459D

The standard high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) protocol utilizes duplicated frame copies of each sent frame for zero fail over time. This means that even in cases of a node or link failure, the destination node will receive at least one copy of the sent frame, resulting in no network downtime. However, the standard HSR is mostly based on the electrical signal connection inside the node, which leads to the production of considerable latency at each node due to frame processing. Therefore, in a large scale HSR ring network, the accumulated latencies become significant and can often restrict the mission-critical real-time application of HSR. In this chapter, we present a novel design for optical HSR (OHSR) that uses beam splitting/combining techniques. The proposed OHSR passes the frames directly to adjacent nodes without frame processing at each node, thereby theoretically generating no latency in any node. Various simulations for network samples have been made to validate the OHSR design and its performance which shows that the OHSR outperforms the standard HSR. Also we introduce port locking (PL) algorithm for improving HSR unicast traffic performance for connected-ring topology.