Prof. Shi-Hai Dong,
Department of Physics, School of Physics and Mathematics, National Polytechnic Institute, Building 9, Unit Professional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, A. P. 07738, Mexico D. F., Mexico.

ISBN 978-93-5547-342-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-350-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ntpsr/v6


This book covers key areas of Physical Science. The contributions by the authors include intrinsic frequency, Membrane technology, helical symmetry, mass density, schrodinger equation, Electromagnetic radiations, photoelectric effect,  fuzzy quantum probability, fuzzy wave function, membership function, membership degree amplitude, fuzzy probability amplitude, validation accuracy, coronavirus infection, Bernstein inequality, Erdos-lax inequality, polynomials, maximum modulus, Evaporation, crystal growth, electro-optics, Maredan clay, heterogeneous catalyst, biodiesel, photocatyalatic activity, viscosity, nuclear fusion, Euler's equation, astrophysics, electromagnetic interaction, particle physics, classical color theory, Azimuthal distributions, anode blocks, vacuum microwave sources, collision regulations, multiple ship situations, gravity quantization, cosmological constant, dark energy, dark matter, Binary asteroid, surface equilibrium, surface dynamics, surface mass shedding, Newton gravitational constant, angular velocity, cosmology, extended space model, gravitational impact, non-zero vacuum pressure. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of  Physical Science.

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Differential Equation of Particle Motion with Helical Structure

Chen Sen Nian

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 1-11

Obviously, electromagnetic radiations are waves. The photoelectric effect resulted in A. Einstein to postulate that light of frequency V itself consists of individual quanta of energy  \(\epsilon = hv\) . To follow Einstein's direction, we try to treat a thin beam of conical wave train with energy hv as a photon and observe what happens. We first show that such a train must be covered by a flawless reflection membrane with zero rest mass as the lateral boundary.  Then we demonstrate that there is a pair of symmetrical spirals of maximum stress \(\Sigma max \infty E^{2} \) that divides the membrane into equal parts with same amount of different charges. The membrane will break into two \(\pm\)  charged particles of spin h/2 , if the field is sufficiently enhanced and the mass and charge criteria are met.The helical symmetry of the charges and mass distribution inside has been established. Then we show that the spin of this class of particles is usually made up of two parts: translational motion plus extra self-rotation due to the spiral structure's translational motion. We finally demonstrated that the differential equation of motion particle's inner system satisfied looks like Schrodinger equation, despite the fact that the wave function interpretation is distinct.

The goal of this study is to integrate fuzzy mathematics and quantum mechanics to seek deeper cosmic principles. The concept of fuzzy wave function is proposed to represent the fuzzy quantum probability by utilizing fuzzy mathematics to blur the probability (wave) of quantum mechanics. By applying the non-fuzzy formula of fuzzy quantity and the Schrödinger wave equation of quantum mechanics, the membership function equation is constructed to describe the evolution of the fuzzy wave function. The concept of membership degree amplitude is introduced to calculate fuzzy probability amplitude, and the membership degree amplitude equation is derived. Some important concepts in fuzzy mathematics are also illustrated.

Involution Receptive Field Network for COVID-19 Diagnosis

M. Dhruv, R. Sai Chandra Teja, R. Sri Devi, S. Nagesh Kumar

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 29-37

COVID-19 is a new infectious illness that has been sweeping the globe since its emergence, causing severe pneumonia-related respiratory failure. From the Large COVID-19 CT scan slice dataset, the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), Normal, and COVID-19 Computed Tomography (CT) scan images are identified using the Involution Receptive Field Network. For better embedding representation in latent dimension for CT scan slices, N-pair contrastive loss is introduced during the training of the network. The proposed lightweight Involution Receptive Field Network-Medium (InRFNet-M) uses a Receptive Field structure to improve feature map extraction. It is spatially specific and channel-agnostic. The InRFNet-M model evaluation results reveal a high level of validation accuracy (99 percent).  With high accuracy and recall scores, the proposed InRFNet-M: Involution Receptive Field Network-Medium has demonstrated efficient classification. 

Inequalities Concerning Maximum Modulus of Higher Order Derivative of Complex Polynomials

Kshetrimayum Krishnadas , Chanam Barchand Singh

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 38-46

Let  P(z) be a complex polynomial of degree n. The problem of best approximation involving it’s derivative p’(z)  under different restrictions on the zeros had been attracting many, including renowned scientists and mathematicians like Mandeleev, Markov brothers and Bernstein. Their works had been studied extensively by many mathematicians which resulted in rich collection of inequalities concerning complex polynomials.  In this article, we discuss in brief, a summary of inequalities involving maximum modulus of higher order derivatives of complex polynomials

Diverse molar concentrations of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate crystals doped with Glycine (GADP) have been generated using different processes, including slow evaporation, rotation, and Sankaranarayanan - Ramasamy (SR) procedures. ADP crystals have found many applications in Non-linear optics, electro-optics, and transducer devices. On the developed GADP crystals, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) researches have been widely examined. The extra peaks in the FTIR spectrum that correspond to the functional groups of Glycine reveal the interaction between ADP and the dopant. The presence of all functional groups in the substance is confirmed by FTIR's standard spectrum statistics. When compared to the conventional slow evaporation method created Glycine doped ADP crystals, the spectra for ADP crystals doped with Glycine grown by Rotation and SR procedures had identical peaks with minimal variance.

The acid or base of a solid surface is a fascinating element of surface structure that is crucial in the fields of ion exchange and heterogeneous catalysis. The use of natural clay as a heterogeneous catalyst is due to its acidity, however the acidity of the natural clay is not sufficient to be used especially in the esterification of free fatty acids into biodiesel. The objectives of this study were to synthesize catalyst of Maredan clay activated with sulfuric acid and to characterize the surface acidity by the Boehm titration and pyridine vapour adsorption method. The impregnation method was used to activate Maredan clay with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 M). The results showed that with the addition of sulfuric acid concentration, the total acidity of the clay catalyst increased with a maximum yield of 0.6483 mmol/g obtained by using Boehm titration method and 1.1137 mmol/g catalyst by using pyridine vapor adsorption method. The acid site of the Maredan clay catalyst activated by sulfuric acid was identified as the Lewis acid site using FTIR analysis of the pyridine vapour adsorption spectra.

Determination of Photocatalytic Behaviour of ZnS for Dye Degradation

Bharati N. Patil

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 63-70

Transition metal sulphides, particularly ZnS, have recently received a lot of attention due to its unique catalytic properties. ZnS is a promising material for different applications such as photocatalysts, photodetectors, gas sensors, piezoelectric sensors and ultraviolet lasers. Due to the rapid formation of electron–hole pairs by photo-excitation, these experiments have indicated that ZnS nanocrystals are good photo catalysts. It has been discovered that adding surfactant to the synthesis of ZnS causes a phase transition from cubic to wurtzite. ZnS is made in this study utilizing a hydrothermal technique using Ethylene diamine as a surfactant. X-ray diffractions (XRD), XPS, and UV/VIS spectra were used to evaluate the photophysical properties of the prepared sample. Photo catalytic breakdown of industrial waste under UV irradiation was used to determine the photo activity of produced ZnS  with surfactant. The photocatalytic activity of ZnS without surfactant was also tested under the identical conditions. In comparison to ZnS without surfactant, ZnS with surfactant has greater catalytic activity.

The Catastrophe of Rapidly Rotating Fluids: A Recent Study

Elie W'ishe Sorongane

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 71-82

When investigating rotating fluid systems (such as stars or gas giant planets) in astrophysics, the rotation effect is sometimes overlooked. The fact that the numerous stars in our universe orbit about themselves at relatively slow speeds explains this. When describing the interior structure of an astrophysical entity, however, the speed of rotation of the fluid contained in the star's core might reach extremely high numbers. It is thus impossible to ignore centrifugal forces in the fluid motion equation. We provide a simplified but overarching examination of fast rotating fluid systems in this paper. The centrifugal force is then included in Euler's equation. The solution to this equation exposes a unique feature of this sort of system: "the catastrophe of rapidly rotating fluids." You will then notice that the configuration where the fluid is in rapid rotation is the one that best describes the dynamics in the cores of stars. This new property of rapidly rotating fluids will be used by the nuclear engineer for the construction of a new type of nuclear fusion reactor.

Implementation of a Theoretical Approach for Electromagnetic Interaction

Elie W'ishe Sorongane

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 83-91

With the exception of the electromagnetic interaction, which also includes repulsion events, all four fundamental interactions describe attraction phenomena. If the matter that makes up our Universe obeys the same physical laws, the four fundamental interactions should all exhibit the same behavior: attraction or repulsion. To characterize the electromagnetic interaction, a new approach termed the binding cord approach was developed in this paper. Electromagnetic repulsion will be described as a result of attraction in this new method. The binding cord approach will allow us to explain the stability and instability of particles only by knowing their respective charges and spins.

Study on Quantum Color Theory

Elie W'ishe Sorongane

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 92-102

An object's color is determined by the color of the light it reflects. Color is thus not a property of the item but of the light that lights it; objects are simply "color thieves”. The reflected light, on the other hand, is subject to the Snell-Descartes law of reflection, which states that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. This law states that only observers in specified positions can see the color of the object. However, we all know that this is not the case; any spectator, regardless of position, can see the color of the object. We then present a new method for defining an object's color based on spectroscopic concepts in this paper: The object's atoms absorb the sun's white light and then produce radiation with a frequency that matches only to the color of the thing. The quantum color theory will allow us to explain certain phenomena related to the color of objects that it is impossible to explain by the classical description.

Simulation and Experiment of Rising-Sun Resonant Structures Fabricated for X and Ku Ranges Magnetrons with Two Outputs of Energy

Gennadiy Churyumov , Shuang Qiu, Nan-nan Wang, Wei Li , Volodymyr Gerasimov, Tetyana Frolova

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 103-111

The azimuthal distributions of a longitudinal electric component of the RF field for either of the excited modes are shown in this study, as well as the simulation results of the oscillation modes excited in the interaction spaces of anode blocks of X and Ku ranges magnetrons. Anode blocks with distinct resonator configurations were investigated using CST code: a rising sun anode block and a rising sun hole-and-slot anode block. For varied geometrics of their cavities, the dispersion properties and distributions of the azimuthal components of the RF field are described as applicable to the X and Ku ranges. The condition of acceptable separation both in frequency and in phase velocity between the operating N/(2 ) - mode (or \(\pi\) -mode) and neighboring (N/(2 -1)) - mode has been determined.  It is proposed that the mechanism for producing the total RF field is linked to the probable interference of several RF fields created in a resonant system with small and large cavities.  The operation features of the magnetrons with two outputs of energy are presented. The experimental characteristics of the given magnetrons are given. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with the experiment.

The age of sailing ships and primitive tools has evolved into one of power-driven vessels with autonomous technology that can transform the role of the navigating navigator to a monitoring navigator and relocate the human from ship to shore. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the current collision regulations and humbly suggests simple changes to embrace Maritime 4.0 and manage multiple ship situations for safe intelligent navigation. Collision avoidance is not about a ship meeting another ship with the actions regulated. In reality, the navigator is confronted with a multitude of ships and situations where the risk of collision exists, with several vessels requiring avoiding action or maintaining course and speed as dictated by current rules. SMART technology can provide quick and dependable computed actions to assist the navigator, reducing human error or the widely disparate actions that individual humans may take. Unmanned ships may ultimately be the future of shipping because eliminating human error is only possible if the human is removed.  Collating measurable effective actions from reputed ship masters for a multitude of collision scenarios and programming them into an artificial intelligence system, will provide stable and predictable collision avoidance actions that can be shared on inclusive platforms with other ships in the vicinity. This eliminates the variable action of humans and synchronizes manned and autonomous vessels to provide accurate predictive movements and big data computation. It is time to review current collision regulations and address complications in order to achieve clarity and simplicity when it comes to unmanned ships. Only by balancing technology and humans through a defined regulatory framework that includes both can the desired outcomes be realized.

Simple Approach to Quantization of the Gravitational Field

Alberto Strumia

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 124-131

Due to the non-linearity of the Einstein equations, we provide a simple way to approach the difficult problem of quantization of the gravitational field in four dimensions space-time. When the cosmological constant is not null, the problem may be solved. Quantization will be performed on the Hamiltonian of the cosmological part, so providing quantization also of the opposite Riemannian part. When the cosmological contribution is treated as the energy-momentum of vacuum, and the metric tensor is represented on the tetrad of its eigenvectors, the corresponding energy-momentum and, as a result, the Hamiltonian, can be easily quantized using a correspondence rule in which the eigenvectors are replaced by creation and annihilation operators for the gravitational field. As a result, the geometric Einstein tensor is quantized, which has the same sign as the vacuum energy-momentum (plus the potentially known matter one). We look at physical examples offered by Schwarzschild-DeSitter, Robertson-Walker-DeSitter, and Kerr-DeSitter solutions.

Modeling the Movement of Vehicles on the Binary Asteroid Systems

Yu Jiang, Hengnian Li

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 132-143

This paper investigates the surface dynamics of particles on the primary of the Sphere-Restricted Full 2-Body Problem (SRF2BP), which is the celestial body system consisting of an arbitrarily shaped celestial body and a spherical celestial body. The primary is considered as an irregular-shaped body while the secondary is considered as a sphere. The motion equation of the SRF2BP has been presented. The locations of surface equilibrium for particles, the linearized equations of particles relative to the surface equilibrium, and the characteristic equation of the surface equilibrium have been investigated. The surface mechanical environment of a special binary asteroid 243 Ida and Dactyl has been studied with considering the polyhedron model of Ida including 2522 vertices and 5040 faces as well as the point mass model of Dactyl. We present the influential mechanism of the natural trajectories and surface features of Ida. Some trajectories are unstable, which means that a small disturbance can cause a large variety of trajectories. This can help us to find better trajectories for landers and vehicles of space missions. The effect of Dactyl to the motion of particles on Ida is quite small. However, for some particles, the effect of Dactyl can not be neglected. Monte Carlo simulations are used to find the characteristic of particles’ trajectories on different initial positions with static initial state. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to see the characteristic of particles’ trajectories with different initial positions and initial velocities. We mapped the slope angle and the gravitational acceleration with considering the Coriolis effect onto the surface of Ida. For landers, the plain/basin/crater/valley regions are good landing target; and the gaps, hilltops, convex surface, humps, as well as saddles are bad landing target. For vehicles, the concave surface, impact craters, as well as valleys with small slope angle can be used for landing target and initial position. If vehicles enter the regions of gaps, impact craters, as well as valleys with large slope angle, it may be hard to move out; thus these regions are not suitable for vehicles. This paper can provide reference and suggestion to the engineering design of the space mission to binary systems.

Homogeneous Sphere with Excited Vacuum Pressure, Applications in Extended Space Model and Cosmology

D. Yu. Tsipenyuk , W. B. Belayev

New Trends in Physical Science Research Vol. 6, 15 June 2022, Page 144-155

In the paper vacuum pressure is found from the space geometry around the local gravity system according to Sakharov’s idea of a "metrical elasticity" of space. It is assumed that energy equivalent to the gravitational defect of masses is spent on vacuum deformation. We determined the gravitational impact on the vacuum in the case of weakly gravitating static centrally symmetric distribution of matter using appropriate solution of Einstein’s equations. This impact is balanced by the vacuum pressure of the opposite sign. The equation of state includes the density of matter and the vacuum pressure. They correspond to the field equations for centrally symmetric distribution of matter. The photon motion in the resulting space-time is considered and the energy-momentum-mass vector corresponding to the  D Extended Space Model (ESM) is found. We study abilities to apply the equation of state obtained to arbitrary We study abilities to apply the equation of state obtained to arbitrary gravitational systems and cosmology. The change in photon energy and momentum in Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time is described using rotation angles in 5D. This cosmological model yields about half dark energy density not associated with cosmological constant with half dark energy density not associated with cosmologic deceleration parameter  at present epoch.