### Five Mistakes in Riemann’s Original Paper in 1859 Made Riemann Hypothesis Meaningless

*Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 2*,
14 May 2022
,
Page 54-73

https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nramcs/v2/6048F

#### Abstract

Five basic mistakes are found in the Riemann’s original paper proposed in 1859. The Riemann hypothesis becomes meaningless. 1. It is proved that on the real axis of complex plane and in the domain of the function, when the left-hand side of equation is finite, the right-hand side may be infinite, and vice versa. The Riemann Zeta function equation holds only at the point Re(s) = 1/2(s= a+ \(i b\)) . However, at this point, the Zeta function is infinite, rather than zero, to make Riemann hypothesis untenable. 2. An integral item around the original point of coordinate system was ignored when Riemann deduced the integral form of Zeta function. The item was convergent when Re(s) > 1but divergent when Re(s) < 1 .The integral form of Zeta function does not change the divergence of its series form. 3. A summation formula was used in the deduction of the integral form of Zeta function. The applicative condition of this formula is x > 0 . At point x = 0 , the formula is meaningless. However, the lower limit of Zeta function’s integral is x = 0 , so the formula can not be used. 4. Because the integral lower limit of Zeta function is zero, the integrand function is not uniformly convergent, so integral sign and sum sign can not be exchanged. But Riemann made them interchangeable, resulting in that the integral form of Zeta function is untenable. 5.The formula \(\theta(x)=\sqrt{x} \theta(1 / x)\) of Jacobi function was used to prove the symmetry of Zeta function equation. The applicable condition of this formula is also x > 0 . Because the lower limit of integral in the deduction was x = 0 , this formula can not be used too. The zero calculation of Riemann Zeta function is discussed at last. It is pointed out that because approximate methods are used, the analytic property of the original function is destroyed and the Cauchy-Riemann equation can not be satisfied. So they are not the real zeros of strict Riemann Zeta function.

**Keywords:**

- Riemann hypothesis
- riemann zeta function
- zeta function equation
- jacobi’s function
- residue theorem
- cauchy-riemann equation

#### How to Cite

*Novel Research Aspects in Mathematical and Computer Science Vol. 2*, 54–73. https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nramcs/v2/6048F