Editor(s)
Dr. Huan Yu
Professor, School of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, China.

 

ISBN 978-81-19039-78-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19039-79-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4

 

This book covers key areas of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences. The contributions by the authors include coastal erosion, climate change, coastal protection measures, ecosystem-based solution, desalination, water treatment, soil moisture, soil loss, groundnut production, ice caves, water-ice phase change, heat convection, ecosystem service valuation, land use management, remote sensing, time projection, soil erosion, sediment yield, ecological project, spatio-temporal evolution, saline intrusion, coastal aquifer, electrochemical behavior, hydrogenation, and desulfurization. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences.

 

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Chapters


Prevalence of the Vulnerability to Coastal Erosion: Case Study of Saint-Louis City

Coura Kane

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 1-10
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/18129D

The coastal areas of Senegal are increasingly affected by climate change and Anthropogenic activities. Accelerated Sea level rise is actually resulting in serious processes of coastal erosion with huge environmental and socioeconomic damages. The city of Saint-Louis is particularly sensitive to coastline retreat as the phenomenon has become recurring with significant impacts along the “Langue de Babarie” sand spit. That particular area is undergoing huge losses of human settlements even if solutions have implemented and affected populations temporally relocated inland. People and economic activities are therefore threatened by coastal erosion. The ongoing urbanization has deeply disturbed the natural sedimentary transit of the coastal area as such practices like sand beach extraction induces serious sedimentary imbalance. Human and environmental security in this coastal part of the country becomes an emergency, given the high vulnerability to marine submersion. Facing coastal erosion should be therefore based on sustainability rather than technical solutions.  This paper is aimed at analyzing population’ behavior to the various coastal protection measures put in place by local authorities.

Detection of Hazards Endangering Some Coastal Areas: Ecosystem-Based Solutions to Strengthen Natural Defenses

Ahmed El Sayed Ahmed Rakha

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 11-29
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/18118D

The Nile delta's coastal strip has historically been vulnerable to environmental hazards. The main threat posed by the effects of global warming is the invasion of seawater. The removal of coastal dunes, which serve as natural protection, has accelerated the negative effects that have been visible on low-lying lands. To identify the risks associated with climate change that endanger some naturally protected coastal areas in the central part of the Nile Delta and to estimate their magnitude, field surveys, interpretation of Landsat enhanced thematic mapper imageries (ETM), and hydrochemistry analysis of water samples were used.   Ecosystem-based adaptation strategies are more useful in the case of vulnerability, risk of flooding, storm surge, and the conservation and protection of coastal resources. Planting protected areas of the coastal strip is regarded as the most appropriate ecosystem-based and beneficial solution that should be authorized and implemented by local authorities in order to preserve those areas and adapt to these disasters.

Water Treatment by Using Situ Pressure in Reverse Osmosis: Strategies and Implications

Susan Norouzi

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 30-38
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/17557D

Desalination is one of the primary methods used nowadays in many places to acquire water. Reverse osmosis is the most advanced technique for water filtering. Desalination is necessary in arid countries and in cases where good-quality water is required for industrial purposes and fresh water is not available. Power pumping is used in this system to inject water into semi-membranes, where the salty water is then removed from the solution. The goal of this study was to provide guidelines for using the pressure generated in situ of harvesting water instead of a power pump, which creates the pressure required for reverse osmosis. These recommendations have been split into two primary groups: Utilizing the natural pressure that is formed, or, alternatively, the forces that are brought about by structures erected for water harvesting.

Evaluation of Different Size of Broad Bed and Furrow for Surface Runoff and Soil Loss and Productivity of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) under Rainfed Conditions of Gujarat, India

P. D. Vekariya, D. P. Sanepara, B. B. Limbasia, V. D. Vora, D. S. Hirpara

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 39-52
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/4023E

This chapter aims to study the effect of different size of broad bed and furrow on the surface runoff and soil loss and productivity of groundnut under rainfed conditions of Gujarat, India.  The experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2003-04 to 2009-10 in medium black soil at Main Dry Farming Research Station, Targhadia (Rajkot), Gujarat, India. The experiment was set up using a randomized block design, with four different treatments in each of the three replications: Flat bed (45cm row spacing), broad bed (60 cm width) and furrow (30 cm) with 2 rows, broad bed (90 cm width) and furrow (45 cm) with 3 rows, broad bed (120 cm width) and furrow (60 cm) with 4 rows in runoff plot. On the basis of seven years pooled results, significantly highest pod (932kg ha-1) and haulm (3234 kg ha-1) yield under the broad bed (90 cm width) and furrow (45 cm) with 3 rows along with the minimum runoff (22.73%) and soil loss (483.40 kg/ha). Higher mean soil moisture content (25.87 % and 26.25 %) was recorded under the both soil depths 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, respectively under the broad bed (90 cm width) and furrow (45 cm) with 3 rows, while lowest (24.24 % and 24.87 %) were recorded in the flat bed control (T1). The broad bed (90 cm width) and furrow (45 cm) with 3 rows also gave the highest net returns of Rs 23662/- with the benefit: cost ratio of 2.69. Total seasonal runoff from broad bed and furrow treatments was less than that from flat bed in every year of the study.

Formation Mechanism and Sustainable Utilization of Ningwu Ice Cave in China

Shaohua Yang, Yaolin Shi

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 53-82
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/3745E

The present study investigated the energy exchange of Ningwu Ice Cave and then quantitatively interprets the formation and preservation mechanism of the ice deposit. Heat energy is conducted inefficiently into the ice cave from outside and wall rock in spring, summer, and autumn. While in winter, heat energy is transferred very efficiently due to the air natural convection, thus cooling it down. Wherever the annual average air temperature is higher than 0 °C, ice caves can be found. The largest ice cave in China, Ningwu Ice Cave in Shanxi Province, serves as an illustration. We simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave using the Finite Element Method in order to quantitatively investigate the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave. The calculation aids in assessing the effects of global warming, tourists, coloured lights, climatic conditions, and other factors on the long-term development of the ice cave as a tourism resource. Other ice caves in China had airtight doors installed at the entrances in an effort to "protect" them, but this prevented cooling in the winter, and the ice in these caves will completely melt within tens of years. Rare natural landscapes typically have a very high value in terms of utilization. The benefit extends beyond science to include economics. Like ice caves, particularly those found in temperate regions like Ningwu Ice Cave. On the one hand, ice bodies can be used to study small-scale climate changes over the past few decades. On the other hand, on the basis of scientific protection and development, ice caves can be opened to tourists as a tourism resource to promote the development of the local tourism market and drive the development of green economy with local characteristics. Details of sustainable utilization of Ningwu Ice Cave in China were analyzed.

Landscape Dynamics and the Impact on Ecosystem Services Value Provided by Coastal Wetlands: An Update

Vera Camacho Valdez, Arturo Ruiz-Luna, César A. Berlanga-Robles

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 83-102
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/18283D

This study assessed the dynamics of land cover changes and the associated ecosystem services (ES) value of coastal wetlands in northwestern Mexico. Wetlands are ecosystems sensitive to changes in land use, affecting the supply and quality of the ES they offer, and are currently at risk due to the transformations promoted by economic activities (e.g. tourism, agriculture, aquaculture) to stimulate regional development. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate change trends between 2000 and 2010, using the value transfer method for the economic valuation of ES and Markov chains to model probable scenarios for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. Findings revealed that the ES total value flow for the period 2000-2010 tended to increase (18 million dollars (2007 USD)), with increasing estimates of high global value land covers, although locally they are of low value, as marsh/unconsolidated bottom, which increased in the estimated area during the study period. The most notable transition probability was observed among the natural wetlands, highlighting the littoral and the saltmarsh (unconsolidated bottom), as the classes with the highest probability of change over time. The southern region of the study area is the most susceptible to change, where unconsolidated bottoms and mangroves (forested saltmarsh) predominate.

Dynamic Erosion and Sediment Yield Model Analysis in a Typical Watershed of Hilly and Gully Region, Chinese Loess Plateau

Lei Wu, Xia Liu, Xiaoyi Ma

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 103-129
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/17848D

The Purpose of this study are to (i) develop and update a yearly distributed model of watershed erosion and sediment yield and (ii) assess spatiotemporal changes in erosion and sediment yield in the Majiagou River watershed before and after projects to return farmland. In addition to degrading soil fertility and natural resources, soil erosion also contributes to the sedimentation of river channels. A distributed-dynamic model of sediment yield based on the Chinese Soil Loss equation (CSLE) was developed and modified to evaluate the effects of hydrological factors and human activities on erosion and sediment yield between 1995 and 2013. This was done in order to discover the spatiotemporal evolution of erosion and sediment yield before and after returning farmland in a typical watershed of a hilly and gully region (Chinese Loess Plateau). Results could offer a solid scientific foundation for the management of watersheds, land use planning, and multi-scale dynamic modelling of erosion and sediment yield. The modified model has characteristics of simple algorithm, high accuracy, wide practicability and easy expansion, and can be applied to predict erosion and sediment yield in the study area, 2) soil erosion gradations are closely related to the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity and land use patterns, the current soil and water conservation measures are not efficient for high rainfall intensities, 3) the average sediment yield rate before and after model modification in recent 5 years (in addition to 2013) is 4574.62 Mg/km2 and 1696.1 Mg/km2, respectively, decreasing by about 35.4% and 78.2% when compared to the early governance (1995-1998). However, the once-in-a-century storm in July 2013 is the key factor in the highest possible sediment yield. The hilly and gully region of the Chinese Loess Plateau may benefit from the results as an effective and scientific basis for planning the conservation of soil and water and ecological building.

Saline Intrusion Model in the Sinaloa River Aquifer, Mexico

Rosario Iturbe, Ana A. Castro, José A. Barrera, José A. Mendoza, Luis C. González

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 130-149
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/18204D

The risk of a coastal aquifer to be contaminated by saline intrusion is increased considerably by the effect of factors such as a semi-arid climate and agriculture sustained mainly by irrigation with groundwater. Water samples were taken from wells in the municipality of Guasave, Sinaloa, in order to determine the salinity of groundwater within the coastal portion of the Sinaloa River aquifer. Precisely, we aimed to determine the concentrations of the major present ions, which would allow hydrogeochemical analyses to be carried out, and thus determine the quality of the liquid.

The results of these samples show that there are high concentrations of salinity in the water only in some wells near the coastline. The water density was used to simulate the wedge of seawater intrusion into the aquifer, using a mathematical model (Glover and Ghyben - Herzberg Model). The information generated in the modeling shows that the intrusion wedge comes into contact with the aquifer at a depth where there are no wells currently drilled in the study area, on the other hand, the horizontal distance of the wedge reaches three kilometers.

Oil Relations between China and Russia in Regional Science-Electrochemical Behavior of Organic Sulfur Compounds

Chen Jinling

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 150-158
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/4439C

The main purpose of this paper is in the regional science demonstration fuel electrochemical hydrogenation desulfurization method. To begin, many sulphur compounds in fuels are summarised as thiophene, which is a typical material representative. Then, examine and evaluate the thiophene electrochemical hydrogenation desulfurization reaction mechanism. Moreover, typical of this oil in the thiophene sulfur compounds the reaction mechanism, by analogy, that the electrochemical hydrogenation of oil desulfurization method is feasible. Finally, apply this method to oil relations between China and Russia in regional science.

Decadal and Future Simulations for Arctic Sea Ice

Fernanda Casagrande

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 159-170
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/17954D

In this work we evaluated the ability of eleven Global Climate model belonging to CMIP5 project, focusing in the Brazilian Earth System Model (BESM-OA V2.3) results to represent the Arctic sea ice and sensitivity to CO2 forcing, using decadal simulations (1980-2010) and future scenarios (2006-2100). We validated our results with satellite observations and compared them to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) for the same numerical experiment [1]. BESM results for the seasonal cycle are consistent with CMIP5 models and observations. However, almost all models tend to overestimate sea ice extent in March compared to observations. By analyzing the spatial patterns, we found a systematic model error in September sea ice cover between the Beaufort Sea and East Siberia for most models. Future scenarios showed a decrease in sea ice extent in response to an increase in radiative forcing for all models. From the year 2045 onwards, all models show a dramatic shrinking in sea ice and ice free conditions at the end of the melting season. We suggested that the projected future sea ice loss is associated to a combined effect of the Arctic Polar Amplifcation and the radiative climate feedbacks processes.

Geogenic Enrichment of Flouride in Groundwater of Tosham, Haryana, India

Savita Kumari, Naresh Kumar, Naresh Kochhar, . Yashpaul, Balram Sharma

Novel Perspectives of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, 16 February 2023, Page 171-187
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/npgees/v4/5634A

To identify the mechanism and sources of fluoride enrichment in the groundwater, hydrogeochemical tests were conducted in the eight villages of Tosham Block, district Bhiwani, Haryana. The groundwater quality could be rated for various uses, like industrial, drinking agriculture on the basis of the physico-chemical parameters. According to the findings, groundwater sample fluoride concentrations can reach 1.9 mg/l. Fluorine could be discharged into the groundwater due to the soils' overall fluorine levels, which range from 1.1 to 2.7 mg/kg. The solubility of fluorite, the amount of evapotranspiration, the length of residency, and the predominant weathering processes in the Tosham area are the main factors influencing the fluoride enrichment in groundwater. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride were also estimated, along with a number of other water quality indicators including pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, and total alkalinity. Between several physico-chemical parameters, correlation coefficients were logically calculated. Sixty-seven percent of groundwater samples do not meet WHO limits for fluoride in drinking water. Dental fluorosis affects people, especially children, because of the increased fluoride concentration in the groundwater of the villages under study. With the exception of a few villages, the overall quality of water was deemed unfit for drinking.