Dr. Figen Balo
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Firat University, Turkey.


ISBN 978-93-5547-210-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-218-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nper/v3


This book covers key areas of Engineering Research. The contributions by the authors include partially-defined Boolean function, set of supporting variables, Karnaugh map, prime, implicant, irredundant disjunctive form, minimal sum, complete sum, Solid waste, High performance concrete HPC, longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, steel fibers, fibre reinforced plastics, environmental effect, thermal strain, building surveying, maintenance and public building, chemical composition, durability, mechanical properties, mollusk seashell, physical properties, sustainable construction, waste recycling, Spray particles kinematics, single- and multi-droplet systems, classic and quantum mechanics, sprinkler water droplets, mathematical modeling, finite fields, computer arithmetic, montgomery multiplication, parallel mechanism in arithmetic and logic structure, wireless world wide web, voice over internet protocol, wireless system for dynamic operating mega communication, photothermal, semiconducting, the lifetime, carrier density, rotation, generalized thermo elasticity, Network reliability, complementation, de’ Morgan laws, Boole-Shannon expansion, symbolic checking, probability-ready expression, multi-state system, strip moment ratio, plate deflection and Plate moments. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Engineering Research.


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Map Visualization of Cause-Effect Relations in Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi, Raid Salih Badawi

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 1-24

This chapter utilizes a modern regular and modular version of the eight-variable Karnaugh map in a systematic and exhaustive investigation of cause-effect relationships modeled by partially-defined Boolean functions (PDBF) (known also as incompletely-specified switching functions). First, we present a simple Karnaugh-map test that can decide whether a certain variable must be included in a set of supporting variables of the function, and, otherwise, might enforce the exclusion of this variable from such a set. This exclusion is attained via certain don’t-care assignments that ensure the equivalence of the Boolean quotient w.r.t. the variable, and that w.r.t. its complement, i.e., the exact matching of the half map representing the internal region of the variable, and the remaining half map representing the external region of the variable, in which case any of these two half maps replaces the original full map as a representation of the function. Such a variable exclusion might be continued w.r.t. other variables till a minimal set of supporting variables is reached. The paper addresses a dominantly-unspecified PDBF to obtain all its minimal sets of supporting variables without explicit resort to integer-programming techniques. For each of the minimal sets obtained, standard map methods for extracting prime implicants allow the construction of all irredundant disjunctive forms (IDFs). According to this scheme of first identifying a minimal set of supporting variables, we avoid the task of drawing prime-implicant loops on the initial eight-variable map, and postpone this task till the map is (usually dramatically) reduced in size. The procedure outlined herein has important ramifications for the newly-established discipline of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). These ramifications are not expected to be welcomed by the mainstream QCA community, since they clearly indicate that the too-often strong results claimed by QCA adherents need to be checked and scrutinized. In our opinion, more observations have to be made in order to narrow down the possibilities and decrease the number of candidate IDFs.

An Assessment of Solid Waste Management Generated in Eziobodo Community, Imo State, Nigeria

Nkeleme Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu, Winston Shakantu, Nwabueze Micheal Anosike, Achigbu Onyemaeze Ikenna

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 25-36

Solid waste management is a major problem that has reached alarming proportions requiring drastic measures. The increasing difficulty in managing wastes in Nigeria has become one of the most intractable environmental issues. There is an unprecedented increase in the rate of waste generated by the residents. The cardinal aim of the study is to “ascertain the assessment of solid waste management generated in Eziobodo community, Owerri West, Imo State, Nigeria”. To achieve this aim, 140 copies of questionnaires were administered to the residents of Eziobodo community selected at random. Of these, 112 copies of the questionnaire (80.0%) were returned and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed by simple frequency and presented by percentage. The study revealed among others that: residential buildings account for the highest generation source of solid waste in the community and the solid waste was predominantly nylon/nylon bags/ nylon sachets; food waste, plastic can/rubbers arranged in their order of severity.  Consequently, the effect of the solid waste in the community was; wide and easy spread of disease vectors, soil pollution, and easy breed of flies, rats, and mosquitoes. The survey revealed that the spread and causing of disease is the commonest effect of poor waste management in the community.  Hence the study recommends, sorting of solid waste before dumping, provision of adequate Skips and dustbins, and ensuring regular collection of wastes. Finally, Potential for a sustainable approach to the management of solid waste such as recycling, reuse, energy recovery, and waste reduction.

Behavior of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Columns: Experimental Investigation

Ikbal Naeem Gorgis, Wasan Ismail Khalil, Zeinab Raad Mahdi

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 37-55

This study used an experimental programme to explore the behaviour of square short high-performance concrete columns with and without steel fiber when subjected to concentric compression force. On the uniaxial behaviour of reinforced HPC columns, the effects of concrete strength, percent of longitudinal reinforcement, spacing of lateral confined stirrups, volumetric steel fibre ratio, and aspect ratio of steel fibre were shown and discussed. The findings reveal that adding discrete fibers to HPC mixtures in reinforced concrete columns increases the strength and ductility of the axially loaded reinforced columns while also preventing premature spalling of the concrete cover. To achieve the appropriate post-beak deformability, high performance concrete columns require more confinement than normal strength concrete columns.

Prediction of environmental effects on fibre reinforced plastics habitually is made difficult due to the complex variability of the natural service environment. This paper suggests a method to predict thermal strain distribution over the material lifetime by discretisation of the exposure history. Laboratory results show a high correlation between predicted and experimentally measured strain distribution. It is shown that thermal strains due to variable environmental temperature can be predicted by discretization of the exposure history.

Study on the Evaluation of the Practice of Building Survey for Maintenance of Public Building in South-East Nigeria

Osuagwu Andrew Chima, Nkeleme Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu, Amafili Tochukwu Nnamdi, Ike Goodluck Chukwuemeka, Nzeneri Oluchukwu Precious-favour

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 65-80

The maintenance of the public buildings is evasive without a conscious practice of building surveying as it avails the maintenance personal insight that informs the building maintenance this The research evaluates the practice of building \surveying in South-East Nigeria and its impact on the maintenance of public buildings. It was pursuit through the use of a structured questionnaire. Public buildings within Abia, Enugu, and Imo states of the study were studied with the respondent drawn from the users and officials in charge of the maintenance of the building. A total of 390 questionnaires were administered with 314 returned giving a response rate of 80.5%. A random sampling technique was adopted and the data was analyzed using a computer-based Software SPSS version 21. The result was presented using statistical tools Mean, Relative Importance Index (RII).  From the result, there is no substantial development in the condition of public buildings in southeast states. In addition, the problems associate with building maintenance have significantly affected the building conditions in the study area. Adequate planning of maintenance work that is proactive and not corrective. Aging building parts should be replaced to avoid it making other parts of the building dilapidating. Government should ensure that most of the public buildings have a maintenance policy and there is effective communication between the maintenance department and the building occupants. Government should ensure that there is a condition survey for the public building adopting the approach of the framework developed in this study.

Application of Mollusc Seashell as Aggregate in Concrete

Uchechi G. Eziefula, David O. Onwuka, Hyginus E. Opara

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 81-96

Recent studies on sustainable construction are focused on recycling waste materials in cement-based products. Large volumes of mollusc seashells are commonly dumped as waste in seashores or landfills, posing health and environmental risks, such as pollution and the breeding of vectors. Waste management of mollusc seashells involves recycling the seashell as a partial or total replacement of natural aggregate in concrete. Shells of cockle, mussel, oyster, periwinkle and scallop shellfishes have been used as replacements for coarse and fine aggregates in concrete. Mollusc seashells contain similar calcium carbonate with limestone-type rocks. Chlorides, sulphates, and deleterious organic matter are present in mollusc seashells, but their contents can be reduced through washing and heating. In this chapter, the treatment, preparation, and characteristics of mollusc seashells, as well as the properties of mollusc seashell concrete, are discussed. In addition, the current status, limitations, and prospects of mollusc seashell in sustainable concrete construction are highlighted. The workability, density, and strength properties of concrete generally decrease with increasing seashell replacement. Up to 20% crushed seashell can be utilised as a partial fine aggregate in concrete without causing adverse effects on the density and strength of concrete. Therefore, mollusc seashells can be used as a secondary aggregate in concrete construction, particularly in localities where significant seashell amounts are available.

The Classic-quantum and Single-multiparticle Viewpoints: Water Drops Kinematic Analysis

Daniele De Wrachien, Giulio Lorenzini

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 97-103

The difficulty of a particle traversing a gaseous mean is one of the most challenging modelling problems in science. This applies to a water droplet travelling from the nozzle to the ground in sprinkler irrigation. The challenge primarily refers to the intense difficulty in writing and solving the system of governing equations for such a complicated process, where many non-linearities occur when describing the relationships and dependences between one influential parameter and another.  When a multi-droplet system is considered instead of just a single droplet, the problem becomes even more complicated because, in addition to inter-parameter dependencies, an inter-droplet reciprocal affection is observed, owing to electrical interactions between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of the different water molecules. A quantum approach has recently been proposed as an alternative to traditional classic approaches to analyse water droplet dynamics in sprinkler irrigation, but the entire classic-quantum and single-droplet versus multi-droplet alternatives need to be discussed and pinpointed, which is one of the main goals of the current paper, which focuses on the theoretical part of the issue, thus highlighting the new perspectives of a deeper comprehension in the spray flow related phenomena.

Confidentiality and encryption of data are critical features of modern computing. Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is the ultimate cryptographic method due to its high limited size and thus its reliability equal to that of other traditional public-key algorithms. Furthermore, hardware acceleration of cryptographic algorithms is required to meet the increasing speed demand for contemporary implementations. The forward converters, modulo decimal units, and reverse converters are the core components of the residue number method. In the current network of residue numbers, the reverse converter is based on standard and compact adders.  It has a high power consumption and a low speed. By analysing the input/output conversion to/from residue representation, it proposed a residue Montgomery method for multiplying data pathways among converters and between the two residue representations. The dual field modulator is used for GF(p) and GF(2)n Montgomery multiplication, input/output conversions, mixed-radius conversions (MRC) for inputs and polynomials, and exponentiation and inversion in the same hardware.  

5th Generation Wireless Communication Revolution: A Recent Study

Shafiqul Abidin, Mohd Izhar, Vikas Rao Vadi

Novel Perspectives of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 4 November 2021, Page 113-118

The entire world is moving at breakneck speed in the shortest amount of time. The purpose of this article is to highlight the features of future technology associated with 5G. Technology mobility has increased from 1 G to 4G. Although 5G technology has yet to be addressed, debate about its negative and positive aspects has already begun. 5 G is a complete wireless communication system with virtually no limitations. It is expected that 5 G brings another revolution by offering very high data speed. It supports WWWW. People claim that 5 G is the real wireless world. However, each generation has advantages over the others. 5G represents a paradigm shift in thinking. The fifth generation can be defined as a wearable device with artificial intelligence characteristics. mindset. Everything will be securely and automatically monitored thanks to 5G. An effort has been made in this effort to discuss aspects of 5G and associated features.

This study investigates the photothermal interaction of an isotropic, homogeneous, semiconducting, viscothermoelastic solid cylinder in the context of Lord and Shulman's generalized thermoelasticity theory. The cylinder rotates with a constant angular velocity around its axis. The cylinder's outside surface has been thermally shocked. The governing equations were built in the Laplace transform domain and numerical inversions of Laplace were computed using the Tzou technique. The numerical findings for the carrier density increment, temperature increment, strain, stress, and stress-strain energy of a photogenerated carrier have been visually depicted with various values of mechanical relaxation time, angular velocity parameter, and lifespan parameter. The mechanical relaxation time and angular velocity of the rotation parameter have little influence on the carrier density function and temperature increment, but they have a substantial effect on the strain, stress, and stress-strain energy. The lifetime parameter of the photogenerated carrier has critical consequences for all functionalities investigated.

This chapter addresses two important useful contributions that extend binary reliability techniques to multi-state reliability techniques, namely: (a) the problem of complementation or inversion of the function of system success to that of system failure (or equivalently, of deriving the logical minimal cutsets in terms of the logical minimal paths), and (b) the associated problem of hand-checking of a symbolic reliability expression, which relies on complete knowledge of system success and system failure. The paper deals specifically with the reliability of a multi-state delivery network with multiple suppliers and deteriorating production capacity. It presents two complementation procedures, one via the application of multi-state De Morgan’s rules, and the other via the multi-state Boole-Shannon expansion. The chapter also illustrates one prominent case in which this complementation is needed, as it outlines a method for checking the reliability of the multi-state system in terms of its logical minimal paths and logical minimal cutsets.

The application of the SMR to rectangular plates with corners allowed to lift is presented in this paper. The classical plate bi-harmonic equation for rectangular plates was adapted to the problem. It is assumed that the load on the plate is supported by the joint effort of transverse x-x strips and the longitudinal y–y strips only. The effect of the two diagonal x–y strips required for holding down is neglected. The effect of Poisson ratio on the span moments and plate’s deflection is also presented. The indication is that an increase in Poisson ratio brings about an increase in the longer span moments of the plate and has got no significant effect on the shorter span moment and deflection of the plate. The results of practical application show close agreement with the exact classical results. The SMR method has been extended to plates of various support conditions and load types. It has also been extended to Skew plates, irregular plates, circular plates, Triangular plates with great accuracy. Plate vibration and plate buckling problems have also been solved with the method. This is the second extension of the SMR method published others shall follow subsequently.