Dr. Sebahattin Tüzemen
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Turkey.


ISBN 978-93-90516-78-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90516-87-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nips/v12


This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include gravitational waves, seismic antenna, deformation, optimal signal processing, topology, topological graph, nonlinear dynamics, non-conservative orbital systems, Lagrangean systems, quantum physics, electron path, reversible logic, quantum computer, black holes, neutron stars, black stars, gravitational signal, elemental analysis, trace elements, ZrO nanoparticles, photocatalyst, solution combustion method, photodegradation, textile effluents, slow solvent evaporation, X-ray diffraction, nanostructures, energy upconversion, glasses, gravitational telescope, plasmonic effects, angular momentum, solid propellant, SRP combustion, burning rate, thermal environment, quark-gluon plasma. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science.


Media Promotion:


Gravitational Telescope

Alexander V. Lukanenkov

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 1-26

Global seismic antenna (GSA) allows detecting deformations of the Earth of a special type, characteristic of gravitational waves. GSA elements - the arbitrary ” quiet” seismic stations, aperture of GSA must be of the order 10.000 km. Pulsars are a natural source of periodic gravitational waves (GW-waves). The deformations of the Earth were detected by GSA, their amplitude \(\approx\)2.5.10-15m. It was found that these deformation (strain) of the order h\(\approx\)10-21. The false alarm of detecting is almost zero, equivalent to a significance of 12.8 sigma. Pulsar J0945-4833 is the most suitable source of detected deformations of the Earth.

Study on Separation Axioms via Graph Theory

Taha H. Jasim, Aiad I. Awad

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 27-36

A new concept called topological graph and via this concept introduces a new class of separation axioms via the concepts of graph (G-T0, G-T1, G-T2, G-T3, and G-T4), many relations among them were studied and investigated some characterization of these concepts. At last give an application for them.  

Hydrogen Atom Set up by Electron Capture Describing a Continuous Path

D. L. Nascimento, A. L. A. Fonseca

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 37-48

We present a formulation in which an electron can follow a continuous path in the process of formation of a hydrogen atom. We use a field Lagrangean foundation for chaotic, non-conservative systems to shape the electron motion. We have found electron transition paths that vary from an infinity distance to the finite radii concerning the proton-nucleus, which correspond to the stable orbital states. To find these states corresponds to the problem of finding the possible stable orbital attractors in the chaotic dynamical motion problem. In this view, although there is a general collapsing tendency of the electron-proton system, the Hamiltonian of the system exhibits some metastable states in which the electron can stay for some time, which is not infinite, due to the chaotic perturbations that the electron is undergone in the formation of the atom. The Hamiltonian varies continuously along the electron path, from zero at the infinity to the negative value corresponding to some of the metastable orbits.

New Approach: Design of Compact Baugh-Wooley Multiplier Using Reversible Logic

V. Rajmohan, O. Uma Maheswari

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 49-57

In today’s digital era, developing digital circuits is bounded by the research towards investigating various nano devices. This paper provides the design of compact Baugh-Wooley multiplier using reversible logic. Even though various researches have been done for designing reversible multiplier, this work is the first in the literature to use Baugh-Wooley algorithm using reversible logic. In this work, a new 5 × 5 reversible multiplier cell is proposed which will be useful in designing Baugh-Wooley multiplier. The proposed single multiplier cell is able to perform addition of a 1 × 1 product with the sum and carry from the previous cell. This reversible multiplier cell is useful in building up regularity in the array multipliers. The Toffoli gate synthesis of the proposed reversible multiplier cell is also given. It is comprehended that the number of gates, the constant inputs and garbage outputs values are fewer in number in the proposed design compared to the existing approaches. The design can be enhanced to construct n × n reversible Baugh-Wooley multiplier circuit.

Using a program written in Excel it was found that a supernova remnant, with a mass between 1.44 and 2.2 solar masses, contracts down to a neutron star. During the collapse the decreasing gravitational potential slows time. Here the pressure becomes high enough to stop the contraction. At greater than 2.2 solar masses, while the remnant is still contracting, the gravitational potential causes time to relatively freeze at the center, and stop the contraction before the pressure gets high enough to stop it, as it did in a neutron star. This also freezes the flow of information concerning the decrease in gravitational potential, thus; the frozen portions remain frozen and do not contract down any further and become imaginary. On top of this frozen center, additional matter physically and relatively contracts and the radius of the freeze point moves out. If the freeze made its way to the surface, it would meet the condition of a black hole, having a Schwarzschild radius; but, it does not quite get there. The surface is not quite frozen. Even though these “almost black holes” do not have an event horizon, they are almost as small as that described by the Schwarzschild radius and due to the gravitational red shift, are very hard to see. A black star has been created. When a white dwarf with a mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit of 1.44 solar masses contracts, the high pressure and gravity compresses the inner core to a density exceeding 1x109 kg/m3. After it cools and then collapses into a neutron star, it will have a minimum density of 3.5 x 1015 kg/m3 near the surface. This article explains how these two densities relate to why there are no supernova created stellar black stars above 15 solar masses, and why supermassive black stars start at 50,000 solar masses? Extracting limits like these cannot be accomplished using the standard black hole model, but this black star model has revealed these size limits and a lot more. It was found with this model that there is a gap of missing black stars between the largest SBS and the smallest SMBS. This relates to the density gap of unstable matter as pressure compresses it from degenerate white dwarf matter to neutron matter.

Assessment and Estimation of Trace Elements in Azadiracta indica from Mining Area by EDXRF Technique

S. Jyothsna, G. Manjula, D. Sammaiah

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 77-83

The effect of mining activity on environment has one of the major concerns for public health. Generally mining releases heavy toxic elements such as As, Pb, Cd and Hg. These metals have potential to accumulate in different organs of the body for long period of time causes toxicity and unwanted effects on human health. The Present study deals with the trace elemental analysis of selected medicinal plant of Azadiracta indica from mining area by EDXRF technique. EDXRF is one of the most powerful, non-destructive, multi-elemental and high sensitive analytical method. The thirteen elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their elemental concentrations were determined. The results were compared with control sample and NIST1515 apple leaves, it shows various elements found to present in different quantities in same plant from different areas. High elemental concentrations were found in Azadiracta indica from coal mining area, this may be due to of coal mining area has been associated with enhancement of heavy toxic elements absorbed by soil. The analysis of this study also gives the presence of elements in the environment pollution from mining area plant sample. Thus we have recommended that the people living in mining areas are to be very cautious in daily life processes due to the exposure of heavy metals and toxic chemical elements from coal mining area has harmful affect on human health.

The unique properties of nanoparticles have attracted attention because of their scientific and industrial importance. Various metal oxide nanoparticles have been used to eliminate the organic pollutants. ZrO is an eco-friendly material, non-toxic, cost effective and has high thermal and chemical stability. ZrO nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by XRD, SEM-EDAX, TEM, BET and UV–visible spectroscopic studies. Zirconium oxide was synthesized from zirconium nitrate and urea by solution combustion method. Nano-photocatalyst zirconium oxide was investigated by XRD, SEM-EDAX, TEM, UV absorbance spectroscopy and specific surface area analysis. The distribution size of ZrO was found to be less than 17nm and was confirmed by XRD and TEM studies. The ZrO nano-photocatalyst confirmed the tetragonal phase by XRD. EDAX revealed the formation of ZrO. The efficiency of ZrO nanoparticles in the photodegradation of victoria blue B and acridine orange dye under sunlight was investigated. The results revealed that the degradation efficiency was found to be 95.42% for VBB (at 0.030 g/pH 6/1×10-4mol/dm3) and 92.52% for AO (at 0.035 g/pH 4/1×10-4mol/dm3). Further, the degradation efficiency shown highest in VBB dye when compare to AO dye. The ZrO nanoparticles have been found to be suitable for the treatment of textile effluents.

Emphasizing Growth and Thermal Studies of Doped and Pure Crystals of L-Argininium Dinitrate

Preema C. Thomas, P. Sagayaraj

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 94-101

Single crystals of pure and Cu2+ doped semiorganic L-argininium dinitrate (LADN) crystals were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique, with the vision to improve the physicochemical properties of the sample. Single crystal XRD studies of both pure and doped samples were carried out. The thermal (DTA, TGA and DSC) studies were carried out and the results are compared.The NLO studies show that doping has improved the NLO efficiency of pure LADN crystals. From thermal studies it is observed that the presence of metal dopant (Cu2+) increases the decomposition temperature of LADN.

Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructures in Glasses

B. Rami Reddy

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 102-118

Sodium borate and sodium-lead-germano-tellurite (SLGT) oxyfluoride glasses embedded with Er3+ and /or Ag were made by the melt quenching technique. Thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy measurements were performed to characterize the glasses. Nanoparticles were induced by heat treating the glasses. Er3+ luminescence increased 4× due to enhanced field in the vicinity of silver particles. Strong room temperature upconversion emissions were observed at 415, 540, 554 and 667 nm from Er3+ doped SLGT sample under 972 nm Ti-sapphire laser excitation. Changes in the optical spectral characteristics supported the formation of nanocrystals.

Change in Mass of Spinning Black Holes Due to Change in Angular Momentum for Max. Spin

Dipo Mahto, Anuradha Kumari

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 119-125

The present chapter gives a model for the change in mass of spinning black holes w.r.t. the angular momentum in XRBs & AGN for maximum spin and concludes that the change in mass of the spinning black holes due to corresponding change in the angular momentum for maximum spinning rate of black holes (a*=1) decreases with increasing mass of the black holes.

Enclosure Fires of Single and Multi-Block propellant Charges

M. Mense, Y. Pizzo, C. Lallemand, N. Sardoy, T. Porterie, P. Pouschat, B. Porterie

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 126-146

Charges of ammonium perchlorate (AP) - hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-aluminum (Al) solid propellant, in the form of one or several shaped blocks, are burned in an enclosure representative of an ammunition storage room onboard a warship. The amount of charge used ranges from 2 to 23 kg. the fire behavior and the thermal response of the enclosure are evaluated in terms of gas pressure and temperature, and wall heat flux and temperature. First, burn characteristics of three different shaped blocks are inferred from visible and infrared images. The rate of regression of the surface of the burning block is found to be nearly independent of the geometry of the burning block and of the ambient conditions; It is equal to 1.3 ± 0.1 mm/s, in accordance with the literature data for an AP/HTPB/Al-type propellant. The influence of enclosure confinement, wall insulation and water spray on fire consequences is also investigated. Some experimental data are used to validate a volumetric model developed by DGA TN. Agreement and discrepancies are discussed. Second, experimental data obtained using single and multi-block propellant loads are compared to highlight what might happen in the event of charge fragmentation. It is found that the combined action of the increase in exposed propellant surface area and the interaction between blocks leads to a significant increase in the burning rate, which in turn results in more severe fire consequences.

Dilepton Emission at Temperature Dependent Baryonic Quark-Gluon Plasma

Shougaijam Somorendro Singh, Yogesh Kumar

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 147-154

Dilepton emission is calculated from quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with the consideration of temperature dependent chemical potential (TDCP). The model is considered to be quasi-model and hence take the dynamical quark mass as a finite value dependence on temperature. The temperature in quark mass enhances in the growth of dilepton emission rates. The emission rate of dilepton spectrum is shown in the intermediate mass region (IMR) of 1.0 - 4.0 GeV and its rate is observed to be a strong increasing function of the temperature dependent chemical potential for quark and anti-quark annihilation.

Frequency/Wavelength as the Characteristics of Black Holes

Dipo Mahto, Rakesh Paswan, Santosh Kumar

New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 12, 19 February 2021, Page 155-165

A model for the wavelength/frequency of Hawking radiation emitted by non-spinning black holes in terms of the radius of event horizon \((\lambda=8\pi R_{s} \;\&\;  v=c/8\pi R_{s}\))  is proposed using quantum theory of radiation ( \(E=h\nu)\), energy of Hawking radiation and the radius of event horizon of non-spinning black holes ( \(R_{s}=2GM/c^{2})\). This can be used as the characteristics of non-spinning black holes. Data for the frequencies and wavelengths of Hawking radiation emitted from black holes have been calculated with the help of rest masses for stellar-mass black holes (M~5-20 MO)  in X-ray binaries and for the super massive black holes (M~ 106 – 109.5 MO) in active galactic nuclei using the model given by \(\lambda=8\pi R_{s} \;\&\;  v=c/8\pi R_{s}\) of the research work entitled: Frequency of Hawking radiation from black holes by Mahto et al.(Dec.2013). The astrophysical objects emitting the radiations of frequencies (8.092x102Hz to 2.023x102Hz) or wavelengths (3.707x105 m to 14.828x105m) in X-ray binaries and frequencies ( 4.046X10-3Hz to 0.809X10-6Hz) or wavelengths (7.414X1010m to 37.070X1013m) in active galactic nuclei may be classified as non-spinning black holes. These frequencies or wavelengths may be regarded as the characteristics of black holes in addition to the mass, spin and charge.