Editor(s)
Dr. Yong X. Gan
Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, USA.

ISBN 978-93-90768-65-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-79-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include  behavioral intention, Grab Pay, dynamics of rotors, slide bearings, technical diagnostics, machine tools, milling machines, multi-coordinate drives, computer simulation, informational justice, procedural justice, public sector organizations, Pearson product moment correlation, Chi-Square test, sustainable infrastructure, transportation, sea level rise, storm surge, physical transportation, quasi compression, edge-loading, mineralization, biodegradation, volatilization, non-flooded soil, ultrasonic velocity, compressibility, molecular interaction, adiabatic compressibility, thermodynamic parameters, de-clustering characters, adhesion strength, conservation, In situ moisture conservation, water management practices, pedagogy. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

Media Promotion:

### Chapters

##### The Factors Influencing Tourists’ Behavioural Intention-to-Use Grab Pay Application

Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim, Wan Farha Wan Zulkiffli, Abdullah Muhamed Yusoff, Harnidah Samengon, Eni Noreni Mohamad Zain, Siti Rohana Mohamad, Shah Iskandar Fahmie Ramlee, Zaimatul Awang

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 1-10
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/1580C

The aims of this study is to examine the influences that may affect the intentions of tourist behavior using GrabPay. For that purpose, this study was conducted in the Klang Valley area in Selangor, Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires were selected for this study to collect data from tourists in the Klang Valley district. About 220 questionnaires were distributed to tourists using convenience sampling techniques. As a result, among the factors shown to influence tourist behavioral intentions to use GrabPay are perceived usefulness and trust. Furthermore, trust is the highest positive dominant influence that influences the behavior of tourists using GrabPay. This current study is beneficial for policy makers and tourism operators in Malaysia. In addition, the results of this study have provided evidence data for tourism operators in Malaysia to outline a promotional approach that can attract more tourists to visit Malaysia in the future.

##### Study on the New Concept of the Rotors and Supporting Structure Transformation for Non-linear Vibrations Analysis

Jan Kicinski

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 11-30
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/7074D

In this paper we will discuss the problem of mathematical description of two basic sub-systems composing a rotating machine, which are the line of rotors with bearings and the supporting structure. If we want to obtain non-elliptic trajectories, with various types of defects in systems operation and complicated vibration spectra coded in their shapes - which makes the basis for technical diagnostics - we must turn to the non-linear analysis and solve the equations of motion in another reference system. The subsystems that frequently reveal non-linear characteristics include the line of rotors with constructional and operational imperfections (misalignment, shaft cracks), and, undoubtedly, the slide bearings and labyrinth seals. At the same time the supporting structure can be treated with satisfactory accuracy as a subsystem having the linear characteristics.

In this situation a key question is how to unite in one system the supporting structure, with its linear characteristics, and the line of rotors and bearings, resting on the supporting structure and definitely representing the non-linear characteristics. Here, such an elegant notation in the form of a complex matrix for the entire machine is not possible any longer. From the mathematical point of view the situation is becoming dramatically more complicated. This assessment mainly depends on the
properties of the construction itself, more precisely on the degree of complexity of its modal model, as well on available measurement or simulation data, and possible interaction of those supporting structure elements which can reveal non-linear characteristics.

In this paper we will propose solutions to this problem in the form of so-called adequacy intervals of the supporting structure dynamic characteristics, with relevant transformation of those characteristics, and will present a novel concept how to incorporate those characteristics to the rotor line dynamics, based on a so-called weight functions proportional to the vibration spectrum of the supports. The proposed concept can be of extreme value for defining defect-symptom relations, to be used in a new and rapidly developing discipline of science bearing the name of the model based diagnostics.

##### Study and Analysis of the Drive System for a Type of Milling Machines Aiming at Performance Improvement

Mikho Mikhov, Marin Zhilevski

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 31-43
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/7254D

Problems in modernization of a type of milling machines are discussed in this paper. Two additional controlled axes are applied, namely a table rotation (axis a) and tilting of this table (axis c). The machines under consideration are attributed to those with multi-coordinate drive systems. The main requirements to this system are formulated. A number of models for computer simulation with various electric drives have been developed aiming at studying their dynamic and static regimes for the respective control algorithms. The experimental research carried out confirms good performance of the electric drives applied. Detailed experimental studies confirm good efficiency of the multi-coordinate driving system applied. The results of this study can be used in the design and set up of such multi-coordinate drive systems.

##### Organizational Justice and Commitment to Work in the Nigerian Public Sector

Omoniyi Ajulor, Gbolabo Okudero, Emma Etim, Edidiong John

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 44-54
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/2083D

The thrust of this study is to check the effect of perceived organizational injustice on public servants’ commitment to work within the framework of equity and social exchange theories. The survey research design was utilized, through the administration of the questionnaire during a day sensitization programme organized for firefighters in Lagos State on the topic: “Combating fire disaster” held on Monday 26th June 2017, for the collection of factual data that are measurable and quantifiable. The data generated were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Four hypotheses were generated for this study. The stated hypotheses were tested using Chi-Square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. We discovered that perceived injustice affects how employees of the public service commit themselves to deliver on assigned duties and responsibilities. In a nutshell, the perception of injustice is one of the most influential factors that affect commitment both in public and private workplaces. This study recommends, among others, that managers should ensure that employees perceive fairness in policy formulation processes as well as during the implementation of the same, as they continue to discharge their duties in the organization. Also, they should introduce reward determination processes and practices, performance evaluation as well as employee-manager relationship.

##### Identification and Assessment of Physical Transportation Infrastructure Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise

Frederick Bloetscher, Thomas Romah, Leonard Berry, Nicole Hernandez Hammer, Maria Abadal Cahill

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 55-66
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/6825D

The objective of this research was developing a methodology for assessing the potential impacts of sea level rise (SLR) on Florida’s state transportation infrastructure to assist the state with transportation planning. Rising temperatures lead to thermal expansion of the ocean and melting ice caps, both of which result in increased ocean level, making Florida among the most vulnerable areas in the world for climate change due its coastal proximity and low elevation. The proposed approach integrates the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) information system, satellite imagery, local roadway and hydrologic data with existing topographical and geographical data to generate SLR projections to facilitate i) the evaluation of current and projected SLR impacts on transportation infrastructure located along Florida’s coastline and low-lying terrain areas, and ii) the identification of the physical transportation infrastructure components that are vulnerable given the United States Army Corps of Engineers’ scenario-based methodology to project the timing of future low, intermediate and high rates of sea level change. A detailed case study in Dania Beach, Florida and a comparative example in Punta Gorda, Florida were used to evaluate the soundness of the methodology. Further research was performed to develop a preliminary evaluation of the impact of groundwater levels as an exacerbating factor with respect to sea level rise. Storm surge with SLR is a future, more difficult area of investigation. It is important to incorporate adaptive management processes into the planning as more information becomes available. Estimates of what these adaptive processes may cost were included for planning purposes. Priorities and sequence are local issues that need local input.

##### Characteristics of Afzelia africana Seed under Compressive Loading: An Empirical Study

C. O. Nwajinka, C. U. Onuegbu, D. O. Amaefule

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 67-79
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/3507D

##### Evaluation of Nutrient Removal from Different Parts of Koroneiki Olive Trees Grown in Sandy Soil as a Base of Fertilizer Recommendation in Egypt

Mohamed M. El-Fouly, A. A. El-Taweel, I. M. S. Osman, Ikram Saad El-Din, S. H. A. Shaaban

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 80-91
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/2201E

Aims: To evaluate nutrient status in Koroneiki olive trees grown in sandy soils and calculate the amount of nutrients annually removed by the olive tree.

Study Design: Costate Statistical package, in order to calculate means, maximum, minimum, standard deviations (SD), with 12 replicates

Place and Duration of Study: El-FIFA farm which is located at km 48 of Cairo-Alexandria road in the north west of Egypt, between January 2011 and December 2012.

Methodology: This experiment was carried out on 10 years-old olive trees cv. Koroneki grown on a loamy sand soil. The trees are cultivated at 6 x 6 meters distance (278 tree/ha-1) and grown using standard cultural practices and subjected to moderate pruning every year. Flesh and pit were separated, weighed and dried. Nutrient concentrations in the flesh and pit were determined and used to quantify the nutrients removed by fruit. The materials removed in pruning were separated to branches and leaves, weighed and dried. Based on the dry matter and nutrient concentration in the different tissues, the amounts of nutrients removed annually in pruning were calculated. Nutrient removals were calculated for every organ, by multiplying dry weight by nutrient concentration. These amounts were added together, to obtain the total nutrient removal/tree.

Results: Leaves have sufficient contents of N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mn, Zn, Cu and B while the level of both Fe and Mg was high. Nutrients removed annually/tree were: 265.24 g N; 37.93 g P; 353.93 g K; 122.67 g Ca; 76.94 g Mg, 74.78 g Na; 7.288 g Fe; 0.773 g Mn;0.514 g Zn, 0.213 g Cu and 0.663 g B., when the yield was77.33 Kg/tree.

Conclusion: It was found under moderate pruning, that fruit and pruned material removed large amounts of nutrients, which can become insufficient for high oil yields in sandy soils. The results obtained are helpful in calculation fertilizer recommendations.

##### Study on Biodegradation and Dissipation of 14C-Carbofuran in Clay Soil from Loukkos Perimeter, Northwestern Morocco

Benicha Mohamed, Mrabet Rachid, Azmani Amina

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 92-103
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/2709D

Mineralization and dissipation of 14C-ring labeled carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl-methylcarbamate), one of the highly toxic N-methyl carbamate pesticides,  in an untreated Vertisol Moroccan soil used for sugar beet cultivation was studied under laboratory conditions over a period of 63 days. The experiment was conducted in flooded and non-flooded conditions. Carbofuran mineralization was determined by monitoring the 14CO2 production from soil amended with U-ring14C-carbofuran. Under both conditions, higher mineralization rates of 14C-carbofuran were observed. The extent of mineralization being more in moist (19.2%) than in flooded conditions (12.4%). In both conditions, the soil extractable pesticide residues decreased with time, while the bound residues gradually increased. The extractable 14C-activity disappearance rate was much higher in flooded than in non-flooded conditions. At the end of the experiment, 15.8% and 31% of applied dose were recovered as extractable residues under flooded and moist conditions respectively. Soil bound residues were formed to the extent of 33.3% of the applied dose in flooded soil, while 29.1% was formed in non-flooded soil. The amount of the organic volatiles was much higher in flooded condition (18.2%), as compared to 5.6% in non-flooded soil. The main degradation product formed was carbofuran phenol. The results confirm that carbofuran is more rapidly mineralized in soil under moist than flooded conditions; likewise it is important to note the large difference in degradation rate of the substance in moist and flooded soils.

##### An Advanced Study of Ultrasonic Velocity, Density and Compressibility by Using Polar-Nonpolar Binary Liquid Mixtures at 303.15 K

S. L. Patankar, H. N. Thorat, A. G. Patil, A. G. Murugkar

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 104-110
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/2202E

The ultrasonic velocity (U), density ($$\rho$$) and compressibility ($$\beta$$) of polar-nonpolar binary liquid mixtures of Nitro methane (NM) with Toluene at 303.15 K have been measured and studied. From this data, thermodynamic parameters have been calculated such as excess velocity, excess acoustic impedance and excess adiabatic compressibility. The results have been interpreted in terms of molecular interaction between polar and non-polar binary mixtures. Excess parameters are fitted to obtain standard deviation of the data. Thus from the results obtained, it can be conclude that the polar NM has weak interaction with non-polar toluene. The weaker interaction attributes the de-clustering or rupture of hydrogen bonding via dissociation between the different types of species of the molecules, which is due to occurrence of structure breaking factor.

##### Critical Estimation of Strength of Coating of Solvent Layer on the Basis of Adhesive Building Mixture

V. I. Loganina, K. V. Zhegera

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 111-118
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/7346D

##### Knowledge Relationships in Freshwater Governance

A. Amu-Mensah Marian, B. Kendie Stephen, K. Amu-Mensah Frederick, K. Barima Antwi, Farhad Analoui, O. Mireku Dickson, B. Amu-Mensah Saraphina

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 119-143
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/6581D

Freshwater governance policy formulation and implementation are usually undertaken with little consideration to the thought processes generated from the local communities around the resource environment, thus emphasising a top-down approach to water governance. Even though considerable efforts have been made to the social change theory by incorporating stakeholders' views, the individual-level or local-level insights, as well as constructs and environmental connections (cognitive view) in freshwater challenges, are usually left out. Using the case study research design, with emphasis on the descriptive design helped to access local knowledge in freshwater governance. The mixed-method approach helped to put together information based on behavioural concerns, the spirituality of the people, and the resource environmental concerns needed for the analysis and discussion of the data while drawing a meaningful conclusion from the data. The results provide a framework, which will help to address interventions that simultaneously cover both development and behavioural determinants of freshwater degradation, toward social change conservation policy in reducing crisis in freshwater governance.

##### Recent Observations on Climate Resilient Water Management Practices for in situ Moisture Conservation

Kiran Kumari, Anjani Kumar

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 144-149
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/2245E

Climate change has an impact on Indian agriculture in various direct and indirect ways besides affecting the lives and livelihood of millions of Indians. Agriculture and allied activities, such as livestock and fisheries, constitute an important component of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contributing nearly 25 per cent of the GDP. Efficient management of natural resources is key for enhancing the adaptive capacity of the system and contributes towards the resilience of communities. Successful crop production in frequent drought and flood-affected regions depends on how effectively we conserve the deficit rainfall and manage the excess rainfall and soils to retain the moisture for longer periods for successful arable crop production. In the context of climate change and variability, farmers need to adapt quickly to enhance their resilience to increasing threats of climatic variability such as droughts, floods and other extreme climatic events. The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluation of the performance of different in situ Water conservation measures with respect to the climatic variability prevailed in the village. Demonstrations of appropriate practices and technologies recommended by the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) are being taken up in a farmer participatory mode so that the communities become familiar with these technologies and help in their adoption resulting in enhancing their adaptive capacity and coping ability against climatic change and variability. It was observed that the use of forest leaves and paddy straw was found very profitable to conserve soil moisture in situ with BCR Rs. 7.16 followed by the use of naturally occurred leaves in fruit plants with BCR Rs. 6.22 and use of plastics in vegetables with BCR 4.41. Respondents opined that the use of natural mulch was very cost- effective as well as it is compatible with the existing farming system and very simple in its application. Wheat with cultivation through ZTD showed a maximum yield of 46q/ha. Zero tillage technology showed very promising results in pulse and oilseed cultivation.

##### Optimal Methods of Input for Pedagogic Engineering Software

James C. Squire, Gerald A. Sullivan, Thomas J. McCormick

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 7, 22 February 2021, Page 150-156
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v7/1657C

Computer simulations are commonly employed to teach intuitive causal engineering relationships, yet there is little research regarding what aspects make such simulations maximally pedagogically effective. This paper investigates how the discrete vs. continuous nature of user input, such as moving a dial vs. typing a parameter, affects actual learning as well as the user-perceived learning.  The N = 91 cohort size was not sufficient to establish statistical differences at the $$\alpha$$ = 0.05 level, but at $$\alpha$$ = 0.1 it was observed that simulations using continuous input caused students to learn more effectively, and that students who used continuous input methods believed, following their use, that continuous input learning methods were more effective than discrete input learning methods. Surprisingly, an inverse correlation was found between objectively-measured student understanding and subjectively-rated student belief of their own subject mastery. In other words, students who used continuous input simulations believed they were better teaching tools in general, even though they believed their specific learning was inadequate.