Editor(s)
Dr. P. Elangovan
Associate Professor & HOD, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
SRM TRP Engineering College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu , India.

 

ISBN 978-93-90768-85-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-28-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v6

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include polymer composites, natural fibers, date palm-stem fibre, hybrids, dynamic adsorption, fixed-bed column, adsorbent–adsorbate modeling, artificial neural network, water quality index, principal component analysis, multiple linear regression, resistivity, vertical electrical sounding, mapping, landfill leachate, groundwater contamination, Kendall’s coefficient, hazards, risk assessment, proportional importance index, unified acceptance technology, mobile apps, imaginary numbers, special theory of relativity, dark matter, dark energy, dark space, invisible universe, hyperverse, technological singularity, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, modeling and simulations, infectious disease diagnosis, nanotechnology, DNA hybridization, river bank filtration, river discharge, water purifying technology. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

 

Media Promotion:


Chapters


A Critical Comprehension of Effect of Surface Treatment on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Date Palm – Stem Fiber Embedded Epoxy Composites

Debasmita Mishra, Janaki Dehury, Satchidananda Tripathy, Alok Satapathy

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 1-11
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/7006D

Polymer composites with natural fibers as reinforcements are being customarily used for a wide range of engineering applications due to their exemplary characteristics like low density, ease of procurement and superior mechanical properties but natural fibers are usually hydrophilic. An exploration into a class of natural fiber composite like date palm-stem fiber composite was hence undertaken to venture into manufacture of a new class of material which has excellent water resistant properties and can be used in diverse application areas. The effect of loading of the date palm-stem fiber on the physical attributes along-with mechanical aspects were investigated under the present research and necessary efforts were made to study about the surface treatment of short fiber based epoxy composites. The treated fibers and their characteristics were observed and compared with the untreated ones. Composites of various compositions of different amounts of fiber loading were fabricated by simple hand lay-up technique and it was observed that the effect of surface treatment of fibers on the overall properties of composites was pretty significant. Furthermore, lower water absorption rate was accomplished with date palm-stem and glass fiber-epoxy based hybrid composites.

Study on Dynamic Adsorption of Complex System In Solid-Liquid Phase Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

Meriem Sediri, Salah Hanini, Maamar Laidi, Hakima Cherifi, Siham Abbas Turki

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 12-32
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/2320E

This work aims to develop an ANN model to predict the dynamic adsorption of complex system of adsorbent- adsorbate in solid-liquid phase on different parameters through an adsorption column. Nine neurons were used in the input layer, fourteen neurons and ten neurons were used respectively in the first and the second hidden layer. One neuron was used in the output layer. A set of 2007 data points were used for testing the neural network. Levenberg Marquardt learning (LM) algorithm, logarithmic sigmoid transfer function and linear transfer function were used for the hidden and output layer respectively. Results with the ANN showed a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9976 and 0.9969 respectively for total database and for validation phase between simulated data and those obtained from the literature with a root mean square error RMSE = 0.0268 and 0.0305for total database and for validation phase respectively.

Moreover, to determine the most suitable model, Thomas and Bohart-Adams models were applied. The comparison between root mean square error (RMSE), sum of the absolute error (SAE), Chi-square statistic test (X2) and correlation coefficient (R2) showed that the neural network model gave far better. In general, the developed model provides the highest agreement vector values of [R2,\(\begin{equation}\label{eq1}
\alpha, \beta
\end{equation}\)] with a root mean square error value (RMSE) closed to zero.

Water sources are usually polluted by waste generated by human activities. The available water sources throughout the world are becoming depleted and this problem is aggravated by the population growth rate and subsequent increase in water demand especially in developing countries. This work examined the activities on three dump sites on surface and groundwater quality in Warri metropolis. Water samples from boreholes, dug-wells and stream sources around Niger-Cat, Don-Parkar and Orhuwhorun dump sites were assessed for their water quality. Purposive sampling technique was employed in the collection of water samples for the sampling period of September, November and January and the concentration of water quality parameters were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) were applied to simulate Water Quality Index (WQI) models for the monitoring and prediction of water quality of groundwater and surface water around the dump sites. The models yielded goodness of fit (R2) values which ranged from 0.9997 to 0.9999 (99%). The modeled WQI values for Boreholes: BH1, BH2 and BH3 were 60.9, 8.2 and 41.8, while Dug-wells: DW1, DW2 and DW3 were 208.2, 49.3 and 51.5 at Niger-Cat. BH1, BH2 and BH3 were 15.5, 30.8 and 36.6, while DW1 and DW2 were 30.2 and 38.4 for Don-Parkar. For Orhuwhorun dump site, BH1 and BH2 were 33.5 and 16.2; DW1, DW2 and DW3 were 49.7, 40.4 and 21.4, while Stream SM1 was 8.7. Findings revealed that waters of the three dump sites were acidic and the quality ranged from excellent quality to unsuitable for drinking. This study had revealed that the activities of the dump sites is affecting the water sources around the dump sites especially Niger-Cat dump site. It also revealed that the water around the dump sites is acidic.

Developing Resistivity Contouring and Plume Mapping of Landfill Leachate Using Electrical Resistivity Method in Warri Metropolis

Mamuyovwi Odia, Ify L. Nwaogazie, Gregory O. Avwiri, Eunice O. Nwachukwu

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 55-67
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/2171E

Electrical resistivity method was used to study the movement of municipal solid waste landfills leachate of Niger-Cat, Donparkar and Orhuwhorun dump sites in Warri Metropolis, Southern Nigeria. Landfilling remains the cheapest and one of the most widely practiced method for the disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in both developed and developing nations. Both Electrical Resistivity Profiling and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were carried out using Schlumberger array configuration. Surfer 10 and ArcGIS 10.3 software packages were used to interpret resistivity profiling data to produce apparent resistivity contour maps of study sites while IPI2Win software package was used to interpret VES data. This computer program automatically generated model curves using initial layer parameters (resistivity and thickness) derived from partial curve matching of the field curves with standard curves, and calculated the true layer parameters of the geo-electric section. The results revealed that at Niger-Cat dump site, leachate had migrated from dump into surrounding soil and contamination had advanced up to a depth of 19.12m which is within the local groundwater system of the area. At Don-Parkar dump site, results showed leachate migration from around the edges of dump site into surrounding soil and contamination had advanced to a depth exceeding 20.7m. At Orhuwhorun dump site, result of resistivity contour map showed leachate migration on the south of the dump; however VES results showed no contamination; thus groundwater in the vicinity is currently safe. There is need for waste managers to adopt engineered sanitary landfill for solid waste disposal and government policy should address this issue to help safeguard the groundwater resources in the area.

Fire Safety Management in a Typical Higher Institution in Nigeria

Brilliance O. Anyanwu, Onyewuchi Akaranta, Ify L. Nwaogazie

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 68-82
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/2172E

The scarcity of literature on fire safety awareness and practice and the lack of consideration of human decisions and organizational failures that contribute to fire disasters in schools formed the thrust for this study. The study was carried out to determine the level of fire safety awareness and the level of fire safety implementation in the University of Port Harcourt. Secondary data were collected from the fire service unit of the University to show the number of fire occurrences and major causes of fire incidents in the University. The primary data were collected by means of questionnaires administered to 250 persons out of which 220 were retrieved representing a response rate of 88%. Twenty questions were designed as questionnaire parameters; the first ten are to assess the level of fire safety awareness amongst respondents in University of Port Harcourt while the second ten are to evaluate the fire safety implementation /practice in the University. The responses are rated as strongly agree (4), agree (3), disagree (2) and strongly disagree (1). Data analyses were facilitated via the evaluation of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (w), that is, the degree of agreement amongst the respondents. The results revealed an average level of awareness and a low implementation /practice level amongst the respondents. Lack of awareness on the emergency number to call in the event of fire, lack of fire safety policy, lack of knowledge on the different types of portable fire extinguishers, inadequate provision and  inspection of firefighting equipment, lack of  inspection and review of past fire incidents, nonchalant attitude of turning off electrical appliances after use, electrical installations/repair not being handled by competent persons and the staff and students not having adequate information, instruction and training on fire safety are the gaps identified. Kendall’s analysis revealed a high degree of agreement amongst the respondents on both fire safety awareness (0.78) and fire safety implementation /practice (0.90), respectively. Thus, the study recommends a fire safety organogram for delegation of duties, training of staff and students on basic fire safety, provision and inspection of fire preventive and protective methods, employment of competent personnel to handle electrical works to ensure the protection of lives, assets, environment and reputation of the institution.

Hazards identification and creation of a safe working environment is a major challenge faced by management of many industries today. Hazard assessment is thus carried out in workplaces to identify dangerous events and conditions that may lead to accidents in the industries. Gap analysis on hazard identification alongside safety management in the industries was carried out in order to showcase the level of incompleteness in recent studied on the subject and the need to close the gaps in future studies. This study, which was carried out in both a petrochemical and an oil refining companies in Nigeria, identified industrial hazards and assessed safety measures in the Chemical Industry (CHI) of Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The study was carried out amongst technical staff and management staff of the chemical industry whose day-to-day duty is such that they are exposed to one form of hazard or the other in the industry. The questionnaire was administered to 96 technical staff and management staff in the CHI out of which 84 (88%) were completed and returned. The study focused on types of hazards, hazards and risk awareness, implementation of control measures and effectiveness of safety hazards and risk management programmes in the chemical industry of Nigeria. Modified Proportional Importance Index (PII) and a four-point Likert scale were adopted in data analysis. Results revealed that loud noise (PII = 3.2; respondents = 92%), working at heights (with PII = 3.1; respondents = 89%) machines and equipment vibration (PII = 3.0; respondents = 87%), high voltage areas (PII = 2.9; respondents = 84%) and chemical spills (PII = 2.5; respondents = 55%) are the highest ranking hazards in the chemical industry. A high level of safety hazard awareness was found among workers in the industry (p < 0.05, 95%Cl.; PII = 3.1 - 3.5). The outcome of the intervention showed that Chemical Industry Number 1 (CHI-1) improved from 87.90% to 98.09%, Chemical Industry Number 2 (CHI-2) improved from 81.53% to 95.54% on worker’s knowledge on the identification and assessment of hazards and risk in the chemical industries. These hazards pose threats to the safety of workers and should be effectively controlled to reduce associated risks to as Low as Reasonably and Practically Achievable (ALARPA).

Critical Study of Fatigue Behaviour of a Cement Matrix Composite Reinforced by Sugar Cane Bagasse Short Fibers

Acodji V. Pamphile, Doko K. Valery, Olodo E. T. Emmanuel

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 103-111
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/2138E

This work is devoted to the study of the fatigue behaviour of a cement matrix composite reinforced by sugar cane bagasse short fibers. The understanding of its fatigue behaviour is interesting for the dimensioning of parts using it for material. The objective is analysis of the fatigue behaviour in order to assess its ability to withstand use on wall structures, in bracing, false ceiling of this material. Some series of tests carried out in compression and flexion characterized the material mechanical properties, the tests in monotonic and cyclic three-point bending showed the material behaviour in use. For the composite, another fairly conventionally used representation is to visualize the variations in material properties as a function of the number of cycles. The Wöhler curves is plotted from the strain stresses and the number of cycles for the end of test criteria. It shows the influence of increase in stress on the material service life face of breaking. The Fatigue limit corresponds to the line s =26.40 MPa, stress for which no breaking is observed after an infinite number of cycles, and the Endurance limit corresponds to the line of stress 26.79 MPa, the limit value towards which the stress amplitude tends when the number of cycles becomes very large. This information allows us to control the quality of the material by building a tolerance interval below which the pieces are deemed non-compliant.

The Use of Unified Acceptance Technology Model for Travel Mobile Applications

Nurzehan Abu Bakar, Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim, Nur Azimah Othman, Nur Hafizah Muhammad, Tahirah Abdullah, Siti Nurul Shuhada Deraman, Siti Afiqah Zainuddin, Nor Maizana Mat Nawi

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 112-120
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/1579C

Presently, the Internet plays a vital role in the life of society. It has also changed the way people travel by providing cheaper, easier and more efficient prices. Recognizing the significant impact of travel applications on the tourism sector, researchers have focused on studies that determine the intention of tourists to use tourism applications. In addition, among the consumer behavior models used to study the tourism sector, is the Unified Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model which is a common and new model today. Therefore, the existing study is expected to evaluate the intention of locals to use mobile travel applications based on the UTAUT model. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 390 millennials in Malaysia of which IBM SPSS 24 version was selected for data analysis. Studies show that the UTAUT variable is related to behavioral intentions. This study contributes to a new perspective on the use and choice of mobile applications, especially in the context of tourism. It also offers practical application implications for mobile app developers for mobile app feature design, most likely for travelers.

How to Create Human Super Civilization

Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 121-138
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/6474D

Theoretical and experimental evidence of physical reality of imaginary numbers using interpretation of Ohm’s law for electrical AC circuits proposed in 1897 by Steinmetz was presented. Other pieces of evidence are mentioned as well. The use of the general scientific principle of the physical reality of imaginary numbers allowed to prove that the relativistic formulas in the existing version of the special relativity theory are wrong, as well as to deny the principle of non-exceeding the speed of light and the hypothesis of Monoverse. Corrected relativistic formulas are given and on their basis a theory of hidden Multiverse is proposed, parallel universes of which are mutually invisible. It explains why they are invisible and how these invisible universes can be seen. Using data obtained by the spacecrafts WMAP and Planck, it is proved that the hidden Multiverse has a quaternion structure, exists in the six-dimensional space, and forms Hyperverse together with other Multiverses. It is shown that the parallel universes of the hidden Multiverse are continuously drifting in multidimensional space, touch each other in many places and are even partially immersed in each other, forming portals. It is argued that the search for extraterrestrial civilizations in the solar system and even in distant space is meaningless, since you can even walk to the invisible parallel universes adjacent to our visible universe through portals, the entrances to which on Earth are anomalous zones. Moreover, extraterrestrial super civilizations have already found us long time ago and are located on Earth. The attempts to contact these super civilizations are meaningless as well, because such contacts are possible only at their wish. Consequently, to make the contacts possible, we need to convince super civilizations that human civilization is of interest to them and that it has a sufficiently high intelligence. It is shown how the human super intelligence over can be realized.

AC Signal Analysis of Bionanosensors for Intermediate Frequency Range

Vishal Desai, Saion Sinha

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 139-152
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/1502F

Nanobiosensors are devices which incorporate nanomaterials to detect miniscule quantities of biological and chemical agents. The authors have developed novel Bionanosensors (BNS) for quick, efficient and precise detection of bacterial pathogens using the principles of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT)-Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) interactions and DNA hybridization. The detection ability of the (BNS) was observed to be independent of the initial sensor resistance. This conclusion implies that BNS’s performance is independent on the method of fabrication. Two new methods, such as Low Pass Filter (LPF) and Curve Fitting (CF) were developed for analyzing the sensing mechanisms of  BNS. These methods successfully modeled the performance of the BNS. In addition, the evidence is provided to elucidate the success of the model which can explain the DNA hybridization on the sensor surface. These models successfully demonstrated the detection of DNA hybridization versus non-hybridization. Thus, the models not only assist in providing insight of these BNS but can also be used to analyze other similar nanoscale devices which enhances the applicability of these modeling methods.

A Detailed Comparative Study of RBF Well Yield and River Flow

H. Vijaya Kumar, Nagraj S. Pati

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 6, 13 February 2021, Page 153-160
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/bpi/nicst/v6/7251D

Nontoxic drinking water is necessary for all life forms even though it offers no calories or organic nutrients. Nontoxic water sources are getting scarcer and contamination of these sources is growing due to excess extraction from available sources to meet the growing water demand and inadequate sanitation facilities establishment. Although the approach to nontoxic drinking water has improved over the last few decades in almost every part of the world, approximately one billion people remain deprived of safe water, and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. Riverbank filtration is a natural water purification technology that extracts river water via wells located on the riverbank. This work compares the production well yield with a river flow. Pumping test was carried out for determining yield of a production well at a small village named somlapura on the bank of Tungabhadra River, Karnataka, India. The river discharge obtained from the Water Commission Board was compared to the yield of the River bank well measured by water metre (Davangere). Even though the river flow varies, the results show that the well yield remains constant during the observation period.  Hence, it is concluded that, the RBF well yields the water at the rate of 330 liters/minute. Average Production of water from a well is 0.48 MLD (million liters per day). Therefore, with this production rate it can serve population of three thousand five hundred fifty five with 135 LPCD (liters per capita per day).