Editor(s)

Dr. Fahmida Khan
National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.

ISBN 978-93-90888-04-7 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-12-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include wireless Communication, Reed-Solomon codes, Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem codes, fractal education/consciousness, scientific orthodoxy, haric level, real gas, supercritical fluid, bond energy, equilibrium constant, bioterrorist, anthrax spores, bacteriological weapons, phonics method, fuzzy logic controller, buck boost converter, onion planter, intercropping system, weed management, dry matter production, soil fertility, cropping systems, pressure gradient, begs and brill traverse, gas liquid ratio, liquid holdup, multiphase fluid flow, reservoir modelling, ensemble Kalman filter, genetic algorithm. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.

 

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Chapters


Wireless Communication is one of the greatest contributions to mankind. The main goal of wireless communication is to provide communication with high data rates. During this transmission over a wireless link, the sidebands from various carriers might overlap and give rise to interference. OFDM combats these interferences. OFDM is a multicarrier technique in which high data single stream are transmitted over a number of minimum data rate parallel sub-carriers. Due to this, the symbol duration tends to increase and reduce the effects of multipath spread delay. Also, for spectral efficiency, the cognitive radio is designed to utilize the best channels in periphery. It automatically detects the ready to be drawn channels in a wireless spectrum and then transmutes the reception and transmission parameters accordingly. In this paper, the error analysis is presented in OFDM system error correction with PSK modulation by using forward codes (Reed-Solomon codes and Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem codes) in order to get low BER, high data rate and also resilience the interferences in AWGN, RICIAN, RAYLEIGH channels and the result is stimulated using LABVIEW. Wireless communication has become vital which uses free space as a communication channel, the cognitive radio is a technology which proved that it is best in the developing wireless systems.

The paper analyzes the measure and the ways in which an individual or group consciousness can reach a ‘grace level’ (‚haric’ level) close to the maximum possible, considered of the Divinity. A first conclusion of the analysis is that the fractal, networked education, obtained from simple to complex and from an individual to a larger groups of (of group) consciences, within which the learning of an individual superior consciousness, in particular - teacher, professor, is transmitted to those spiritually guided by transmitting not only of his teaching but also of his attitude towards the transmitted teaching and the strategy of using it in society and the formation of individual and fractal consciences of haric level - understood as the highest value level of the psycho-social Good, requires a strategy of using the obtained orthodox-scientific teaching, based on completing the fundamental principles of the orthodoxy: purification, enlightenment, union with the Divinity, fight against evil, with the scientific principle of orthodox reciprocity. Another conclusion is that the possibility of the existence of a divine haric meta-consciousness, understood in the sense of haric spiritual leader of several haric super-consciences which are spiritual leaders of a significant number of superior consciences relative to the average level, exceeds the capacity of a single psycho-bio-social entity, resulting that a God with super-normal powers, capable of restoring the Good of the orthodox-scientific type in worldwide, can exist more as a judicial entity than as a single physical and spiritual entity, so- as a Divine Organization, more realistic and scientific being the concept of Godness, which must be both judicial and executive, based on scientific orthodoxy, which includes the principle of orthodox reciprocity. It results also that the possibility of spiritual leadership of the mankind by the Godness supposes energo-informational action with advanced technical means, such as telepathic amplifiers, which could also explain the transmission of the Holy Spirit and some reported paranormal manifestations such as the cases of "intelligent ghosts". It results also that the Godness may be recused by the scientific orthodoxism and the principles of the Providence must be modified in the form: orthodox-scientific cooperation with the Creation; orthodox-scientific leadership of the Creation and orthodox-scientific preservation of the Creation.

The Linear Chain Clusters in Real Gases

Boris Sedunov

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 23-40
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/8200D

The chapter describes the new class of linear chain clusters, discovered by the author, and the methods of their properties evaluation. In real gases exist different types of clusters: linear with a minimal number of bonds between particles and tightly bound two and three dimensional clusters. The experimental data analysis for many pure gases shows wide zones of temperature and density, where the linear chain clusters dominate. The potential energy density series expansion by the monomer fraction density at moderate densities of real gases returns cluster bond parameters and their equilibrium constants, which may be attributed to this new class of clusters. The monomer fraction density based computer aided analysis of precise thermophysical data for pure fluids discovers wonderful properties of these unknown cluster structures in real gases. An extrapolation of these loosely bound clusters' properties to larger densities provides a selection of densely bound three dimensional clusters in sub- and supercritical fluids in general and especially in the CO2. It is important to know the clusters structure and parameters in this gas, widely used in supercritical fluid technologies. Step-by-step movement from diluted to dense gases discovers properties of large three dimensional clusters with numbers n of particles up to the level of one thousand. The logarithmic method to estimate the averaged numbers n of particles in three dimensional clusters is developed to study the mechanism of the soft structural transition between dominating cluster fractions with  neighbor numbers n and between the gas-like and liquid-like supercritical fluids.

The Bioterrorist Attacks on America: A Historical Review

Yurii V. Ezepchuk

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 41-49
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/1884F

This article discusses the events surrounding the 9/11 bioterrorist attacks upon US citizens in which anthrax spores were utilized. The arguments presented in this article substantiate the shortcomings regarding the search of “domestic” terrorists, indicating that agents from the Arab world were involved in the organized attacks of sending letters with anthrax spores. Since the attacks employed the use of the weaponized aerosol form of anthrax, there is evidence which demonstrates that the manufacturing of the spores was carried out in a country with capabilities of developing bacteriological weapons. Special interest representatives reported results of the investigation regarding the sources of biological weapons, explaining the participants of the operation were localized. Ultimately, this article presents legitimate arguments in which further investigation is warranted.

Study on Reading and Writing Abilities of Thai and Migrant Students on the Use of Phonics Method

Rungarun Rojrattanadamrong Chaisri

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 50-60
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/7908D

This study examined reading and writing ability of Thai and immigrant students using phonics method. The sample group used in this study consisted of Grade 1 Thai and immigrant students in Wat Sirimongkol School, Samut Sakorn Province. The sampled students were selected by purposive sampling. The research tools used in this study were pretest and post-test reading and writing ability examination forms. The collected data was analyzed using Multivariate analysis of variance or MANOVA. The study found that Grade 1 Thai and migrant students with Phonics training had higher reading and writing ability in the first and second post-tests compared to pre-tests, with statistical significance of .01. Phonics method provides opportunities to practice reading and writing from the beginning to the end, with more chances to rehearse each sound and practice reading and writing, and hence, it has significant positive impact on students learning.

Research on Real Time Implementation of Fuzzy Based Buck Boost Converter Using LabVIEW

M. Chelliah, C. Mari Muthu

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 61-69
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/8120D

Virtual instrumentation is defined as the combination of measurement and control the hardware and software with industry-standard computer technology to create user-defined instrumentation systems. In this paper, the two-input fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for buck boost converter output-voltage regulation is proposed by using LabVIEW. Here the output voltage has been used as a closed loop feedback to determine the output error (e) and the change in error (?e) as two inputs to the controller. The elements of the buck boost converter as inductance and capacitor have been selected to insure continuous operating mode (CCM) and low output voltage ripple. The experimental results show that the FLC has a good output voltage response compared with PID controller response. This research has successfully showed that LabVIEW and Fuzzy Logic controller can be applied to develop a system for selecting the modes of controller.

Manually Operated Onion Bulblet Planter over a Traditional Method of Planting: A Comparative Study

Falguni Rathore, Shalini Chaturvedi, N. K. Khandelwal

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 70-77
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/2090D

The study was conducted that the comparison between the planting of onion by manually operated onion bulblet planter over a hand planting method (Traditional method of planting) in the college of Agricultural Engineering JNKVV Jabalpur. A manually operated onion bulblet planter was developed with an inclined plate metering device. The performance evaluation of developed planter in term of field efficiency and missing hill percentage. And it also compares the cost and time of operation of developed planter over a hand planting. The results showed that the field efficiency was 83.33% with chisel type furrow opener and the missing index percentage was 2.22%. It observed that the cost of planting by manually operated onion bulblet planter was Rs. 1790.81 per hectare of land as compared to the hand planting method for one hectare of land was required 65 man days and cost of Rs. 9300. Time and labour can be saved with the planter compared to the traditional method of planting.

A field experiment was conducted in Instruction-cum-Research Farm of Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat district, Assam, India during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to identify a suitable combination of ginger and cowpea intercropping along with different weed management practice to effectively manage the weeds in ginger. It is a widely spaced and long duration crop, gives growers plenty of opportunities to utilise the available vacant space at the early growth stage of the rhizome to grow any short duration leguminous intercrop. A total of 16 numbers of treatment combinations were considered, comprising of 4 legume intercropping systems and 4 weed management practices. Intercropping of legume crop Cowpea either in between the rows of Ginger and incorporated at 40 days after sowing (DAS) or in between alternate rows of Ginger and incorporated at 40 days after sowing (DAS) and pre-emergence application of Metribuzin 500 g ai ha-1 + hand weeding (HW) at 70, 100 and 140 days after planting (DAP) recorded better results in terms of ginger growth and rhizome yield.

Research on Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed as Well as Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

Raphiou Maliki, Brice Sinsin, Anne Floquet, Denis Cornet, Eric Malezieux, Philippe Vernier

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 87-108
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/3461D

Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems. Treatment × Farmer and Year × Treatment inter-actions influenced significantly the yam tuber dry matter production. Amounts of N, P, and K recycled in yam shoot were significantly higher in yam-based systems with legumes than in traditional systems.

Prediction of Pressure Gradients for Multiphase Flow in Pipes

Sarah A. Akintola, Julius U. Akpabio, Mary-Ann Onuegbu

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 109-122
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/1850E

Pressure traverse in multiphase flow differs from single phase flow due to the differential flow rates of the different phases. Correlations developed to predict multiphase flow pressure traverse are mostly for vertical wells but Beggs and Brill model is one of the few models that is used for inclined pipes. The work seeks to show the improvement in the modification of the model. This project is based on studies carried out on multiphase fluid flow in pipes of any inclination using the Beggs and Brill flow model as the focus. Two cases were considered, the liquid holdup correction and Gas Liquid Ratio (GLR) variations in which the Beggs and Brill and Beggs and Brill Traverse models were compared. Due to the empirical nature of the Beggs and Brill model, pressure gradient predictions are far from accurate when compared with measured data in the field. This project seeks to reduce the error margin between predicted pressure gradient values and measured data. It was observed that for the same reservoir, fluid, and pipe properties, the Beggs and Brill Traverse Model is a better prediction tool than the Beggs and Brill model. Prediction errors were seen to increase with increase in length for GLR above 400 scf/stb while they were more accurate for pipes between 12,000 and 17,000 ft and pressures between 3,000 and 4,500 psi. However, the Beggs and Brill Traverse Model, is limited by the choice of correlations used in the computation of fluid properties. It is necessary to predict pressure drop in vertical multiphase flow in order to effectively design tubing and optimum production strategies.

An Approach of Optimization Techniques for History Matching and Production Forecasting

Giridhar Vadicharla, Pushpa Sharma

New Ideas Concerning Science and Technology Vol. 12, 1 May 2021, Page 123-140
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nicst/v12/7815D

Petroleum as a natural reserve is depleting year-by-year and there is a firm need of efficient management of petroleum and its reservoir. In this scenario, reservoir modelling and production forecasting provide vital inputs to its efficient management. The naturally occurring reservoirs are highly heterogeneous and nonlinear in nature, which makes us difficult to obtain accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of reservoir properties representing the reservoir and corresponding production profiles. An accurate model built with the help of data obtained from the reservoir, in terms of reservoir properties and history matching, can lead us to efficient management of the reservoir and such models can be built with the help of mathematical modeling and optimization techniques. This chapter describes various optimization techniques applicable for history matching and production forecasting. It discusses gradient based and non-gradient based optimization techniques viz. Simulated Annealing (SA), Scatter Search (SS), Neighborhood algorithm (NA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Ensemble Kalman Filters (EnKF) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) and their application to reservoir production history matching and performance. The chapter also discusses recent advancements and variations of these techniques used for this purpose.