Dr. Abbas Mohammed
Fellow IET, Senior Member IEEE, Professor, Senior Consultant ExAudio AB, Sweden.

ISBN 978-81-19102-37-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19102-38-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nfpsr/v9

This book covers key areas of physical science research. The contributions by the authors include causal set theory, kinematic manifold, quantum gravity, quantum strings, mesomorphism, polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Liquid crystalline materials, spacetime, planck scale, dynamic optimization formulations, non-baryonic quark, dark matter, gauge bosons, Higgs bosons cosmological constant, bulk crystal growth, microstructures, elemental mapping, Bi rich domains, Z scan technique, energy-momentum tensor, Ricci tensor, entropy, cohesive energy, Newtonian physics, Maxwell equations, node theory,  Ultrasonic pulse echo technique, ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, positional Isomerism, molecular interaction, dispersive forces, information age, big data industry, Classical physics, fundamental physical constants, electrodynamic constant, speed of light, dirac large number, dimensionless Rydberg constant, Newtonian constant of gravitation, self-consistency of fundamental physical constants. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science research.


Media Promotion:


The Concept of Time: Causality, Precedence, and Space Time

Hamidreza Simchi

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 1-16

The world is composed by events. We can sense the changes of events directly by our five senses or indirectly by using the measurement equipment and tools. If in a closed system including the observer no changes are sensed, no time passes and if even a very small change is sensed, time passes. It means that the time is not a real degree of freedom and can be only understood through the concept of changes in events. The events can be considered as relata and their mutual or multiple interactions can be considered as relation. Causality can be sensed if one relata creates a change in the other relata and in consequence the passage of time can be sensed.  These two relates are connected to each other by a causal world line. If two relates are connected by a timelike curve theoretically, but they cannot make change in each other, one relata has only a priority in occurrence respect to other (time precedence), and in consequence, one can omit the past non-casual events from the casual world line. In addition, in causality relation, we should consider more than one causal world line due to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and its probabilistic nature (superposition principle). Therefore, at Planck scale, more than one casual world line should be assigned to the relation between two casual events when we want to study the dynamic of spacetime. It means that no kinematic state can be considered at Planck scale and a quantum spacetime manifold (QSTM) should be only assigned to the casual world line, from beginning. The quantum field operators and the particles are assigned to the point of the QSTM in Planck scale and in consequence, the physical theories are background dependent at the scale.

A Comparative Investigation into the Mesomorphism of Series of Aromatic Naphthalen-2-yl 4-(Alkoxy) Benzoate and Naphthalen-1-yl 4-(Alkoxy) Benzoate Materials

Wajdi Michael Zoghaib, Carlo Carboni , M. Elias Molla, Samiya Al-Mahrezi, Turkiya Al-Shahumi, Sanaa Al-Badi, Muna Al-Farsi

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 17-25

A homologous sequence of aromatic ester materials' mesogenic characteristics are investigated. This study is aimed at comparing the mesomorphic behavior of the series described herein with mesogenic materials we prepared and studied earlier. Single tail and double tail materials were synthesized for this comparative study. By using differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy, the phase sequences and transition temperatures were determined. Only compounds with a single tail and an ester connected at position 2 of the naphthalene exhibit mesogenic behaviour. Two materials (ZH 29 & ZH 32) possess a monophasic nematic phase and another two materials (ZH 14 & ZH 35) display biphasic nematic and smectic (A) phases. The materials with the ester attached to naphthalene at position 1 do not display any mesogenic behavior. The materials with two alkoxy chains bonded to the benzoate ester do not display any mesogenic behavior as well.

A Grand Unified Reaction Platform: Concept of Time Approach

Hamidreza Simchi

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 26-47

In this paper, we intend to show how to define certain boundaries between physics in different dimensions, through which a conceptual shift paradigm occurs. The universe is made up of things that change and are referred to as events. Matter and field are the events. A boundary separates a system into things and the environment. Things that belong to the environment have no effect on things that belong to the system. Because science cannot explain consciousness, physical observables are variations of things. It is always assumed that the conscious thing is placed in environment. The gravitational field has significant effect on the present and the obligated minimum boundary between things in Planck scale. They are the necessary material for manufacturing a reaction platform for explaining the current situation of different physical paradigms respect to each other.

What are the Ultimate Building Blocks of the Universe?

Matsuo Sekine

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 48-72

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, mankind has been asking the question, "What are the ultimate building blocks of the universe?" From the infinite lower quark model, the present author has shown that there exists an infinite number of structure-less quark \(u_{\infty}\) and \(u_{\infty}^{c p}\) its anti-quark \(u_{\infty}^{c p}\) at the infinite sublayer level. Moreover, the author showed that these particles and anti-particles were produced in pairs in the early big bang of the universe. Then CP was violated in the doublet of \(u_{\infty}\) and \(u_{\infty}^{c p}\) quarks to account for the asymmetry of the number of particles and anti-particles. Thus, particles are now predominant over anti-particles. This CP violation is explained via an SU (2) non-commutative geometry from our published book and papers. The dark matter, quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and Higgs bosons are composed of only the \(u_{\infty}\) and \(u_{\infty}^{c p}\) quarks and the cosmological constant in Einstein’s field equation is also derived from the Higgs potential. Thus, the limit particle \(u_{\infty}\) and \(u_{\infty}^{c p}\) its anti-particle are the ultimate particles of the universe and produced thermally in the hot early universe of the Big Bang.

Mapping of Elements and Microstructures in a Crystal

Dilip Maske, Manisha Deshpande, Vidula Angane, Dattatray Gadkari

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 73-81

Semiconductor crystals synthesized using three elements together from group III and Group IV of the periodic table are attracting attention of the researchers due to their adjustable energy band gap depending on the composition ratio. Elemental mapping is one of the powerful techniques to find exact composition ratio and the distribution of the elements in the crystal structureBy adopting the vertical directional solidification (VDS) process, a III-V ternary bulk crystal (ingot) using Indium, Antimony, and Bismuth as the source materials (InSb1-xBix) was formed. The grown ingot was then cut into wafers. Further, the surface characterization of the formed crystal was done using the well-polished wafers. With a resistivity of 1.00 X 10-3 ohm-cm, the resistivity measurement revealed that the wafers were n-type semiconductors.  These wafers were lapped and polished to get mirror finish surface. After cleaning the wafers were etched by using CP4 (HNO3: HF:CH3COOH: 5:3:3) and the modified CP4 (HNO3: HF: CH3COOH:H20::5:3:3:10) etchants.  The microstructures and defects on the surface of the wafers (substrates) were studied using metallurgical microscope. SEM and EDAX techniques were used for the further analysis of the microstructures observed during the microscopic analysis. Most of the surface is uniformly configured, but there are certain flaws like black spots, dents, and grain boundaries. The results of the EDAX analysis show that Bi-rich domains have formed. By conducting an elemental examination of the surface, the compositional elements' distribution was investigated.  High resolution SEM analysis of a dent reveals the formation of nano-crystals of size ~ 150nm.

Open Aperture Z - Scan Studies of Spin Coated Graphite Oxide Thin Film

V. G. Sreeja, R. Reshmi, E. I. Anila

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 82-90

In this work, the structural, linear and nonlinear optical characterization of graphite oxide thin film synthesized by spin coating technique. Graphite is made up of layers of graphene, which is a conductive two-dimensional structure. Graphite oxide (GO) powder prepared from graphite flakes by oxidation via modified Hummer’s method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the sample was investigated with the help of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT- IR), Raman Spectroscopy (Raman) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) measurements. The FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results revealed that graphite is oxidized by strong oxidants, and oxygen atoms are presented into the graphite layers, forming C=C, C-H, and C-O groups. The synthesized sample is more crystalline and has fewer defects. The nonlinear optical property of GO thin film was investigated using the open aperture Z-Scan technique and a 532nm Q-switched Nd-Yag laser. The Z-scan plot revealed that the explored GO thin film exhibits saturable absorption. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also calculated in order to investigate their possible applications in Q switched mode locking laser systems.

Statistical Geometry Representation of Spacetime

Hamidreza Simchi

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 91-109

It is assumed that the spacetime is composed by events and can be explained by partially ordered set (causal set). The parent events born two kinds of children. Some children have a causal relation with their parents and other kinds have not. It is assumed that evolution of the population is only happen by the causal children. The assumed population can be modeled by finite (infinite) dimension Leslie matrix. In both finite and infinite cases, it is shown that the stationary state of the population always exists and the matrix has positive eigenvalues. By finding the relation between the statistical information of the population and the stationary state, a probability matrix and a Shannon-like entropy is defined. It is shown that the change in entropy is always quantized and positive and in consequence, the world is inflating. We show that the vacuum energy can be attributed to the necessary done work for preserving the causal relation between the parents and the children (cohesive energy). By assuming that the sum of cohesive energy and kinetic energy of the denumerable causal spacetime is equal to the heat, which flows across a causal horizon, we find the relation between energy-momentum tensor and discrete Ricci tensor which can be called the Einstein state equation. Finally, it is shown that the constant of proportionality  between the entropy and the area is proportional to \(\frac{k_B}{l_p^2}\) at Planck scale which is in good agreement with the Hawking’s result.

General Formulation of Topos Many-Node Theory

Hamidreza Simchi

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 110-132

We consider the created entities (events) in the first moments of universe creation. It is assumed that there exists a causal energetic relationship between all events (nodes) such that all nodes are placed on a world line and each node occupies a region (instead of a point) in space-time, called locale, in mathematical terms. The set of locale nodes form a topos many-node system. Using some basic assumptions, we introduce two kinds of Hamiltonians. By attributing a general structural Hamiltonian to the system, it is shown that the system has an optimized critical dimension with a probable Raman and infrared spectrums. Also, we consider a general nonstructural Hamiltonian which includes a set of commutative self-adjoint operators and an interaction terms due to the spin, charge, or other kinds of probable degrees of freedoms for each nth optimized graph. For finding the state-space, truth values and quantity valued objects of the many-node system, a general procedure is introduced. The set of these values is a classical snapshot of the nth optimized graph which forms its kinematic. We show that the dynamic of the system can be explained by defining a combined map between the nth -state-space belongs to the nth -graph and the (n + 1)th -state-space belong to (n + 1)th  -graph. Finally, by providing an interpretation of the general formulation of many-node theory, we discuss and explain how one can use the data of the cosmic background radiations and cosmic rays for finding a detailed model of both general structural and nonstructural introduced Hamiltonian. Here, time is no more than the change in truth value during comparison between nth and (n + 1)th-graph.

Positional Isomerism in N-propyl and Isopropyl Alcohol Using Ultrasonic Characterization

Rupali Jayant Thete, Satish Sharma , S. Rajgopalan

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 133-142

In the present work, ultrasonic parameters like velocity and attenuation are measured in mixtures of n-propyl and isopropyl alcohols in nitrobenzene at a 10 MHz pulse-echo technique. Ultrasonic attenuation is sensitive to the chemical composition of the mixture.

Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements using the pulse_echo technique operated at 10 MHz have been taken at various concentrations of both alcohols in nitrobenzene, from 283.15K - 293.15K. The data is analysed based on the findings, which showed that both systems exhibit critical nature and non-linear variation in ultrasonic propagation velocity and attenuation. In comparison to isopropyl alcohol in nitrobenzene, ultrasonic attenuation at lower concentrations of n-propyl alcohol in nitrobenzene reveals the dominant structural relaxation. Mixing of associated and non-associated liquids leads to dipole-induced interactions.

Science and technology are rapidly evolving as society develops and progresses, and communication technology is particularly intriguing at this time. The information data generated by the growth of communication technologies is gradually becoming a strategic asset, that is contended by all parties. The information age is rapidly approaching us. Information is a resource in this context, and timely and effective information resources are like wealth codes just waiting to be discovered and used. Additionally, a lot of creative businesses are advancing significantly and evolving into the modern unicorns as a result of information resources. This study is based on the characteristics of the era of the information explosion and discusses the origins and applications of information while illuminating the essence of information data resources. And I hope to explain some different perspectives on the use of information and data. Big data is becoming an important information resource for the operation of the entire society.

An Overview on Fundamental Physical Constants and Primary Physical Parameters

Vladimir S. Netchitailo

New Frontiers in Physical Science Research Vol. 9, 6 March 2023, Page 150-170

Every four years, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) publishes a self-consistent set of physics fundamental constants and conversion factors for international usages. As an alternative to the Big Bang Model, the World-Universe Model (WUM) proposed a fundamentally different depiction of the World in 2013. Currently, gravity has a special place in physics as it is the only interaction that cannot be described by a quantum theory. This  chapter: 1) Gives the short history of Classical Physics before Special Relativity; 2) Calculates Fundamental Physical Constants based on experimentally measured Rydberg constant, Electrodynamic constant, Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio, and Planck constant; 3) Discusses Electrodynamic constant and Speed of Light; 4) Considers Dimensionless Fundamental Parameters (Dirac Large Number Q and Dimensionless Rydberg Constant \(\alpha\)); 5) Calculates Newtonian Constant of Gravitation based on the Inter-connectivity of Primary Physical Parameters; 6) Makes a detailed analysis of the Self-consistency of Fundamental Physical Constants and Primary Physical Parameters through the prism of WUM. The results of the analysis point to: 1) Discontinuing using the notion “Vacuum” and its characteristics (Speed of Light in Vacuum, Characteristic Impedance of Vacuum, Vacuum Magnetic Permeability, Vacuum Electric Permittivity); 2) Accepting the exact numerical values of Electrodynamic constant, Planck constant, Elementary charge, and Dimensionless Rydberg Constant \(\alpha\). WUM recommends the predicted value of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation in 2018 to be considered in CODATA Recommend Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants 2022.