Dr. Emmanouil Magiorkinis
Department of Laboratory Haematology, General Hospital for Chest Diseases "Sotiria", Greece.

Short Biosketch


ISBN 978-81-19217-56-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19217-57-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/namms/v1


This book covers key areas of medicine and medical science. The contributions by the authors include epidermal cyst, epidermoid cyst, perianal swelling, perianal cyst, Aberrant hepatic artery, liver surgery, hepato-biliary-pancreatic radiological intervention, dental pulp injury, platelet rich fibrin, traumatic injuries, post-glenoid foramen, petrosquamous sinus, pupillary light reflex, static and dynamic pupillometry, hyper-reflective spots, diabetic macular edema, age related macular degeneration, pituitary gland, intracranial tumours, thyroid-stimulating hormone,  carcinoma, anthocyanidins, gallotannins, oral-dental disorders, medical consultations modules, animal-assisted therapy, dental anxiety, psychotherapy, cervical cancer, apheresis, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of medicine and medical science.


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A Rare Cyst of Perianal Region

Nishant Lal, Shafy Ali Khan

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 1-5

In this chapter, we report a young male with no comorbidities presenting with perianal swelling. Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow-growing, benign, developmental cysts that are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts may grow anywhere on the body and about 7% of them are located in the head and neck. Epidermal cysts are congenital lesions that originate from embryonal tissue remnants. It requires histopathology for its diagnosis.. He was evaluated and taken up for surgery. Post-operative period was uneventful and he was discharged on the 2nd post-operative day. He is doing well at 4 months of follow-up. The successful treatment of cyst depends on complete surgical excision with utmost care to avoid intraoperative spillage and recurrence. Care must also be taken during surgery to avoid excessive excision, thereby causing anal canal stenosis.

Aberrant Origin of Right Hepatic Artery from Superior Mesenteric Artery: A Case Report

A. Mahajan, S. Patil, S. Kakar

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 6-13

The aim of the study was to report the aberrant origin of the hepatic artery from the superior mesentric artery. Understanding the hepatic arterial anatomy is crucial when performing any surgical or diagnostic procedures, including liver transplants. Vascular anomalies are frequently asymptomatic until they affect the viscera's blood supply. They are discovered by chance during surgeries and diagnostic angiography. Variations like this are common in the abdominal vessels.

The present case was reported in an adult male cadaver in the Department of Anatomy Maulana Azad Medical College during a routine dissection of the abdomen. The arterial supply of the hepato-biliary system was dissected. The celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery were identified and branches to the liver identified. The anatomical variations of the hepatic artery can be explained on embryological basis. Each dorsal aorta gives paired ventral splanchnic branches which supply the yolk sac, the primitive gut and its derivatives. The left artery split into three branches that supplied the left lobe of the liver. The right hepatic artery developed from the superior mesenteric artery. Knowledge of variability will help in planning and performing, with less risks of serious ischemic complications, the procurement of donor livers in all its modalities, cadaveric, living, and split livers.

This case may be of interest to surgeons and radiologists because distinguishing between the normal arterial pattern and the variant is critical for safe and effective surgery. 

Management of Immature Open Apex with MTA and PRF Placement

Pradnya Vilas Bansode

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 14-23

The major challenges associated with the endodontic treatment of teeth with open apices are achieving adequate access to the wide canal, complete debridement, canal disinfection, and optimal sealing of the root canal system. In the absence of a natural apical constriction, it is imperative to create an apical barrier and allow three-dimensional adaptation of obturating material within the root canal system [4].

Injuries to the dental pulp in immature teeth stop root development, leading to several issues. The management of nonvital open-apex teeth can be done in several ways. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is widely used to accelerate soft and hard tissue healing which can be used as a matrix. A 21-year-old male reported the chief complaint of a broken, discolored tooth, occasional pain, swelling, and pus discharge in the upper front region. The diagnosis of chronic periapical abscess with open apex and 11 was determined in light of the clinical and radiologic features. Triple antibiotic paste was applied to the canal at the initial appointment. The mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plug was placed across the periapical region of the body during the second visit after 21 days. The tooth was asymptomatic and non-tender at the follow-up appointment after six months.

The postglenoid foramen is an emissary foramen found in the temporal bone. This foramen is rare in the human skull. This chapter aims to determine the presence of post-glenoid foramen in human skulls.

The study used 100 adult dry human skulls with 200 temporal bones on each side (right and left) from the Department of Anatomy at RVS Dental College and Hospital in Coimbatore, India. Two investigators visually identified the significant foramen in the selected skulls by placing them on a flat table. To determine the patency of the foramen, a probing method was used. Out of 100 skulls (200 temporal bones), only one skull showed a unilateral post-glenoid foramen on the mandibular fossa of the left side temporal bone (2% of 200). The foramen was found backwards from the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone. It lies anterior to the external acoustic meatus in the line of fusion of the squamous and tympanic part of temporal bone.

The rare occurrence of the emissary foramen may cause serious pathological condition. As a result, the current study highlights one of the rare emissary foramen, the post-glenoid foramen. The surgeons may benefit from this anatomical examination of the post-glenoid foramen while operating on temporomandibular joint and inner ear malformations in order to reduce the risk of accidental bleeding during surgery.

Recent Advances in Pupillometry

Yamini Rattan, Kawalinder Kaur Girgla, Pawan Prasher, Gaurav Mahajan

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 31-46

Importance of pupil analysis within the clinical setting has been extensively employed in patient management and was performed manually in the past. However, manual pupillary assessment can be associated with vital inaccuracies and inconsistencies and previous studies have shown significant inter-examiner disagreement within the manual analysis of pupillary reaction thus affecting the decision making in crucial clinical situations. Recently, automated pupillometry has been proposed as a device for objective, quantitative and repeatable measurements of pupillary reaction, size and symmetry to avoid the bias in manual assessment.Quantitative pupillometry can be used to create a normal database that can provide clinicians with the information needed to manage the patients as well as help determine the need for an immediate referral to an ophthalmologist. In addition to discussing the pupillary light reflex graph and its neural basis, this review article provides an overview of pupillometry. Also, a comprehensive list of the pupil parameters that various quantitative pupillometry devices can measure has been presented. The article concludes with an update on recent developments in pupillometry applications across a variety of fields.

New potential biomarkers for retinal disease with an important impact on diagnosis, prognosis and management are recently available and continuously discovered because of the rapid advances in the technology of optical coherence tomography. One of those biomarkers are the hyper-reflective spots that were found in a broad spectrum of retinal diseases particularly diabetic macular edema and age related macular degeneration and others. Detecting those HRSs is crucial in the management strategies of those diseases as high lightened in this chapter.

Application of 3D Printing in Intracranial Tumours

Morgan Ikponmwosa, Ayodele Olugbenga Ogunsemoyin, Onyekachi Okechukwu Moemenan, Obinna Ezeigwe, Yaw Barimah Darko

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 56-73

The pituitary gland is a small bean-shaped gland located at the base of the brain. Pituitary-based tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that affect the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland imaging employs computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. 3D reconstruction of data from CT images can be converted into 3D and then printed as a live anatomical model using a 3D printer. This research intends to show that information obtained from CT scan images can be used to produce 3D-printed specific models for patients and clinicians. A segmentation application was used to create patient-specific models for three clinical situations in order to separate the mass from the bone. The procedure involved image acquisition starting with cross-sectional imaging, segmenting the acquired DICOM image into a 3D model, file and model correction for final print, slicing with the choice of 3D printing material and the proper settings, and concluding with the actual print, print accuracy, and cost analysis.  It took between 45 and 90 minutes to segment the region of interest, with the majority of that time being spent segmenting the pituitary. Models were printed in sections since the mass and skull were printed separately. The times needed for printing the mass and the skull base were 20–40 minutes and 4–9 hours, respectively. The overall cost of printing a model was less than $50, and print accuracy was less than 1.7mm.

Anti-HIV and Anticandidal Properties of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate): A Pharmacological Agent for the Oral Cavity

Maira Huerta-Reyes, Luis A. Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis O. Sánchez-Vargas

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 74-112

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) trees have long been used extensively in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of illnesses, including dental and oral diseases. The most frequent clinical manifestation in HIV patients is caused by Candida albicans, which has been demonstrated to have strong anticandidal effects in recent years. Since the oral cavity is crucial from diagnosis to adherence to HAART therapy in HIV/AIDS population, the present review offers a general overview of up-to-date knowledge of the chemical composition and anti-HIV and anticandidal properties of the plant species P. granatum involved in the oral cavity in order to collaborate in the development of novel anti-HIV agents that will be useful in future clinical practice. The literature reviewed revealed that crude extracts of pomegranate and its main compounds isolated, and in particular, anthocyanins and gallotannins possess inhibitory activity on different HIV-targets, including binding viral proteins and the 3 replicative HIV-enzymes. Pomegranate also demonstrated anticandidal effects on 10 different species in the literature that was reviewed. Consequently, pomegranate seems to be a great candidate to investigate and incorporate into the treatment of the oral cavity in HIV/AIDS patients, in that in addition to its dual-pharmacological effects such as antiviral and anticandidal, pomegranate represents an easily accessible inexpensive and safe natural source, with a wide range of oral pharmaceutical forms.

3 Cycles New Medical Consultation Model

Abdulaziz Fahad AlAlkaabba

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 113-123

The purpose of this study is to introduce and evaluate the Al-Kaabba 3 Cycle Consultation Model, a new clinical consultation model. Conducting a medical consultation in practice is one of the elements of good medical care.

A cross-sectional questionnaire-based investigation was carried out with 97 medical students from Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMISU) who were trained using this model. There were 66 males and 31 females among the students. This new technique was also evaluated by some expert Medical education specialists. SPSS was used to analyze the collected data. The great majority of enrolled students (94; 96.9%) agree strongly that AlKaabba 3-cycles assisted them in gathering relevant patient information and feeling comfortable using it during their training. Almost all of them (96; 99%) agree that the 3-cycles new consultation Method helped them confidently take the patient's medical history and evaluation, and they recommend that it be taught and practiced on a regular basis. The starting consultation as introducing yourself and greaten and welcome the patients is very important also closing consultation and thanking your patient were priority in this new consultation module Creating and practicing New consultation methods teaching tools produce positive results and assist medical students and health care providers in learning and practicing in their roles. 

Animal-Assisted Therapy: A Survey of Child’s and Parent’s Perception in Reducing Dental Anxiety

Bashyam Nalini, Chandrabhatla Srinivas Kumar

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 124-138

Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is being explored as an alternate technique to reduce anxiety and comfort apprehensive patients. This chapter aims to evaluate the impact of pets on lowering the anxiety of children at the dental operatory, as well as the children's and parents' acceptance of this technique. This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study included 65 children aged 3 to 12 years old and their parents. Using a questionnaire and picture cards, they were evaluated for anxiety and the impact of pets on anxiety levels. The Chi-square test was used to statistically examine the data. Pets in the dental operatory are useful in lowering anxiety, according to 83.3% of parents and 75.4% of children. Live pets were favored by 58.5% of children but just 33.3% of parents.  Dogs were found to be the favorite pet of very young children (31.6%), while rabbits were favored by older children (43.5%). Animal-assisted therapy was proven to be effective in lowering children's anxiety during dental visits.

Examining Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening among Postpartum Women in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital: Perspectives from Sub-Saharan Africa

Onyekachi Sunday Ohaeri, Peter Waripamo Oweisi, Azubuike Ikechukwu , Musa Stephen , Peter Waibode Alabrah , Adesina Adedotun Daniel

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 139-151

This chapter aims to determine the awareness of and identify the sources of information on cervical cancer and screening uptake among post-partum women receiving care at a tertiary hospital in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, between June and October 2018. Risk factors for cervical cancer include early coitarche, high parity, multiple sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections, especially with oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), and smoking.  A total of 104 researcher-developed questionnaires were employed to collect data in this cross-sectional descriptive study. 

The same was researcher-administered to and retrieved from the respondents (52 HIV-positive and 52 HIV-negative), with data on sociodemographic characteristics, awareness of cervical cancer, screening programmes and methods, sources of information, factors related to cervical cancer, and uptake of cervical screening services were collected.

The study participants were mostly young women, with a mean age of 31.12 + 4.46 and the majority (94.1%) had basic education. Nearly all participants (97.1%) were married, and most (98.0%) lived in monogamous family settings. 62.7% of the women had given birth to more than one child. Only 39.2% of participants have heard about cervical cancer, 17.3% have heard about cervical cancer screening, and only 1% have utilized (taken part in) a screening service. The main sources of information were health workers (47.5%) and print and mass media (47.5%). Identified risk factors included having more than one sexual partner (80.4%), multiparity (62.7%), and hormonal contraceptive use (37.3%).

Despite being a preventable disease, there was little awareness of cervical cancer, screening, and almost no use of screening services in the study population. The findings indicate the importance of developing and implementing effective communication and service delivery methods to boost the use of cervical screening services in this community.

Evaluation of Hematological Changes in Donors Post Apheresis: An Institutional Study

Subhashis Das , Nikhil , Gaurav Khichariya , T. Amrutha , Snigdha Sinha

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 152-159

The aim of the study was to evaluate the haematological changes that transpired post plateletpheresis in apheresis donor and compare pre and postdonation haematological changes in donors and to determine the consequences of apheresis, plateletpheresis on donor’s health. The productivity, quality of platelet apheresis collection has improved because of the considerable advancement in the automated cell separators.

This is an observational cross-sectional study done in laboratory at RL Jalappa Blood Bank, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka, India. The study was done from March 2019 to August 2020. A total of 300 healthy donors (plateletpheresis donors) were included in the study. All donors underwent plateletpheresis (Haemonetics MCS), and pre- and post-donation haematological parameters including haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit (Hct), platelet, white, and red blood cell counts were computed. Postdonation haematological parameters such as platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, White Blood Cells (WBC), Red Blood Cells (RBC) counts of the donor was noted and it was compared with pre-donation haematological parameters. Statistical analysis was accomplished utilising statistical software SPSS version 16.0. Platelet count, haemoglobin, WBC count, RBC count and haematocrit were noted down from 262 donors and substantially significant reduction was observed in these parameters postdonation. Donor parameter platelet count (lac/mL) value was reduced from 273.57- 224.28 whereas WBC count (cu/mm) predonation value decreased from 9.91-8.86 Postdonation, haemoglobin (g/dL) value decreased from 14.46-12.91, haematocrit (%) decreased slightly from 45.19- 44.19, RBC count (million/mm3) decreased from 5.21-5.01. So it is concluded that values were decreased postdonation. Platelets transfusion can be done either for a remedial or prophylactic cause. Most of the transfusions are given to prevent bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients.

Current research carried out demonstrated SDP is efficacious in of thrombocytopenia therapy and it is safe from recipient’s perspective. Technical personnel training, procedures carried out under the supervision of transfusion medicine specialists, and close monitoring of these donors are required to prevent adverse events for the donors' well-being.

Dental Implants and Oral Lichen Planus: Review and Protocol

Aina Torrejon-Moya , Constanza Saka-Herrán, Keila Izquierdo-Gómez, Antoni Marí Roig, Albert Estrugo-Devesa, José López López

New Advances in Medicine and Medical Science Vol. 1, 18 May 2023, Page 160-175

Oral lichen planus [OLP] is an autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease. The aetiology of OLP is still unknown, but it is believed to be associated with cell-mediated immune dysregulation at the level of the basal membrane. Since OLP is a mucosal disease, it has been suggested to affect the ability of attachment to the titanium surface; and although some conditions are considered as risk factors for dental implants, there are only a few absolute contraindications for this rehabilitation option.  Our aim is to present a systematic review that answers the PICO question: rehabilitation with dental implants in patients with OLP is a valid treatment option with a high survival rate. The survival of 93,88% rate obtinned  is similar to the survival rate of implant rehabilitation in patients without any pathology or systemic condition, which is 92% or 95%, depending on the prosthetic rehabilitation. In order to maintain this high survival rate, frequent follow-up appointments and oral hygiene instructions should be established to eliminate inflammatory tissue response (peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis). According to the SORT criteria, level A can be established to conclude that OLP patients can be rehabilitated with dental implants.