Editor(s)

Dr. Giovanni Bucci
Professor,
Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and economy, University of L’Aquila Italy.

ISBN 978-93-91473-60-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-64-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/naer/v8

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include  heating capacity, solar water heater, paraffin, thermal storage material, metal-oxide-semiconductor, vector matrix multiplication, neuromorphic computing, real-time data, hardness, steel surface wear, plastics with glass fibers, dry friction linear contact, contact temperature, plastic material transfer, steel surface wear, plastics with glass fibers, linear contact, dry friction hardness of steel, railroad crossing, hazard information, operation center, soil-structure interaction in piles and piers, ultimate lateral resistance of piles and piers, lateral bearing capacity of piles and piers, piles subjected to lateral loads, analysis of piles, micro/nano fabrication, grazing incident, scanning electron microscopy, brent Kung adder, full adders, power consumptions, weight restriction, medium term axle load, short term axle load, energy conservation, daylight, thermal environment, thermal comfort, ventilation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.

 

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Chapters


Nowadays, Energy is an essential requirement for daily activities. Indonesians use solar energy for various activities such as electricity, water heaters, and dryers. Solar collectors are devices that absorb solar energy and convert it into heat energy. Solar energy heats copper pipes and water passes through heat tubes induces an increase in water temperature. The increase in heating capacity in this experiment was carried out by adding paraffin (as thermal storage material) into a tube in a solar collector. Solar water heaters equipped with solar collectors (called cylindrical trough collectors) have been developed in this experiment. Paraffin placed in the copper tube with two conditions. They are called Collector A and Collector B. The effect of two conditions of placing paraffin in copper tubes on the water-out temperature has been studied in this experiment. The result shows that the highest water temperature found with 56°C in collector A. It is due to the highest solar radiation intensity also record at 1,289 W/m2 (1:00 PM). While Collector B only produces the water-out temperature of 52°C at 1:00 PM. The conclusion shows that the position of paraffin in tubes with Collector A can increase the water-out temperature in the solar water heating system if compared with the collector.

Study on Memristor and Its Applications

R. Hamsavahini, N. Rashmi, R. Sabina, K. B. Jagannatha, C. T. Saneesh, H. S. Laxmisagar, T. Thyagaraj

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 8, 10 July 2021, Page 16-25
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v8/2629F

Over the last several decades, successive downscaling of the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors according to Moore’s law has contributed to the exponential progress in computing and information technology. Out of the six possible relationships, the only two electromagnetic quantities for which there are no pairings are magnetic flux and electric charge. Addition to memory applications, RS devices are considered promising candidates for bio-inspired computing and in-memory computing. When applied in computing systems, the RS devices can be used in a crossbar form to perform Vector Matrix Multiplication (VMM). It is concluded that RS devices have made remarkable progress over the last 15 years. RS devices have offered commercial products for memory applications and also been extensively used for neuromorphic computing applications, providing significant benefits for real-time data processing with high throughput and low energy consumption.

Graphical Assessment of the Linear Contact Steel on Composite Material at High Temperature and Pressure: A Recent Study

Dorin Rus, Virgil Florescu, Florin Bausic, Robert Ursache, Anca Sasu

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 8, 10 July 2021, Page 26-37
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v8/10345D

Based on comprehensive experimental tests, a study for the evolution of wear for a certain duration, as well as for certain loads and contact temperatures. In this article we have tried to present a graphical assessment of the dry linear contact for composite materials reinforced with glass fibers as well as of the influence of the sliding speed, load and friction coefficient. Perpendicular loads, the contact temperature and the wear of the metal surface were recorded .The wear volume was calculated using the Archard relationship. Using the Archard relationship, the width of trace can be calculated in 3 locations. Numerous experimental trials were performed in connection to the wear of the metal surface, the contact temperature and the value of the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient for the composite material and for the C 120 steel samples is higher than the one obtained at the surface of the steel samples. This is due to the differences in hardness between the two types of steel. A connection between the evolution of the wear process and the dependency on the contact temperature and friction coefficient can be observed.  

Thermoplastic materials with glass fiber are characterized by high plasticity under high pressure and temperature, and they can be machined so that they return to their initial shape after being cast. These thermoplastic materials are biphasic, consisting of a polymer mass and reinforcement materials such as glass fibers, in order to obtain good mechanical characteristics as a result of the fact the stresses are transmitted through the glass fibers. In this paper we have tried to present the influence of the metal surface wear and of the contact temperature on the evolution of the sliding speed, of the normal load and of the friction coefficient. We have performed numerous experimental trials that have highlighted the dependency between load and wear in relation to the friction coefficient. A dry linear friction couple was used with a large range of loads and speeds, simulating real-life working conditions: temperature, sliding speed, contact pressure. We have made a connection between the theoretical case and the experimental results arising from the use of the “wear imprint method” for the volume and depth of wear.

The present study aimed to detect obstacles at railroad crossing using the histogram of oriented gradients method and support vector machine. Railroad crossing is a place where the railroad lines intersect with other roads, such as a highway. Referring to the Regulation of Minister of Transportation Number 36 Year 2011, railroad crossing must be equipped with signs, markers and traffic signaling devices and crossing gate guards. However, 3477 of the 4716 level crossing points are without railroad keeper so that they are prone to traffic accidents. In addition, hazard information (danger signs) from the railroad keeper to the OOperation Center and machinists sometimes cannot be seen at night and in a foggy situation. Therefore, this research aims to detect obstacles (cars) at a railroad crossing using the Histogram of Oriented gradient (HOG) method and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. HOG functions to extract object features (cars), while SVM is responsible for classifying car objects whether they fit the criteria of car features or not. The results show that an accuracy rate of car objects was 85%, 73% for empty train tracks and 91% for detection of passing trains.

A matrix procedure is presented to determine soil-foundation contact reaction and lateral displacement on piles and piers in seismic and static conditions. The method is obtained from the deformation compatibility between the soil mass and the foundation structure. The four boundary cases that can occur in professional practice are considered. The method takes into account the compressibility of the stratified soil mass, the rigidity of the foundation and the horizontal drag forces induced by the soil mass against the foundation during an earthquake. The procedure has the advantages of not being iterative, of being easily programmed and readily extended to other boundary conditions, such as other kinds of foundations -shallow and deep-, and different subsoil conditions. Furthermore, a method is disclosed for the stability analysis of foundation piles and piers subjected to lateral loading, both static and seismic conditions. The stability analysis for stratified soil is based upon the models of foundation soil-structure interaction and the Rankine’s theory of earth passive pressure. In addition, its application is simpler, and it can be solved using a spreadsheet. The Method considers the pore pressure generated in a fine saturated soil during an earthquake or during a rapid application of the horizontal load. The solution of two examples is shown, one in static condition and one in seismic condition, detailing the procedure step by step.

With the recent introduction of a cross-beam scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/focused-ion-beam (FIB) system, it is now possible to create a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen of a thin film multilayer sample.

The specimen lift-out technique was demonstrated using a 300 layer pair thin-film multilayer sample of W/B4C, which took much less time than the conventional cross-sectional sample preparation technique. To obtain a large area electron transparent sample, the FIB sample is followed by Ar+ ion polishing at 2 kV with grazing incident. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the prepared cross-sectional sample.

In this research, a static sixteen Bit CMOS Brent kung adder structure was invented, which boasted a higher speed and reduced power consumption when compared to ripple deliver adders. The speed was improved by altering the shape and adding a Brent Kung adder, which uses (28 transistor, Boolean precise judgement) and is a lot faster than a ripple supply adder. These speed adders will help DSP processors grow. With the use of a 180nm Cadence device, time delays and power consumption are significantly reduced with unique adders.

Recent Implementation of Malaysian National Axle Load Policies via Weight Restriction Orders 1989, 2003 and 2017

M. N. Shahruddin, C. C. Lim, S. K. Ng, K. M. S. Ku Mahamud, M. H. Uzir

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 8, 10 July 2021, Page 123-132
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v8/8041D

Bridges in Malaysia were built to various standards in terms of bridge loading since the early 1900s. Axle Load Study in 1987 was conducted due to doubt in the existing bridge capacity to carry the current traffic load at the time. The study had led to the formulation of Weight Restriction Order (WRO) 1989 for truck legal axle weights based on Short Term Axle Load (STAL) policy, which considers HA loads with no checking done on HB load. This comprised the nation’s bridges constructed before 1972. Medium Term Axle Load (MTAL) policy was later implemented in 2003 by the introduction of WRO 2003. MTAL are loadings derived from HA load or 45 units HB loading guided along the centreline. This comprised the nation’s bridges constructed from 1972 onward. Several other studies had also been conducted in the effort to come out with Malaysian design loads for bridges. Indeed, an axle load study was conducted in 2016 to investigate the possibility of a new axle load policy. A new assessment load model to evaluate existing bridge carrying capacity is proposed in the study. The findings were accordingly gazetted in 2017 with the issuance of WRO 2017. Oblivious of these studies, many Malaysian engineers today are not informed of the rationales or basis of the practices, especially those related to bridge assessment. The purpose of this paper is to revisit these studies and discuss pertinent decisions made with regard to the national axle load policies, which were implemented through the issuance of WRO 1989, WRO 2003 and WRO 2017.

Professional designers and owners are increasingly using atriums to provide a variety of benefits, including ample sunshine, circulation spaces, and surfaces for landscape applications. One of the most serious issues with this popular architectural feature is the space conditioning of atriums, which have a relatively large volume when compared to traditional commercial and institutional spaces. If atriums are fully conditioned, this could result in excessive energy consumption unless effective design methods are employed. High thermal comfort and low energy usage are often challenging to achieve at the same time. The potential for energy savings through strict control of indoor temperatures strengthens the case for examining the applicability of the universal comfort temperatures recommended by international comfort standards. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate energy conservation measures that support thermal environment conditions and have contributed to achieving architectural design features. The use of a systematic investigation of factors for energy conservation through a literature review revealed design features that have influenced the development of a comfortable environment; daylighting, acoustics, natural ventilation, and thermal control have all been identified as environmental factors in the implementation of architectural features in atriums. The outcome would aid in optimising the controlled environment during the original design stage, as well as providing useful feedback to assist architects and designers in determining the most energy-efficient atrium building type.

Designing Bioclimatic Buildings to Minimize Energy Consumption: A Study on the Role of Education

Sofia Giannarou, Michael Tsatiris

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 8, 10 July 2021, Page 146-157
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v8/2477F

Globally, one of the major issues that humanity is dealing with today is environmental pollution caused by over-consumption of conventional forms of energy, with the building sector leading the way, resulting in a change in the climate and nature, as well as a threat to the lives of people, animals, and plants. The realisation of the need to reduce energy usage has led to an endeavour to improve the energy performance of buildings by employing bioclimatic architectural concepts. The aim is to ensure thermal comfort conditions for building users, exploiting the favorable climatic conditions prevailing in each area.  It aims to use renewable and inexhaustible energy sources like the sun and air. In particular, it requires the commitment of solar radiation and the protection from cold winds during the winter and the use of cool winds, as well as protection from the hot rays of the sun during the summer. In this article, taking into account the fact that in Greece sustainability has begun to concern the population of the country and governments very recently. The result of the indifference or ignorance of the Greeks in matters of sustainability was that most of the building stock in the country to be unsustainable, over consuming buildings. The purpose of this study is to investigate how Greece will be able to deal with this adverse situation in terms of sustainability, proposing ways to educate students, professionals / engineers and building users to gain environmental awareness and at the same time emphasize the multiple benefits of bioclimatic planning for the environment and the economy.  Bioclimatic architecture should be the rule, not the exception.