Dr. Figen Balo
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Firat University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-91312-98-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-99-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/naer/v6

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include  Linux kernel, Network File System, Root File System, beam formers, direct digital synthesis, digital up converter, model sim, optical fiber tweezers, optical trapping and manipulation, optical force, photo thermal effect, evanescent fields, cell trapping and assembly manipulation, functionally graded natural fiber, microfiber, mechanisms, closed-loops method, connecting rod curves, energy retrofit, historical building, energy plus, Pombaline Quarter Reconstruction Plan, machinability, TiAlN coated carbide tool, drilling, energy recovery device, vortex, swirling flow, rotary energy recovery device, offshore oil and gas fields. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


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Study on ARM9 – Linux Kernel

Pradip Ram Selokar, P. T. Karule

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 17 July 2021, Page 1-11

The Linux Kernel is supported by ARM9. It is preferable to load the Root File System (RFS) using Network File System on a development system (NFS). Several pieces of software are involved to boot a linux kernel on SAM9 products. First is the ROM code which is in charge to check if a valid application is present on supported media (FLASH, DATAFLASH, NANDFLASH, and SDCARD). The linux boot procedure for SAM is subdivided into various steps, as shown below. The linux boot procedure is shown in Fig. 1.

  1. Boot Program - Check if a valid application is present in FLASH and if it is the case download it into internal SRAM.
  2. AT91Bootstrap - In charge of hardware configuration, download U-Boot binary from FLASH to SDRAM, start the bootloader
  3. U-Boot - The bootloader, in charge of download kernel binaries from FLASH, network, USB key, etc. Start the kernel.
  4. Linux kernel - The operating system kernel.
  5. Root File system - Contains applications which are executed on the target, using the OS kernel services.

For many years, beamformers have been utilised in applications like as surveillance and RADAR, as well as communications. A high-speed, reconfigurable DUC module for digital beamforming is being developed in this project. A digital circuit that converts a complicated digital base band signal to a real pass band signal is known as a digital up converter (DUC). A DUC is made up of a mixer, a direct digital synthesiser, and a series of interpolation finite impulse response (FIR) filters that are cascaded. These filters were created with the help of MATLAB and Verilog code. Model Sim is used for simulation, while Xilinx ISE is used for functional verification, as well as FPGA implementation on the Virtex-5 Pro.

Recent Progress on Optical Fiber Tweezers for Optical Trapping and Manipulation

Hongbao Xin, Xiaoting Zhao, Baojun Li

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 17 July 2021, Page 25-48

Optical trapping is widely used in different areas ranging from biomedical applications, to physics and material sciences. In recent years, optical fiber tweezers have attracted much attention in the field of optical trapping due to their flexible manipulation, compact structure, and easy fabrication. As a versatile tool for optical trapping and manipulation, optical fiber tweezers can be used to trap, manipulate, arrange and assemble tiny objects. Here, we review the optical fiber tweezers-based trapping and manipulation, including dual fiber tweezers for trapping and manipulation, single fiber tweezers for trapping and single cell analysis, optical fiber tweezers for cell assembly, structured optical fiber for enhanced trapping and manipulation, subwavelength optical fiber wire for evanescent fields-based trapping and delivery, and photothermal trapping, assembly and manipulation.

Study on FGNF/epoxy Composite Fabricated by Using Centrifugal Slurry-Pouring Method

Saifulnizan Jamian, Siti Nur Fatihah Razali, Mohamad Rusydi Zainal Abidin

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 17 July 2021, Page 49-56

In this study, functionally graded natural fiber/epoxy (FGNF/epoxy) cylinders hybrid composite were fabricated using casting method. Coir husk and empty fruit bunch (EFB) were two type of natural fiber (NF) used in this study. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the composite was determined. Three different pouring height and compositions of NF were investigated i.e. 150, 250 and 300 mm and sample 1 (80% of epoxy, 10% of coir husk, 10% of EFB), sample 2 (80% of epoxy, 15% of coir husk, 5% of EFB) and sample 3 (80% of epoxy, 5% of coir husk 15% of EFB), respectively. As for comparison, epoxy cylinders contain 100% of epoxy was fabricated (sample 4). To characterize the FGNF/epoxy cylinders fabricated, the hardness, density and compression test were carried out. From the observation, it is found that the NF particles can be graded from upper to lower surface of the FGNF/epoxy cylinders by casting. Many NF particles concentrated at the middle and bottom part rather than at the top part of composite. The hardness and density test results show that the hardness and density value along the cylinder vary from the highest value at the lower surface to the lowest value at the upper surface due to the differences of NF composition along the cylinder. Due to difference in density of NF causes the natural fiber particles move to downward by gravity during casting. The compression test result show that sample 1 and sample 2 has recorded the highest and the lowest Young’s modulus, respectively. The Young’s modulus and yield strength of FGNF/epoxy is higher than pure epoxy cylinder composite. It appears that FGNF/epoxy with a gradient in NF composition is superior to the homogeneous composite.

We start from the kinematic scheme of a mechanism with three dyads, all of the RRR type connected in this way: the first dyad to the driving element R and to the base, the second dyad to the connecting rod of the first dyad in the mechanism and to its rocker, and the third at the connecting rods of the second dyad. This way of binding makes it possible to obtain more and more complex connecting rod curves. Analytical relations are written based on the closed – loops method.  We draw the connecting rod curves generated by the points of interest on this mechanism. Similarly, are studied the connecting rod curves drawn by a mechanism consisting of three RPP-type dyads and another mechanism with three RPR-type dyads. There were a lot of connecting rod curves of very different shapes, open curves because the mechanisms were not built so that the driving element could perform complete rotations (conditions like Grashof). These connecting rod curves can be used on packaging machines, at some toys and in other fields.

Study on Paving the Road to NZEB on Two 18\(^{th}\) Century Historical Blocks in Lisbon

Carlos Duarte, António Morais

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 17 July 2021, Page 79-92

The 1758 Lisbon Pombaline Quarter Reconstruction Plan comprises compact rectangular-shaped residential blocks built with a system that complies solid mass construction elements with a light wooden structure. Considering both constructive and architectural inherent features of the original Pombaline block, it shows the potential to achieve NZEB level if an energy retrofit strategy at a block scale is implemented instead of the usual single building or fraction approach. The retrofit of historic buildings has raised questions regarding intervention’s depth and efficiency. The impact on the built heritage value must be residual or null, while energy-related improvements must be noticeable. This paper intends to analyze and compare the result on energy demand and primary energy consumption of passive, active, and BIST/PV systems packages implementation on two original blocks, with the challenge of minimizing the impact on case studies appearance. A Building Energy Simulation methodology is applied using the whole-of-building dynamic simulation software EnergyPlus. The results show that exterior envelope improvements can reduce up to 50% heating and cooling energy demands increasing thermal comfort at the same time. Finally, a combined VRF/Biomass heating solution displays the best results on primary energy consumption, while photovoltaic and solar thermal systems proved to have an essential role to reach NZEB level performance.

Machinability is a measure of how easy a material to be machined. It can be assessed in some aspects: surface roughness and surface integrity of the machined parts, cutting speed, forces that work during machining or energy consumption, tool life, and chips formation. This article describes the machinability from tool deterioration perspective of titanium alloy 6246 by drilling with TiAlN PVD-coated carbide tools. Taguchi L18 was employed to design the experiments, with five parameters influenced the tool deterioration with mixed levels of parameters of 2 and 3. The tool deterioration was grouped into 3 categories: built-up edge (BUE), delamination, and chipping. Every drill bit was used for single drilling and then observed with SEM from flank and rake view. Wear was not found in this research, however, the tool delamination and tool chipping was evidenced, even if drilling depth was only 10 mm. Tool experienced built-up edge in the outer blade, inner blade and at the chisel. This BUE can be seen at both views, i.e. rake and flank sides. BUE is the most dominant deterioration and inevitably in drilling this alloy, regardless of the parameters applied. Tool delamination may occur during mechanism of peeling off the BUE. While chipping was related to higher feed rate, that may relate to high MRR. Data analysis using Minitab 19 shows that combination of drilling without cooling, 45 mm depth, cutting speed of 27 m/min and feed rate of 0.08 mm/min would result in the best performance of TiAlN tool for drilling Ti6246 heat treated 870oC then followed by water quenching.

CFD Simulation of Mixing in Rotary Energy Recovery Device

Kai Liu, Lixing Zheng

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 6, 17 July 2021, Page 106-121

The rotary energy recovery device (RERD) is widely equipped in desalination to reduce the system energy consumption. In this study, the fluid dynamics and mixing performance of a typical structure RERD and a visualization apparatus of a RERD (V-RERD), had been compared by simulation. The effects of rotating components on fluid dynamics and mixing had been researched. Simulation results indicated that a swirling flow can be observed from flow fields in the device duct. In the RERD case, the swirling flow changed its rotating direction in the center of the duct, while in the V-RERD case its rotating direction unchanged. Then, a swirling number Sn was applied to characterize the degree of swirl intensity, and its formation mechanism in RERD had been discussed. In addition, the Q criterion was adopted to visualize the three-dimensional flow structures and identify vortex structures in the duct. The evolution of vortices in the working process had been investigated. It was found that vortices significantly affected the mixing performance, and the detached vortex could lead to high turbulence and mixing in the duct. Suppressing the vortex shedding may reduce the flow turbulence and gain a lower volumetric mixing rate.

Development of hydrocarbon fields in the Barents Sea would normally include surface process units; thus, we must take into account the potential for ice conditions at the location. Alternatively, smaller fields can be developed as satellites to existing production units. Full well-stream to shore facilities may also be considered for gas fields, in the case that one can document the flow conditions in pipeline(s), so hydrate formation is avoided. Although glacial ice historically has been present all over the Barents Sea, the probability of meeting glacial ice in the southern part is very low, regarded by some as “negligible”. At which latitude one could expect sea and glacial ice in the future is, however, uncertain, as past experience has seen glacial ice on the Coast of Finnmark County and there are ongoing processes related to global warming which might increase the probability of iceberg encounter at southern locations of the Barents Offshore Region. We will discuss concerns related to the selection of the design basis for the Barents Sea, including the Russian part of the Barents Sea, and discuss the term “negligible”. Of particular interest are criteria related to the need for disconnection options for production units. The objective of the presented research is to draw attention to the importance of the design basis, for the proper design of all field facilities. The variability in climate conditions from one year to another should be recognized with particular emphasis on past extremes, which cannot be excluded to appear in the future, even in the case of an Arctic where the average temperatures have been increasing during the last decades. The paper concludes with recommendations for thorough preparation of the design basis for the entire Barents Sea area.