Dr. Natt Makul
Assistant Professor,
Building Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand.

ISBN 978-93-91312-90-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-91-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/naer/v4

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include   seed sowing robot, micro controller, solar powered, zigbee control, speed reduction, traffic calming measures, chicane, location of chicanes, traffic barriers, pedestrian visibility, bulb-outs at intersections, traffic calming measures, horizontal deflection, relative humidity, measurement, gelatin gratings, fabrication, axis turbine wind, vibration, angle, corner of blade, vibrometer, labjack, activity, silver nanoparticles, DPPH radical scavenging activity, free radicals, high pressure die casting, microstructure, metallographic observation, plasma nitriding, contact pressure, road pavement, wheel impression area, political support, public acceptance, brain drain, NIMBY Phenomenon, guarini puzzle, bipartite graph, unified modeling language, hydraulic manifold, vibration, flow distribution, cavitation, CFD analysis. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


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Solar Powered Autonomous Vehicle for Seed Sowing

M. V. Ramesh, G. Vijay Kumar

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2021, Page 1-12

In the agriculture industry, skilled labour is in short supply at the moment. Farmers must seek out cutting-edge technologies to carry out crop chores and increase yield. Rapid technological advancements have resulted in the creation of contemporary agricultural practices that employ creative technologies to tackle challenges connected with traditional approaches. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and construction of a seed sowing vehicle that is controlled by a microcontroller and powered by a solar panel.  The advantage with this seed sowing machine is that it can be programmed for any field conditions using microcontroller programming via PC or mobile, so as to make it perform the function autonomously.

Effect of the Coincidence of Interdisciplinary Actions on the Expected Speed Reduction

Dominik Kacprzak, Alicja Solowczuk

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2021, Page 13-23

In the era of increasing traffic volumes, traffic calming problems seem to be fundamental challenges that connect a number of related, although at face value independent, issues involving different social groups. The fundamental problem in smaller towns and villages is to ensure traffic safety on the sections of through roads crossing their areas. The domestic and international guidelines of road design recommend to introduce traffic calming devices at places where traffic enters a built-up area and in centre zone, to reduce speeds along the road cutting through a village. One solution is to construct traffic calming devices in transition zones. As a result, one obtains the so-called speed zoning even before a zone directly related to the scattered or dense housing development. The second issue is to apply traffic calming measures in the built-up area. It would seem that the task should pose no difficulty and that it should be the responsibility of road workers. However, research and analysis into the effectiveness of traffic calming devices show that the best effect is obtained through the coincidence of interdisciplinary actions of road builders, local authorities, urban planners and many other specialists. An example of the co-existing traffic calming measures implemented in the village of Wrzosowo, Poland is a clear case in support of the above thesis. The mere application of traffic calming devices is not a guarantee of achieving the expected results in terms of speed reduction. However, a joint interdisciplinary action can improve the effectiveness of the scheme and lead to achieving a significant traffic speed drop. Further in the paper the authors present the results of a traffic speed survey conducted to check the speed reduction achieved on a section of a regional road passing through a village in Poland. Speed measurements were conducted three times, before the reconstruction of the existing road, after the reconstruction and after the implementation of all the elements of traffic calming, as designed by road builders and urban planners responsible for the shaping of the road’s surroundings. Analysis of the results demonstrated that chicanes constructed in the transition zones to villages, if used as the only measure, did not provide the reduction of the speed of traffic cutting through the village. It was only the coincidence of the application of traffic calming devices and elements of road vicinity development that resulted in the expected traffic speed reduction enhancing environmental conditions and improving local road safety. Conclusions drawn on the basis of conducted analysis confirm that the location of chicanes, the use of central reservation strip and traffic barriers must be closely linked to the elements of development present in the vicinity of the road and the location of road signs that inform motorists that they enter a built-up area.

Tempo–30 zones are used with increasing frequency as a traffic calming measure. They are intended primarily to make the drivers reduce speed to an expected value and increase the safety of traffic. In the Tempo–30 zones the drivers must pay particular attention to vulnerable road users (VRU) who can travel across the street at any place. The drivers are warned of the traffic calmed area ahead of them by the specific street and junction geometry and the street furniture, compelling them to reduce the driving speed. One of the most often used design measures used for junctions located in Tempo–30 zones is narrowing of the junction legs and extending their corners. Reducing the driving speed increases the driver’s central vision area resulting in quicker and easier spotting of pedestrians about to cross the roadway. Bulb-outs (a.k.a. build-outs) provided at junction corners along the intersection legs shorten the pedestrian crossing distance and offer a better view onto the oncoming vehicles. They are usually combined with on-street parking lanes dedicated to local residents. Taking the above facts into account, the author carried out speed measurements on a chosen downtown street located in a Tempo–30 zone. In the survey several speed measuring devices were deployed to automatically measure and record the operating speed and volume of traffic at different test locations at individual intersection legs at the same time. At least one hundred (100) speed measurements were taken per measurement site and direction of traffic. During the survey the weather was dry and such was the pavement surface. The results were subjected to statistical analyses. The statistical inference part of research included, inter alia, nonparametric test of independence and median test performed to confirm the null hypothesis H0 that the measurement results do not depend on the measurement site location. The alternative hypothesis H1 – was confirmed in almost all cases, meaning that the speed distribution parameters actually depend on the measurement site location. The locations of the measurement sites were chosen considering the direction of traffic, bulb-out location and the approach and departure conditions. The measurement data and the statistical test results have confirmed that in Tempo–30 zones bulb-out corners have an actual effect on speed reduction on the approach to the junction, enhancing the driver’s ability to spot any pedestrians about to cross the street. The speed data analyses showed that raising the pavement by 7 cm along the traffic calmed street in Tempo–30 zone had only a minor traffic calming effect. With the bulb-outs in place, the vehicles parked before the junction do not obstruct the pedestrian’s central vision area, thus enhancing their ability to spot any oncoming vehicles.

Tempo–30 zones are implemented primarily to calm the traffic by reducing the operating speed to the desired level of 30 km/h. To this end, various traffic calming measures are installed. With the purpose to determine the traffic calming measures that are the most effective in terms of speed reduction speed measurements were conducted on a few chosen Tempo–30 zone approach sections containing various traffic calming measures: traffic circles, raised junctions, speed tables, speed bumps/ humps and horizontal deflections on raised junctions. Another factor differentiating the sections chosen for the research was the Tempo–30 zone entry feature, such as a mini roundabout or a simple or signalled junction. The measurements were carried out under free-flow traffic conditions during peak hours. During all the measurements the weather was dry and such was the pavement surface. The 85th percentile speed v85 and the average speed vav were calculated. For simultaneous measurement on the respective measurement points P1, P2, … Pn SR4 electronic speed and traffic volume measuring systems equipped with automatic recording function were used. The measurement data were analysed and the results show that the obtained operating speeds were below 30 km/h (that is below the maximum permitted speed in Tempo–30 zone) only on a few sections. The most sustained speed reduction effect was obtained on two research sections containing several vertical traffic calming measures, including raised junctions, speed tables or speed bumps/ humps. The effectiveness in speed reduction was ascertained for combined use of different traffic calming measures imposing vertical and horizontal deflections of the vehicle paths of travel. However, the most effective arrangement was a series of vertical traffic calming measures provided on the Tempo–30 approach section. A signalled junction before the entry to the Tempo–30 zone was found to be ineffective either, since the drivers tended to slow down no sooner than at the raised junction. Conversely, a mini roundabout, traffic circle or signalised junction at the entry to the Tempo–30 zone had only a minor speed-reducing effect. The same applies to repeated small horizontal deflections on the approaches to raised junctions.

We report on a novel device to measure relative humidity. Materials used in the measurement of relative humidity are of different kinds. The sensor is based on surface diffraction gratings made of gelatin. This material swells and shrinks according to the content of water vapor in air. By sending a light beam to the grating, diffracted orders appear. Due to the gelatin swelling or shrinking, first order intensity changes according to the relative humidity. Calibration curves relating intensity versus relative humidity have been found. The fabrication process of diffraction gratings and the testing of the prototype sensing devices are described.

The vibrations that arise in the axis of the wind turbine is a phenomenon that results from the unstable wind velocity coming from the angle of the wind attacked by the blade of the wind turbine itself. The abundant energy such as wind and water has not been maximally utilized, therefore this study is planned to seek for increased efficiency.  Vibration is widely used as a tool to analyze both machines with rotation and translational motion. Vibration is widely used as a tool to analyze both machines with rotation and translational motion. Knowledge of data and vibration will which is yielded of vital importance for the treatment of repair analysis and also. This understanding can assist technician to reduce the happening of downtime and can improve advantage either from facet of peroduksi and also from longer wind turbine age. Vibration arising out effect of style of siklik [pass/through] existing machine elements, where the elements is showing off each other one another and didesifikasienergi [pass/through] structure in the form of vibration. Influence of vibration is the happening of clunk, go down performance him and performa of wind turbine and also can destroy component at wind turbine especially at pad and axis. At this research of angle; corner variation of blade (sudu / wind turbine rotor) to axis and also variation of speed of incoming wind. With the variation of can perceive and known by behavior of vibration that happened by measuring with appliance mengunakan agree vibration of vibrometer VQ-400-A OMETRON which in circuit with U3-Lv labjak distribute to PC in the form of digital voltage to analogous voltage. This model measure vibration at direction of horizontal axis of the abscis or where laser focus at rotatory wind turbine axis. To present result of measurement used by labjak which in circuit to PC laptop. This research yield that For the speed of wind [among/between] 3 - 4,5 m / s having smallest deviation use angle; corner of blade 30o [so that/ to be] vibration that happened more minimum that is [among/between] 0,2353425 mm to 0,356839 mm. Pursuant to calculation of critical frequency happened if turbine rotation frequency come up with frequency 9,464226 Hz and at simulation use ANSYS sofware apply frequency 4,1854 Hz.

Advanced Study on Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized from Methanolic Leaf Extract of Blighia sapida

A. O. Akintola, B. D. Kehinde, P. B. Ayoola, A. G. Adewoyin, O. T. Adedosu, J. F. Ajayi, S. B. Ogunsona

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2021, Page 67-81

Synthesis of nanoparticles by biological methods using microorganisms, enzymes or plant extracts has been suggested as possible ecofriendly alternative to chemical and physical methods which involve the use of harmful reducing agents. In the current study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by green approach from methanolic leaf extract of Blighia sapida. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging assay, determination of total reductive potential, total phenolics content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) of the synthesized AgNPs. SEM analysis revealed that the size of the synthesized silver nanoparticles ranged from 50-70 nm with maximum UV-vis absorbance at 413 nm. DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the synthesized AgNPs increased in a dose dependent manner as compared to ascorbic acid the standard reference used. This result confirmed that Blighia sapida is a potential biomaterial for synthesizing AgNPs which can be exploited for its antioxidant activity. This study provides an insight into the usage of Blighia sapida leaf as a good source of naturally occurring antioxidant and could have great importance as therapeutic agent in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress related diseases.

The Hardness and Microstructure Profiles of SKD61 Steel Plunger Tip (local material) after Plasma Nitriding have studied. To improve SKD61 quality for high temperature use, a plunger tip can be hardened through surface treatment using a plasma/ion nitriding technique. To test the success of the surface treatment, the nitriding temperature was varied from 350ºC to 550ºC with step for 50ºC for the nitriding process completed for 10 hours. The results, it can be seen that the optimum surface hardness was achieved when the nitriding temperature was 500ºC with Vickers hardness (HV) was 955.29 HV with a depth of up to 100 m from the surface of the specimen. At such a nitriding temperature, the hardness increased 1.79 times in comparison with that after hardening only, and it increased 2.076 times in comparison with that of the initial hardness. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that plasma nitriding temperature affects the amount of nitrogen concentration diffused into the substrate material. Metallographic observation of SEM-EDS shows that the nitriding temperature affects the concentration and depth of diffusion of nitrogen in the SKD61 material.  Nitride layer formed was possibly of Fe N, Cr2N, VN, \(\delta\) Fe, and \(\gamma\) Fe.

Assessment of Contact Pressure on the Road Pavement Created by Modern Vehicles

D. P. Luchinsky, S. P. Sannikov, V. D. Timokhovets, A. V. Marmur

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2021, Page 95-101

The paper analyses the possibility of changing the current limits on vehicle axle loads and total vehicle weight depending on the vehicle type and the season when transporting goods by modern means of transport. The inefficient use of modern heavy trucks during the transportation of goods, forces construction organisations to violate transport regulations or to obtain special permits. The maximum permissible weight and axle load limits are set for the entire calendar period, which is incorrect because in winter the road structure becomes a "monolith" due to the frozen condition. This suggests that the seasonal characteristics of the road structure need to be taken into account when imposing the maximum limits set out in federal legislation. An important factor in the destructive effect on the road pavement is not the load and weight of the vehicle, but the pressure generated in the plane of the wheel impression on the road pavement surface. This paper presents the course of an experiment to assess the contact pressure on the pavement structure from modern vehicles in order to be able to compare the actual data with the normative data. Experimental data for the contact pressure evaluation showed results not exceeding the standard value of 0.8 MPa for the permanent road pavement type.

Although the nuclear accident, which occurred in Fukushima Daiichi NPP in 2011, is still fresh in our memory and leaved trauma to a part of the globe inhabitants, many countries have already resumed their nuclear power programs. This is because NPP for some countries has important and strategic roles in meeting electricity demand, as well as, in raising the country’s bargaining position. Beside 16 countries that are currently constructing nuclear power plants, there are about 50 emerging countries, including 30 countries considering, planning and starting nuclear power program, and other 20 remaining countries having an interest at some points in nuclear power plant. They certainly have a different level of success in the program implementation and of complexity in problem, as well. Some countries could run their nuclear program smoothly because they have enough resources and supports from stakeholders, but some others could not. Indonesia is one of countries who battles with their problems and challenges in implementing their nuclear program. Current study is aimed to analyze the problems and challenges encountered by Indonesia in dealing with its nuclear power program, and to find out lessons that can be learned. This paper thus provides the analysis’s results and updates the status of the problems and challenges faced by Indonesia, that might be beneficial to others with similar problems as lessons to learn.

In this study there it is presented an interactive software implemented in the C# oriented object programming language using Net Framework platform that allows for the efficient solution of a puzzle obtained through the use of Guarini puzzle generalisation. This entails taking into account 6 knights placed on a 3 n dimensional chessboard. Three of the knights are white and are on the first line of the chessboard, while the other three are black and are on the last line of the chessboard. The goal of this puzzle is to move the knights in as few moves as possible such that all of the black knights are on the first line and all of the white knights are on the last line. This problem falls under a category of problems that can be solved quickly using graph theory, a field of discrete mathematics. The modelling of the interactive software is achieved through specific UML diagrams representing the stages of analysis, design and implementation, the system thus being described in a clear and practical manner. Unified Modelling Language is a highly recognized and understood platform for software design, being the perfect visual language to communicate detailed information about the architecture to the largest number of users.

Determining the Effect of Flow Variations to Vibration Tendency in a Hydraulic Manifold

Norazhar Ali, Kahar Osman, Fazila Mohd Zawawi, Muhammad Noor Afiq Witri Muhammad Yazid

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 4, 22 June 2021, Page 125-136

A hydraulic manifold is an important component in hydraulic machinery to convey hydraulic oil under high pressure into hydraulic tube and hose for cleaning purpose. Due to high pressure during operation, this process induces vibration and potential to leakage at the exit ports of hydraulic manifold. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of pressure and velocity variations in hydraulic manifold with respect to vibration tendency. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the hydraulic manifold fluid behaviours, under industries operating conditions. The result shows that fluctuations in pressure and velocity occurs at each branch in a mainstream due to changes of the area and geometrical shape. Observed the surge of pressure but reduction in velocity at each branch. Overall, the results show the most affected areas are those near the inlet. Areas further downstream are not significantly changed by the increments. Based on our computed results, the vibration tendency occurs due to differential pressure and velocity, negative pressure, low velocity, swirl flow and back stream in the hydraulic manifold cavity.