Editor(s)

Dr. Jelena Purenovic
Assistant Professor,
Department of Physics and Materials, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Kragujevac University, Cacak, Serbia.

ISBN 978-93-91312-82-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-83-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/naer/v2

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include  collision damage, stiffened cylinder, design formulation, residual ultimate strength formulation, combined loads, sustainable design, integrated life cycle design, space structures, automated guided vehicle, fuzzy controller, shortest path, Dijkstra’s algorithm, stainless steel, chromium free filler material, TIG welding, hexavalent chromium fumes Response Surface Methodology, mechanical properties, Taguchi analysis, potentiodynamic polarization technique, controlled source electromagnetic, porosity mapping, carbonate exploration, differential measurements, air pollutants, pollutant absorber, coconut shell charcoal, condensation system, emission minimization, environmental impact, noise level, society, different ratings of WTGs, wind turbine generators, impact of noise, curing, spring constant, response analysis, magnetorheological elastomer, solar radiation, finite element, concrete damage plasticity, masonry wall, hybrid system, solar usage, Habanero chili, feasibility analysis, drying process, corrosion fatigue, corrosion, duplex stainless steel, geothermal environment, surface influence, axial load, rotation bending load. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


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Chapters


This study aims to develop new formulations for predicting the permanent local denting damage of steel stiffened cylinders under dynamic lateral mass impact and their residual strength under combined loads. The considered scenarios could represent the collisions of offshore cylindrical structures with bow or stern of service vessels or floating objects. For this, two types of the stiffened cylinders, namely, stringer- and/or ring-stiffened cylinders, are generally main components of offshore marine structures used in semi-submersibles, submarines, tension legs of platforms (TLPs), and other various types of floating offshore structure are investigated. Before deriving the formulations, the numerical methods are developed using ABAQUS/Explicit to determine the deformation of these stiffened cylinder structures subjected to dynamic lateral mass impact. Next, rigorous parametric studies were performed on the actual design of full-scaled stiffened cylinder examples using the developed numerical method. Based on the rigorous numerical results, new simple design formulations to predict the maximum permanent local dent depth of a stiffened cylinder are derived through a regression study as the function of a non-dimensional energy parameter. Additionally, new  simple design equations, which are used to predict the ultimate residual strength of the dented stiffened cylinders under combined loads are also proposed. The accuracy and reliability of the derived formulations are confirmed by comparing with the available test results, nonlinear FEA, and existing analytical and empirical equations in the literature. A good agreement with existing test data for ship-offshore structure collisions was achieved.

Study on Sustainable Design in Space Structures

Dimitra Tzourmakliotou

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 28-36
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/9818D

The sustainable design approach presented in this paper supports an increased commitment to environmental stewardship and conservation, and results in an optimal balance of cost, environmental, societal, and human benefits while meeting the mission and function of the intended space structure. The aim of this paper is to develop the guidelines that could be applied in the design of a space structure in order to achieve the optimal overall lifetime performance of the space structure. Space structures are more than inanimate hunks of metal, glass and fabric. Every space structure that we design as structural engineers is like a child—a child that is conceived with a passionate vision of its form, structure and purpose; nurtured through the schematic design phase and the development of construction documents; and cared for during the labor pains of plan check corrections, requests for information, shop drawing review, and construction observation. Like children, our space structures mature, perform necessary functions during their lives, and eventually, grow old and die. The design of a sustainable space structure is a much more challenging and cross-disciplinary process than in the past and therefore it is necessary that the space structure is viewed as an integrated system and that all members of the design team work in a fully integrated fashion.

In the fields of automotive and logistics, the automated guided vehicle (AGV) offers a wide range of applications.AGV should run at a steady speed to ensure plant stability. To achieve constant speed, the AGV uses a DC encoder motor that is controlled by a Fuzzy controller and a PID controller. The system's response is achieved using a fuzzy controller and a PID controller.  The fuzzy logic controller reduces the system's steady-state inaccuracy and overshoot. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to select the optimal path. The shortest path between the source and destination nodes is determined by this algorithm.   

Weldability Studies of Novel Chromium Free Electrodes with Austenitic Grade Stainless Steels

Koushik Kosanam, J. R. Nataraj

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 46-68
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/2319F

Stainless Steels are widely used materials due to their high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. However, welding of Stainless Steel produces hexavalent chromium fumes which are carcinogenic to the welders and operators in the vicinity of the welding. As per Occupational Safety and Health Administration suggestions, a novel filler material has been developed to mitigate these hexavalent fumes. The main aim of this chapter is to discuss development of chromium free filler material for welding of austenitic grade Stainless steel and investigate mechanical and corrosion resistance of the weldments. This case study includes development of filler material, microstructure characterization, analyzing effect of welding parameters like Current, Gas Flow Rate and Root Gap on properties of weldment like Ultimate Tensile strength, Impact Strength, Hardness and Corrosion Resistance, and optimization of welding parameters by Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The weldments have shown the maximum Tensile strength of 324 MPa, maximum Hardness of 209VHN, and a minimum corrosion rate of 1.575e-004mils/year for an optimum current value of 130A, 11.79litres/min gas flow rate, and 2.33mm root gap.

Using Electromagnetics to Map Lateral Fluid Variations in Carbonates in SE Asia

K. Strack, S. Davydycheva

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 69-79
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/8202D

Exploration for hydrocarbon is often difficult when the overlaying strata is of high seismic velocity as it is for basalt, salt and carbonates. Many the world reservoirs are in carbonates. Mapping the reservoir laterally is thus difficult and developing carbonate reservoirs is expensive. We propose to use controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method to image the fluid better.

In SE Asia commonly magnetotellurics, a passive method, is being used [1], but they are less sensitive to deep subsurface resistivity variations as CSEM. Pioneering work with CSEM was done in the 1980s in Australia and Europe [2] where CSEM was used to map resistive reservoirs / carbonates. Since then, the equipment and modeling methods have significantly improved, and the problem is addressed more cost effective thus reducing exploration cost by several fold.

Applying a new differential measurement methodology and using 3-dimensioanal (3D) anisotropic model derived from well logs and 3D modeling we are able remove near surface anomalies and illuminate the deep the reservoir target and its lateral variations. Thus, we have a cost-effective solution for many exploration and production problems associated with carbonates.

The concentration and distance of pollutants emitted from the industry varies depending on the type of fuel and the height of the stack used. The greater the fuel capacity used, the greater the concentration of pollutants that spread from the industry. Furthermore, the higher the stack used, the further away the pollutants emitted. To minimize the concentration and distance of the emitted pollutants, stack modification was carried out. In this study, a pollutant absorber was made with a condensation system using coconut shell charcoal. To maintain the quality of coconut shell charcoal in absorbing pollutants, a condensation system is used. To achieve these objectives, Research & Development techniques used with the Design for Production (DFP) approach. The DFP approach uses a multilevel systems perspective of manufacturing activities to guide the product development process. In minimizing emissions, it is carried out in three stages, namely when entering, inside and when pollutants leave the stack. The simulation results show that with the same fuel capacity and stack height, the emission concentration is obtained, the first absorption decreased 22% while the second one decreased 63%. The small percentage decrease in first absorption is because at that stage the temperature is still high.

Study on Environmental Impact of Noise Generation Due to Operation of Wind Turbine Generators

D. G. Rajakumar, M. C. Mallikarjune Gowda, S. U. Suresh Babu, G. K. Mounesh

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 90-100
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/9946D

Power generation from wind energy has increased to a great extent in India during the recent past. The operation of Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) during power generation process generates noise of two types, one is mechanical noise and other one is Air cut noise. Any undesirable sound is considered as Noise. There are government regulations for the noise generation by any industry/personnel. The main aim of present paper is to reveal the range and impact of noise and its effect to the nearby dwellings considering a case study approach for the wind farm located in southern part of India. Study records the data related to noise level within and nearby the WTGs and measures it effect for day and night time for wind turbine located in Udumalaipet area of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu India. Study uses both practical (on site data) and theoretical or standard noise level data prescribed by the Government of India to install any wind turbine generator near the dwellings. It also considers the important parameters like time and distance of measurement to assess the effect of noise considering different ratings of WTGs with different distance from them. Hence, it can be concluded that there is no issue of noise pollution to the neighboring society during the day and night time operation of WTG ratings of 0.85MW or 2 MW at different locations and are environmental friendly with their noise level within the acceptable level / zone prescribed by the Government authorities.

Experimental Investigation of Characterization of Isotropic Magnetorheological Elastomers

S. R. Kumbhar, Subhasis Maji, Bimlesh Kumar

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 101-110
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/2127F

A new type of smart material is the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). By controlling an applied magnetic field, Its dynamic mechanical performances can be controlled. MRE is usually used as stiffness - changeable spring in the semi-active vibration absorber. Low dynamic damping of MRE is required for perfect vibration control effect. This research demonstrates a novel approach for fabricating isotropic MREs under normal temperatures and pressures. A variety of MR elastomer samples were made in the absence of a magnetic field utilising Sylard's184 silicone elastomer and un-annealed electrolytic iron power 500 mesh and 15-micron size. Their dynamic properties, such as fractional change in resonant frequency and fractional change in have been investigated. The effects of iron particles and the magnetic field that was applied were studied. This research should also serve as a useful guide for developing and preparing new MR elastomers.

The Development of Software SOLEEC for Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Designing

Ernesto Enciso-Contreras, Juan Gabriel Barbosa-Saldaña, José Alfredo Jiménez-Bernal, Claudia del Carmen Gutiérrez-Torres

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 111-123
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/2322F

The current paper explains SOLEEC, a numerical method for designing PTC (parabolic trough collector). SOLEEC software is divided into two sections. The first allows for the measurement of solar resources for a particular location on Earth and can be performed for a specific day of the year, average values for a specific month, and monthly averages across the year. When the average values along the year option is chosen, the user can obtain annual charts such as: solar constant, Earth declination, insolation hours, and sunrise and sunset hours. The second part comprises the PTC collector designing and assessment, that is, using options one and two, the user can get five different designs based on receiver outer diameter evaluating solar radiation data along the full year or only one solar radiation value (monthly), on the other hand, options three and four were developed to compute the thermal evaluation for an operating collector for twelve solar radiation values (annually) or only one average value (monthly), respectively. The computational tool is used for Buenos Aires, Argentina, where the software is applied for a PTC collector designing, the results show that the place has a good solar resource to be used as thermal energy, having a maximum value of  in November. The software provides to the user thermal parameters such as: heat gain, heat losses, thermal efficiency and the minimal mass flow to reach the desired temperature, in function of the materials selected for the PTC collector designing and the geometrical parameters. 

Masonry Wall Numerical Simulation Using the Concrete Damage Plasticity Model

Suraj D. Bhosale, Atul K. Desai

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 124-130
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/8984D

The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of the FE (Finite Element) tool in analyzing masonry walls. Masonry is made up of highly nonlinear materials that have different properties depending on where they are used. Experimenting on a full-scale model of a masonry wall is challenging. Its impact is also undervalued in the construction of low-rise structures. As if the wall was properly confined and bonded to the beam and column. It improves the seismic efficiency of low-rise buildings. Energy is dissipated by cracking, much as it is in low-rise buildings. When a masonry wall is cast monolithically (like confined masonry) with the column, it increases the stiffness of the building and allows it to withstand additional load. The FE tool is used to perform a numerical nonlinear analysis of a wall panel in this research (ABAQUS). Using a Damage Plasticity Model for Concrete (CDP) and the findings are compared to previous studies by other researchers, with the conclusion that the results were satisfactory.

Drying Process Habanero Chili Using a Hybrid-Solar-Fluidized Bed Dryer in Yucatán, México: Feasibility Analysis

Elizabeth Cortés Rodríguez, Isaac Pilatowsky Figueroa, Claudia A. Ruiz Mercado

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 2, 3 July 2021, Page 131-145
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/naer/v2/9662D

Solar energy was used to boost the drying process of Habanero chilli. The drying of habanero chilli is a significant seasonal commodity for Mexican producers; however, this process is costly and wasteful of energy. To determine the market trend and the optimal drying conditions for redesigning the Habanero chilli drying process using a hybrid solar-electric energy system, a feasibility study was developed. There will be two stages to the new drying process: (a) an open solar dryer was used; (b) an existing pilot fluidized bed dryer was adapted with a low temperature solar collector for air heating. Habanero chili was dehydrated from 90% to 5% moisture in 10.3 h, with good quality product, available for commercialization. With an energy savings of 0.52 kg of natural gas per kg of fresh Habanero chilli, a 50% reduction in average drying time was achieved, as well as a % reduction in energy consumption in the fluidized bed dryer.In order to expand the market for Habanero chilli, an innovative sustainable efficient drying process was created, which will save % on energy when compared to conventional equipment.

In the geothermal environment corrosion fatigue may severely lower the lifetime expectancy of high alloyed steels. Therefore, the corrosion fatigue (CF) of duplex stainless steel X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 was investigated in the Northern German Basin electrolyte at 369 K using a specifically designed corrosion chamber. Although the failure mechanism is independent of surface roughness (low scatter ranges technical surface: TN=1:1.35, polished surface: TN=1.1.95), the life expectancy in purely alternating axial cyclic load to failure was clearly related to surface finish and applied stress amplitude. Specimen with technical surfaces tested at high stress amplitudes (>275 MPa) lasted longer (cycles to failure: P50% at Sa 300 MPa=5x105) than specimen with polished surfaces (cycles to failure: P50% at Sa 300 MPa=1.5x105). When applying a protective potential a significant increase of CF life range from 4.7 x 105 (free corrosion potential) to 107 cycles (potential range from USHE = –450 to –900 mV) was observed. Microstructural analysis of the CF damage revealed horizontal grain attack within corrosion pit cavities, multiple fatigue cracks and preferable deterioration of austenitic phase. At low stress pitting is the initiating crack growth process whereas at high stress amplitudes the formation of micro cracks is reason for crack propagation and failure.