Dr. Giovanni Bucci
Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy University of L’Aquila Italy.

ISBN 978-93-91882-21-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91882-06-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/naer/v12

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include DFT-based approach, Dynamic resource allocation, transceiver structure, film cooling, adiabatic effectiveness, injection angle, blowing ratio, ANSYS, strut-and-tie model, inclination angle, deep beam, crack pattern, ductility, fuzzy method, hydrolysis, Polyester, partially oriented yarn, densification, crystalline regions, alkaline hydrolysis, weightloss denslity, critical dissolution time, molecular weight, alkaline oxidation deweighting process, hydrophobicity, breathing patterns, cluster, classification, decision tree, K-nearest neighbor, pranayama, metaheuristics, artificial bee colony, cluster head selection, bacterial foraging algorithm, hybridization, supersonic flow, gas media, external energy deposition, triple-shock configuration, complex conservative difference scheme, blood perfusion, porosity, non-Fourier law, heat conduction, ambient temperature, photovoltaic system, Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML), Distorted wavefront, Cramér Rao bound, Time-varying complex-valued AR (1) model, Road accident, accident scenario, road security, road signpost. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


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Investigation on Dynamic Resource Allocation for Multiple Antenna OFDM Based System

P. Chiranjeevi, N. Bhargavi

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 12, 4 September 2021, Page 1-9

We propose a transceiver structure that reduces interference between transmitting and receiving subcarriers in this study. Its performance in terms of signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) is assessed using both analysis and simulation, and it is then incorporated into a recently proposed cooperation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems to test its performance under realistic conditions. In multipath channels with non-sample-spaced time delays, the conventional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)-based technique will induce energy leakage. The improved DFT-based channel estimation approach extends the LS estimate in frequency domain using the symmetric property, calculates the changing rate of the leakage energy, and identifies viable pathways based on the changing rate. It is noticed that the multicast scheme with the proposed method can achieve higher capacity than the uni-cast scheme or the mixed cases. The more multicast users exit, the higher system capacities can be achieved.

Numerical Simulation of Film Cooling Over Flat Plate

Ali S. Bahr Ennil, Abdulhafid M. Elfaghi

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 12, 4 September 2021, Page 10-16

The commercial CFD Ansys Fluent program is used to explore the effect of film cooling across a flat plate. The coolant supply tube and the primary mixing zone are included in the computational domain. For blowing ratios of 0.33, 0.5, and 1.67, and a density ratio of 1.14, a tube L/D of 4 and injection angles of (30o, 60o, and 90o) were used. Adiabatic film cooling effectiveness distributions for inline and staggered configurations were also established. The primary finding of this study was that the 30o hole had higher efficacy values than the 60o and 90o holes when the blowing ratio was 0.33 and the length-to-diameter ratio was the same. A blowing ratio of 0.5 was found to be the most effective. The results reveal that increasing the blowing ratio has a negative impact on film cooling, with the injected coolant tending to lift off the wall at a blowing ratio of 1.67 due to an increase in the wall normal momentum. The numerical results are compared to experimental data in this section.

This chapter is concerned with strut-and-tie models (STMs) behaviour as derived from the truss analogy models. STMs are often used to analyze and model a reinforced concrete deep beam structure for internal force distribution from the point load to the supports that carries bending, shearing and torque forces in disturbed regions (D-regions). D-region on structural elements can be more easily analysed where the stress situation occurs idealized as the strut of the concrete, the tie of steel and the nodal area, the action of the strut and tie causes an increase in the strength of the high-reinforced concrete beam structure. Numerical modelling was conducted on the deep beam by compressive loading simulation until its collapse. ANSYS 3D half-span symmetrical Strut-and Tie model deep beams modeling  have been done to determine deflection, cracking and destruction of ultimate load, model variation of two diagonal reinforcements, diagonal symmetrical truss reinforcement and diagonal frame truss reinforcement. The variation shape of STMs have been conducted to determine the ultimate bending capacity, load-deformation, ductility, stress behavior, strain, and fracture pattern. The result of numerical modelling shows the signifanct variation of STMs deep beam behaviour.

Estimating the Hydrolysis of Glucose from Bamboo with Micro Controller PID Type Arduino UNO and Fuzzy Method

Ni Ketut Sari, Dira Ernawati, Intan Yuniar Purbasari, Basuki Rahmat

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 12, 4 September 2021, Page 35-45

Glucose needs each year has increased significantly while glucose production has decreased, this is because supplies of the raw materials limited, where bamboo is one of the raw material alternatives to glucose. The selection of bamboo plants based on levels of cellulose which ranges from 42.4%-53.6%, bamboo plants are plants that can grow quickly and easily grown in various regions in Indonesia. The purpose of research on the hydrolysis process of bamboo using a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) microcontroller is to digitally process hydrolysis in determining optimal temperature and glucose levels using the Fuzzy method and the Delphi programming simulation language. The production of glucose from bamboo using hydrolysis and pretreatment process, in the hydrolysis process of the microcontroller equipped PID type Arduino UNO, the application of microcontrollers PID using the Fuzzy method and simulation language Delphi programming. Research results in the form of the temperature profile, levels of cellulose hydrolysis time function, and the function time of the hydrolysis of glucose levels. At the time of the detailed set point temperature profile 97°C, at an early stage shows the result of the PID process control with fault temperature below ten°C, the temperature as measured 94,696°C, hydrolysis time 20 seconds. As time went on the hydrolysis process control, PID shows the temperature measured is 96.59°C, at 137 seconds, measured temperature shows 97°C following the temperature set point, used as a basis to design tools in the process of hydrolysis. Optimization of cellulose levels function hydrolysis time is 18.7% and the optimization of the hydrolysis time function of glucose levels is 23,6%. Process design with the production of glucose from bamboo with hydrolysis equipped microcontroller control PID temperature obtained the optimum levels of glucose.

Partially oriented yarn is the feed material for draw texturing process of polyester regular and micro fibres. Quality of POY is the biggest challenge the industry faces as the storage of POY leads to degradation and ultimately the quality of draw textured yarn will be questionable. There fore its necessary to find a method to test the freshness POY and alkaline hydrolysis can be used a  tool to study the structure of POY. In this research work an earnest attempt is made to explore the caustic action on polyester POY with different parameters of degradation process.  Its for the first time such a study has been made using alkaline hydrolysis as a tool to understand the degradation process. The experimental methodology consisted in selecting different pet poy (both micro and macro denier) and storing in standard conditions as per the standard procedures for degradation to occur and subsequently subjecting the stored materials to alkaline hydrolysis as per the standard procedure given by Zeronian and Collin. The treated samples were characterized for density, critical dissolution time and molecular weight. In all the cases it was found that degradation process has significant effect on these properties as found from weight loss of alkaline hydrolysis process. Further the results obtained were statistically significant.

Polyester is known for its hydrophobicity and efforts are being made to improve the same. In this research work laboratory woven 67/33 polyester / cotton suiting material is treated with cupper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide bleaching followed by oxidation deweighting process to improve all its mechanical and comfort properties including hydophilicity.The experimental methodology included selection of 3 levels of copper sulphate, two levels of Material to liquor ratio, two levels of temperature and a constant level of sodium hydroxide. In all the cases samples were treated in HTHP beaker dyeing machine followed by standard after treatment procedures. The treated samples were characterized for various properties .It was found that the experimental parameters like concentration of copper sulphate, alkaline oxidation deweighting process had significant effects as shown by interesting results like improvement of compressibility, crease recovery angle, bending length and with acceptable loss of tensile strength. 

A Novel Approach to Analyze Pranayama through Machine Learning Techniques

A. Parkavi, V. Sangeetha, G. R. Amith, B. K. Harini, M. Supriya, K. N. Tejasvini

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 12, 4 September 2021, Page 66-79

In yoga practice, pranayama breathing practice is considered as very important. When practicing pranayama, practitioners must note the number of pranayama cycles. Most importantly, the period to which someone is inhaling/exhaling must be maintained properly. It is of great importance and also important to maintain a precise ratio throughout the inhalation: exhalation cycle. For a beginner, the counting process is so demanding that it is difficult to maintain awareness of the breathing process, and it decreases the standard of pranayama practice. The Proposed system is to find a novel approach to analyze the quality of Pranayama using Machine learning Techniques.  The main objective of the proposed work is to create an application that is capable of counting the inhalation and exhalation. It ensures that feedback is given to users observing the inhalation and exhalation patterns. It analyses every inhalation and exhalation pattern, and classify inhalation and Exhalation using Clustering techniques.  The proposed framework in this paper helps to improve the consistency of pranayama. And thus, enhances breathing performance, which in turn decreases depression and anxiety. Analysis is conducted using the KNN, SVM, Random Forest and Decision tree algorithm to verify the valid breathing patterns.

The emerging ubiquitous nature of wireless sensor networks has made it suitable and applicable to a diversified number of vital applications that include environment surveillance, health monitoring using implantable sensors, weather forecasting and other plethora of contexts. The critical issues such as computation time, limited memory and energy are more common due to the tiny sized hundred and thousands of sensor nodes existing in the networks. In this context, the network lifetime completely depends on the potential use of available resources. The process of organizing closely located sensor nodes into clusters is convenient for effective management of cluster and improving the lifetime of the complete network. At this juncture, swarm intelligent and evolutionary algorithms the pertains to the problem of NP-complete is determined to achieve a superior optimal solution. In this paper, a Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony and Bacterial Foraging Algorithm-based Optimized Clustering (HABC-BFA-OC) is proposed for achieving enhanced network lifetime in sensor networks. In this proposed HABC-BFA-OC technique, the benefits of Bacterial Foraging Optimization is included for improving the local search potential of ABC algorithm in order to attain maximum exploitation and exploration over the parameters considered for cluster head selection. The simulation experiments of the proposed HABC-BFA-OC technique confirmed an enhanced network lifetime with minimized energy consumptions during its investigation with a different number of sensor nodes.

Study on Unsteady Triple-Shock Configurations in Supersonic Flows Past Combined Cylinder AD Bodies in Different Gas Media

Olga Azarova, Ludmila Gvozdeva, Oleg Kravchenko

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 12, 4 September 2021, Page 89-105

The paper is devoted to the control of supersonic flows past aerodynamic bodies under the action of external energy deposition. Mechanism of the interaction of a bow shock over a body with the oblique shock resulting from the refraction of the bow shock at the external energy source surface is revealed. Different types of shock waves intersection might appear in this process, among them are triple-shock configurations. The objectives of this paper are the investigations of unsteady triple-shock configurations in the vicinity of the surface of combined cylinder bodies “hemisphere-cylinder” and “hemisphere-cone-cylinder” under the action of external energy deposition and their effect on the body surface pressure. The studies have been conducted numerically using inviscid approach on a base of the Euler equations at M=4 for gaseous media with ratio of specific heats 1.4 and 1.2. Complex conservative difference schemes are used in the simulations. Dependences of the angles of triple-shock configuration on the rarefaction degree in an energy source and on the incident shock angle have been obtained. Generation of local space-time areas with increasing boundary pressure has been established. Mechanism of boundary pressure growth together with local front drag force increase is shown to be connected with a vortex action as well as the action of the arising shock segments in the vicinity of triple-shock configuration. Also, the comparison with the plane flow symmetry has been conducted. The results can be used for organization of flow control via external energy deposition by means of laser, microwave or electrical discharge.

Thermal processes in human tissues, such as the multi-layered human eye, are influenced by the environment and physiological factors. Based on a non-Fourier heat conduction rule with proper boundary and interface conditions, a mathematical model of the human eye concerns changes in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation rate, and ambient temperatures has been formulated in this study. The numerical solution was obtained using a direct technique and MAPLE 17 software, and the results are presented in figures. The temperature distribution based on various values of the relaxation times factors was first examined to determine its impact on the temperature value in each layer of the human eye. The effects of blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation rate, time, and ambient temperatures on the thermal wave passing through the human eye layers have been discussed; they have considerable influence on the thermal wave travelling through the human eye layers. The results of this model have agreed with the results of other studies in terms of validity.

The present study investigated the impact of weather conditions on the production performance of the photovoltaic (PV) module. The experiments have been conducted using two identical PV modules of 75 Watt each, and they were placed in the same weather conditions in the summer season in Kirkuk City-Iraq. One of them was used as a conventional module as a reference panel, and the other unit has been used in all required tests. Water circulation has been used to cool the PV module to an excellent soil used to estimate the effect of each hot weather and dust deposition on the performance of PV, respectively. The results show that the fill factor (FF) and PV efficiency affected inversely with temperature increases; on the other hand, the cooling process contributed to increasing the voltage generated across PV panel by 11.8%, while the reduction in voltage generation by unclean panel due to natural pollution deposition on the front of the panel for three months was about 3.8% compared with clean panel and 13.8 % if it has been compared with voltage production by the panel when it has been cooled by water. To improve its performance and be done by periodic maintenance process on the PV module from dust deposition and add the suitable size of PV panels to compensate for the shortfall, which occurs in the power production of the PV unit due to hot weather cannot be controlled.

This chapter extends the author's previous work on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation, in developing a novel stochastic maximum-likelihood-based (SML-based) approach for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of a single narrow-band amplitude-distorted wavefront received by an arbitrary antenna array. The distorted amplitude wavefront is assumed to vary according to the complex-valued circular AR (1) model with unknown coefficients. The chapter’s contribution consists of developing an approximate SML-based approach to estimate the DOA in a high SNR scenario. It shows how to eliminate the noise and AR (1) nuisance (distortion) parameters from the considered approximate stochastic likelihood function, thus obtaining an SML DOA estimate through a simple one-dimensional (1-D) search. Compact Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) expressions for the DOA parameter alone are derived for different kinds of time-varying fading amplitudes. High and low SNR approximation expressions for the  are also derived, which enables the derivation of several CRB properties. Finally, simulation results show the performance of the proposed approach and validate the theoretical analysis.

Categorization of Road Accidents Related to the Default of Signaling: A Case Study of the Yaoundé-Douala Highway, Southern Cameroon

Zogo Tsala Simon Armand, Ayissi Zacharie Merlin, Noah Pierre Marcel Anicet, Betene Ebanda Fabien, Ayina Ohandja Louis Max

New Approaches in Engineering Research Vol. 12, 4 September 2021, Page 156-179

This chapter highlights the typology of road accidents related to the default of signing for many accidents have occurred due to imperfect signposting along roads in Cameroon. The Yaoundé-Douala highway has been chosen for this study. Available Field data recorded during the years 2007, 2009 and 2011, have enabled the analysis of each accident. It appears that amongst the 569 accidents recorded along a section of 114 km, 108 cases (about 20%) result from the default or lack of signing. From a clinical analysis, four scenarios of accidents that occurred by collision were found on one hand, and on the other hand, seven were elaborated based on factors such as: no signposting at crossroads, the lack of vertical and/or horizontal alignment or slightly raised bump and the deficiency of signpost for normal parking layouts or no parking at certain critical points.