Dr. Francisco Cruz Sosa
Department of Biotechnology, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-Iztapalapa), Mexico.


ISBN 978-93-5547-339-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-340-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/imb/v3


This book covers key areas of  Microbiology and Biotechnology. The contributions by the authors include CD4 T-lymphocytes, Propionibacterium acnes, biochemical tests, FAME analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, blue growth, circular economy, microalgae, greenhouse gas emission, environmental protection, aquaculture, Japanese encephalitis Virus, metazoonotic disorder, vaccination, nanotechnology, nanoparticles, UV-Spectrophotometry, Silver Nanoparticles, blood stream infections, biotechnology, gene transfer, tissue culture, plant productivity, pathogenic fungi, antibacterial activity, fish immunity, antiretroviral therapy, antimicrobial susceptibility, Nosocomial infection, opportunistic nosocomial pathogen. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of  Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Media Promotion:


Determining the Effects of Immutonic Capsule on CD4T-Lymphocytes Cells Count: A Case Report

Hussien O. Kadi, H. K. Mohamed, H. K. Taha

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 1-4

Introduction: Many herbs and natural food materials have been historically recognized as an effective panacea that can establish a balanced inflammatory response and promoting healthy immune response as well as have antibacterial and viral effects. The clinical use of some medications can cause serious side effects. We proposed that natural ingredients could serve as food supplement, immune tonic and antibacterial & viral which a better prophylactic and therapeutic approach against COVID-19 and others infections. The study aimed to determining the effect of IMMUTONIC capsule on CD4T-Lymphocytes Cells Count.

Case Presentation: A 52-years-old Yemeni female normal healthy volunteer for taken Immutonic capsule three times after meal daily for one week. She was free from significant cardiac, hepatic, renal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, neurological or hematological disease as determined by way of medical histories, physical examinations. . Blood CD4 T-Lymphocytes cells was tested before and after taken IMMUTONIC capsule.

Conclusion: The present case indicated that Immutonic capsule boosting and enhancing immune system which can be used as better prophylactic , boosting immunity and therapeutic against COVID-19 and others infections.

Molecular Characterization of Propionibacterium acnes Isolated from Acne vulgaris

Roselin Polugari, Shailaja Raj Marla, D. Shailaja

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 5-18

Propionibacterium acnes is the most common member of the Anaerobic or microaerophilic coryneform organisms found on the skin.  The present study focused on the isolation of Propionibacterium acnes, the causative organism of acne and its characterization based on the cultural characteristics, biochemical tests, GC FAME (Gas Chromatography- Fatty acid methyl esters) analysis and 16 S r RNA sequencing.

The results were compared with the standard organisms procured from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. The FAME analysis report of the organism correlates with that of the genotyping of the isolate and the organism is identified as Propionibacterium acnes.

Study Objectives: To isolate acne causing organism using different media. To identify the organism based on conventional methods- cultural characterization and Molecular characterization.

Study on Microalgae Industrial Applications by a Sustainable World

Rafael Carrasco-Reinado, Almudena Escobar-Niño, Jesús Cantoral-Fernandez, Francisco J. Fernandez-Acero

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 19-38

Currently microalgae is one of the most popular alternative for climate problems due to over human population. The potential of microalgae is very considerable, as non-model organism and especially when it is known that there are several million-different species of microalgae, they are sources of alternative process and components with industrial applications. Given their potential for solution for many essential problems, generated by human activities, as greenhouse gas emission, water contamination, fossil fuel depletion and the need for new treatments for many diseases, microalgae are being widely cultivated using a variety of different processes. Microalgae biomass is in great demand for many prospective applications, they are currently subject to on-going research.  This interest has positioned microalgae at the center of investigation to develop new biotechnological tools driven by the different UE initiative. This review provides an overview of research advances in biotechnology applications for microalgae including biofuels, environmental protection, aquaculture, and nutraceuticals. Molecular biology studies, which are particularly important for the most recent microalgae research approaches, are also taken into account. The objective of the review is offer a general point of view about current microalgae industrial applications.

Determination of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases at Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India: A Serological Study

V. S. Kolhe, R. B. Surpam, B. Munde, R. Gawande, O. Bobade

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 39-44

The present study was undertaken to make a countable move not only towards the diagnosis of the diseases but also to restrict its future spread in Indian continent. Which will also aid medical practitioners to combat with this metazoonotic disorder. Japanese encephalitis Virus (JEV) a flaviviridae family member (genus Flavivirus) is the main cause of meta-zoonotic viral encephalitis in many Asian countries. The disease was primarily reported in 1952 from Nagpur territory of Maharashtra recording nearly 16 deaths of an unknown viral encephalitis which was later awarded to be JEV; just nearer to Chandrapur reporting the present catastrophes.

Amongst total suspected population nearly these 20 males and 22 females were positive. Considering monthly distribution most number of suspected cases were seen in the month of July. Most number of JEV affected population was seen more in the age group of 1 to 5 years of children and with advancement of the age reduction in the number of seropositive cases were observed. Human blood or CSF to be the reservoir Source from which isolation of opportunistic infections could be made possible. Also important role played by vaccinations could also be cross checked in JE epidemic areas. Hence role of JE Vaccine in routine vaccination programme in JEV epidemic areas could also be proved to be beneficial.

Introduction: The overall attraction of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) is due to their biocompatibility, which allows them to be used in therapeutics and diagnostics. To harvest them with such unique properties, there is a pressing need to develop a less expensive and more environmentally friendly process that does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. Instead, the purpose of this study was to optimize the reactant parameters required to achieve the highest yield of AgNPs using cell-free culture extract of bacteria obtained from clinical sources.

Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were obtained through routine clinical samples. Bacterial biomass was produced in liquid media, which was then harvested and lysed. The supernatant (E) in varying concentrations was then mixed with varying concentrations of 1mM AgNO3 (M) (E:M ratio). UV-Spectrophotometry (UV-S) was used to confirm the colour change, and AgNPs were separated using ultracentrifugation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were used to confirm the synthesised Nano Particles (NPs).

Results: The UV-S showed an absorption value at 450nm as 1.3 in 1E:1M for Escherichia coli followed by Abs: 1.0 for Staphylococcus aureus in 1E:1M ratio. The Dynamic Light Scattering study revealed that the particles obtained in the study were mostly within the acceptable ranges of 127.35nm and 90.96nm for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The synthesised particles were found to be agglomerated, but polydispersed and crystalline when examined under SEM. When compared to JCPD standards, an XRD study yielded a maximum peak at 38.22, confirming the crystalline structure synthesised from bacterial extract as AgNPs.

Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the evolution of sepsis there is an increase in vascular permeability leading to coagulation abnormalities and subsequent dysfunction of major organs [1]. Bloodstream infections(BSI) are a cause of life-threatening complications in all age groups of the population especially the extreme age groups who are very much prone to the risk. BSIs have also been associated with increased rates of hospitalization, increased length of stay, and increased hospital costs and are a financial burden on the patient and their families. Antibiotic usage is associated with bacteremia, septicemia, and mortality through many factors. We are aware that Gram-negative bacteria due to many causes are becoming increasingly resistant to the currently used antimicrobial therapy. Here, in this study, we report the incidence and etiology and of the Gram-Negative bacterial isolates and their clinical significance from our tertiary care institute located in the Northern part of India.

Materials and Methods: Prospective Observational Study conducted in the Department of Microbiology IGMC Shimla for a tenure of one year to determine the incidence and etiology of Gram-negative bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial resistance profile. All the blood culture blood culture was observed in the Bactec bd fx system for at least 5 days before they are reported as sterile.

Results: Among the total 1275 cultures which were positive for bacteria, 931(73.02%) were positive for Gram-negative bacteria. Among the total of 931culture that were positive for Gram- negative bacteria, The Non-fermenter group of organisms was isolated in 292(31.36%) cultures, followed by E. coli 266(28.57%). Among the total of 931 cultures positive for GNB, a maximum of 335 (35.98%) belonged to 0-1 year. Among them, 574 (61.65%) were males while 357 (38.35%) were females.

Conclusion: Nonfermenter group was the commonest organism among Gram-negative isolates. Infants were more commonly positive as compared to another age group. Males were more commonly culture positive as compared to females among gram-negative isolates.

Determining the Role of Benzyl Adenine in Advancing Goals of Biotechnology

Firoozeh Chamandoosti

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 63-76

Today, no one can deny the importance of plant pests and diseases, as well as their destructive role in human life. It is obvious that improving plant productivity for various purposes of plant protection against plant diseases is the best and safest method for plant protection. Due to the limitations of conventional plant breeding, we must resort to alternative methods. Biotechnology is a modern and powerful tool for improving plant and food production. Gene transfer and tissue culture are two critical components of biotechnology. The development of regeneration systems for cells and plants transformed by gene transfer should be inexpensive and simple. Benzyl adenine (BA) is a plant hormone that is inexpensive and easy to obtain, as we observed and investigated in the case of several different plant species.

A study was carried out on the effects of Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina on the proximate compositions of Jatropha curcas seeds. Jatropha curcas is a plant with high potential source of biodiesel production. The proximate composition of the various nutrient component (Dry matter, Moisture, Lipids, Free fatty Acid, Carbohydrates, Ash, Fibre, Crude protein and Amino acid) in both fungus-inoculated and uninoculated seeds at the incubation period of 7days were measured by the methodology proposed by [1]. The oil content and fatty acid (FA) composition of J. curcas seeds are of vital importance. The results obtained from each food component were subjected to statistical analysis using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In the results of the proximate analysis, Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina caused significant increase (P=0.05) in moisture content 7.0% and 6.0%, crude protein 2.1% and 1.7%, and 0.2% and 0.7% ash, respectively in seeds inoculated at room temperature (28±2oC) for 7days when compared with uninoculated controls. There was a remarkable reduction of 11% and 10.5% in dry matter, 0.8% and 0.2% in carbohydrate, 5.0% and 3.3% in lipids, 2.6% and 5.7% in fibre content of the seeds inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina  phaseolina,  respectively when compared with their controls. The results are discussed in relation to the changes in the nutritional composition of the seeds due to the activities of these pathogenic fungi.

The fish mucus was extracted from Labeo rohita by using aqueous solution and the chemical composition showed 27.5% of protein, 5.8% of carbohydrate and 0.21% of lipids. The fish mucus contains a variety of biologically active compounds such as lysozyme, lectins, proteolytic enzymes, flavoenzymes, immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein A-I. The haemolytic activity of the mucus extract showed 43.47 and 37.73 HT/mg in human blood. Further the antibacterial activity of the mucus extract showed against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, V. cholerae, K. oxytoca, E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus and S. pyogenes were 14, 12, 15, 16, 11, 17, 13 and 12mm at the highest concentration of 100µg/ ml. The fish mucus observed MIC values of 100µg/ml against E. coli and the V. cholerae slightly arrested at the above concentration. The fish mucus showed the MBC values of 100µg/ml against E. coli and the V. cholerae slightly arrested at the same concentration. The above antibacterial activity of the mucus suggested as a source antimicrobial agent in future pharmacological for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.

The Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS in India

Shibani Datta, Oishi Lahiri

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 93-99

HIV is a threat for India since its detection in the year 1986 in Chennai. The current status shows that an estimated 2.1 million population in India is living with HIV infection by the year 2015. The dreadful infection which was detected in the country in the year 1986 was gradually increasing and reached its peak by the year 2000 to 2001 when the prevalence became 0.38%. From the year 2002 the prevalence started to show steady decline and reached at the level of 0.26% by the year 2015. The different states in India is categorised as high, moderate and low according to the prevalence . At first the epidemic was confined to the FSW and their clients but later it started to spread to the general population through the bridge population. As the epidemic has matured women account for a growing proportion of people living with HIV infection, especially in the rural areas. The National AIDS Control Programme was launched in the year 1992 and we are going through the fourth phase of the NACP.

Study on the Prevalence of Extended-spectrum B-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Tertiary Care Center, India

Swati Tewari, Alok Kumar, Ekta Rani

Innovations in Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3, 8 January 2022, Page 100-108

Aims: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ESBL-production among the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, and its increasing resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, mediated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes (ESBL), is a global concern.

Materials and Methods: Various clinical specimens were processed in our laboratory, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified using standard microbiological procedures. An ESBL screening test was performed on all isolates. The potential ESBL producer was then subjected to an ESBL phenotypic confirmatory test using the Disc Diffusion method. All confirmed isolates were subjected to an antimicrobial susceptibility test using the Kirby – Bauer disc diffusion method, in accordance with Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI 2016) guidelines.

Results: During the study period, 322 non-duplicate isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. ESBL production was found in 26.09 percent (n = 84) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. All ESBL positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin 79 (94.05%), Gentamicin 61 (72.62%), and tobramycin 60 (71.43%). Resistance was low to drugs like cefoperazone + sulbactam 17 (20.24%) and piperacillin + Tazobactam 14 (16.67%), and Imipenem 15 (17.86%). All the isolates showed 100% sensitivity to Polymyxin B.

Conclusion: Present study highlights the prevalence and drug resistance of ESBL positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regular antimicrobial susceptibility testing is required for the judicious use of antibiotics in order to prevent the spread of drug resistance.