Dr. Charbell Miguel Haddad Kury
Department of Pediatrics and Biochemistry, Medicine School of Campos Dos Goytacazes,  Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ISBN 978-93-90768-32-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-33-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/hmmr/v3

This book covers key areas of medicine and medical research. The contribution by the authors include blood spectrum biopsy, diagnostic projection, IR-spectroscopy, evanescent waves, physiodynamics, physiokinetics, supramolecular structures, evanescent waves, biological scanning tunneling photonic microscopy, spectroscopy, supramolecular structures, blood spectrum biopsy, Ophthalmology, vitreomacula interphase disorders, proliferative sickle cell retinopathy, macula hole, vitreomacula traction syndrome, vitreomacula adhesions, thalassemia, iron deficiency anemia. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of medicine and medical research.


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Blood Spectrum Biopsy as Screening Diagnostics of Health

Vladimir Dodtievich Bitsoev

Highlights on Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3, 19 February 2021, Page 1-13

The work treats early diagnostics of diseases of internal organs and systems with the most up-to-date, unique, non-traumatic method, not requiring special skin preparation, the method of spectrum biopsy of blood from diagnostic projection zones of internal organs on human head, neck, and body.

The present paper is devoted to the investigation of the important issues of modern medicine related to the improvement of early disease detection to make it safe and accessible to everyone who needs assistant and to provide treatments for diseases at the supramolecular level.

Relying on experiments, we have a good reason to review the impact of faint electromagnetic waves on the whole organism.

In this regard, we have identified the major challenges of clinical physiotherapy and created the classification scheme for physical factors based on new principles which may contribute to the development of physiotherapy theory.

The work is devoted to reveal the proofs of the superiority of physiotherapy over drug theatment by the parameters and methods of treatment in accordance with the clinical stage of the disease development, by results of the labor examination and improvement of life quality.

The above mentioned indices are confirmed with the high statistical accuracy by the example of a new restoration technology: "Underwater horizontal extension of the spine with underwater phototherapy to solve an actual medical and social problem: treatment of patients with degenerative-dystrophic damages of the lumbosacral spine with hernia protrusion of intervertebral discs - one of the most widespread neurological pathologies in the world.

On the basis of the achieved successes in physics - the discovery of "evanescent waves", "scanning tunnel microscope"; "stationary and non-stationary Josephson effects", the development of highly sensitive equipment and the discovery by the author of this work of a highly informative, non-invasive, simple, harmless method of studying the mechanism of action of physical factors on the whole organism from any part of the skin surface - "blood spectrobiopsy" - it became possible to create a new theory of mechanism of physical factors action at supramolecular level of the whole organism on the principle of "tunnel effect".

This work is dedicated to the new approach in applying physical factors in complex patient therapy. Based on experimental research data the author believes it is necessary to reconsider technical characteristics and exposition of physiotherapeutic factor influencing on the organism taking into account nosological form of disease and individual patient’s specifics. In this regard the author developed new tasks of the clinical physiotherapy and suggested seven principles of new classification of physical factors in complex patient therapy. On the basis of the research the author provided new concepts in medicine: 1) human organism as “biological scanning tunneling microscope”; 2) human as a part of “Nature” corresponds to universe general law: “singularity and indivisibility of time, matter and form”, as well as the forces of their interaction under constant endless motion. The effectiveness and the safety of physiotherapy eventually depend on the doctor’s ability to evaluate all these factors correctly. It is necessary to be based on the deep knowledge of both clinical medicine and experimental physiotherapy.

In this work, we study the effect of water structure on absorption spectra of water that is subject to electromagnetic radiation of the following types: 1. polychromatic visible and infrared polarized (PVIP) light emitted by a "Bioptron" device with a wavelength of 480 to 3,400 nm and frequency of 625 to 88 THz under water via a fiber optic cable and with an exposure of 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 30 minutes; 2. electromagnetic waves belonging to a 5.6 mm range with a frequency of 50-52 GHz and an exposure of 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 30 minutes via a radiation source with dimensions over 5 cm immersed into water; 3. one-time effect of PVIP light and CO2 at a temperature of 0°C and with an exposure of 4 minutes; 4. one-time effect of electromagnetic waves belonging to a 5.6 mm range and CO2 at a temperature of 0°C and with an exposure of 4 minutes; 5. effect of PVIP light on water from a 10 cm height above the water surface. The conducted studies have shown that the best changes occur in water irradiated with PVIP light during 4 and 15 minutes as compared to the absorption spectra of a control specimen of tap water. Significant changes in the water structure occurred if water was irradiated with PVIP light from a 10-cm height above the water surface during 15 minutes. Carried out experiments show that water exposed to polychromatic VIP-light (Bioptron) is activated that manifests in changes of physical and chemical properties, namely, in changes of optical absorption spectra, Raman scattering and pH of water. The studies showed as well that after the end of 4- and 15- minute exposure of water to electromagnetic waves (26 and 15 minutes later, respectively) the water structure significantly improved owing to its unique ability to store and transmit information.


The study is devoted to revealing the evidentiary criterion of the physiotherapy superiority over drug therapy using parameters and methods of treatment in accordance with the clinical stage of the disease development, the results of labor expertise and improving the quality of life.

The foregoing have been confirmed with high statistical accuracy on the example of the newly created rehabilitating technology: "Underwater horizontal spinal traction with underwater phototherapy for the solution of the current medical and social problem: Treatment of patients with degenerative dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine with hernial protrusions of intervertebral disks", one of the most common neurological disorders in the world [1,2,3], Figs. 17, 18.

Based on the successes achieved in physics (the discoveries of "evanescent waves", "scanning tunneling microscope", "stationary and non-stationary Josephson effects", the development of highly sensitive equipment [4,5,6]) and the author's discovery of this highly informative, non-invasive, harmless method of studying the mechanism of physical factors action on the whole organism from any part of the skin surface: "the spectrobiopsyof the blood", on which the entire picture of the organism is reflected [1,7,2,3,8], the new theory creation for the mechanism of physical factors action on the supramolecular level of the whole organism with the "tunnel effect" became possible. It has been established that the effect of electromagnetic waves of any physical factor on the entire organism is dosed and controlled by modern physiotherapy instrumentation.

General Overview of the History of Modern Ophthalmology in Nigeria: A Synopsis of Institutions, Events and Personalities

Olufemi Oderinlo, Adekunle Olubola Hassan, Tayo Bogunjoko

Highlights on Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3, 19 February 2021, Page 123-131

Ophthalmology in Nigeria has developed over the decades with contributions from several personalities. Many events and institutions have served to shape the emergence of good care, from the establishment of ECWA Eye hospital in 1943 as one of the premiere indigenous dedicated Eye Hospitals, to the establishment of the National Eye Centre as well as the University College Hospital Ophthalmology department, the specialty of Ophthalmology has grown to enviable heights. The hospital was accredited by the West African Postgraduate Medical College (WACS) for the training of Diploma in Ophthalmology.  The formation of the Ophthalmological Society of Nigeria in 1969 and the establishment of the National Postgraduate College and The West African College of Surgeons equally stand out as landmark events in History.

The Nigerian National Survey of Blindness and Visual Impairment (2005 to 2007) was the biggest ever survey in Africa, no national level estimates existed in Nigeria before the survey. This gigantic task took more than three years to complete including 30 months of rigorous fieldwork and was only possible because of the special efforts of key individuals. The MTN EYE FOUNDATION Eyeris Program (2013 - 2017) also stands out as a landmark surgical intervention scheme involving 12 states in all geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A total of 18,438 free cataract surgeries were performed, 23,528 eyeglasses and 23,226 ocular medications for ocular allergies, glaucoma and ocular infections were also given free to beneficiaries. The earliest records available dates the establishment  of  ECWA  Eye  Hospital  Kano  by Sudan  Interior  Mission  on  the  20th of  January 1943 as one of the earliest indigenous dedicated eye hospital in Nigeria.

Recent Study on Vitreomacular Interphase Disorders in Eyes with Proliferative Sickle Cell Retinopathy

Olufemi Oderinlo, Adekunle Hassan, Ogugua Okonkwo

Highlights on Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3, 19 February 2021, Page 132-139

Purpose: Sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) is a series of characteristic retina complications that arise in patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. To describe the type of vitreomacula interface disorders (VID) seen in eyes with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy, based on optical coherence tomography findings and assess their effect on visual acuity.

Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective observational case study. Clinical records and imaging records were reviewed to identify all PSR cases with Fourier-domain OCT imaging showing VIDs at a single academic private-practice office location from January 1, 2015 to July 30, 2018. Identified VIDs were classified as Vitreomacula Adhesions, Vitreomacula Traction, Lamellar Macula Hole, Full Thickness Macula Hole, Epiretina membranes and Macula Pseudohole.

Results: Out of a total of 98 eyes of 78 patients with PSR evaluated, only 12 eyes had VIDs; this represents 12.2% of PSR patients. There were 3 (25%) males and 9 (75%) females with ages ranging from 32 to 64 years, a mean age of 45.42yrs [SD 10.27], 9(75%) right eyes were affected. In 9(75%) patients their genotype was SC and 3(25%) with genotype SS. PSR was at stage 3 in 6(50%) eyes, while the remaining 6(eyes) were at stage 4. The most common VID was epiretina membranes (ERM) seen in 7(58.3%)eyes, in 2(16.6%) ERMs eyes were associated with Lamella Macula Holes and in 1(8.3%) the ERM was associated with a pseudohole. VMAs were seen in in 3(25%) eyes and FTMHs were seen in 2 (16.6%) eyes. ERMs were thus seen in 7.1% (7 eyes) of the 98 eyes with PSR that were considered.

Conclusion: Epiretina membranes with or without macular holes are the most common vitreomacular interphase disorders seen in our series of eyes with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. They were associated with mild to moderate impairment in visual acuity.

Background: Diarrhea claims the lives of more children than malaria, HIV and measles combined. Prompt identification of symptoms of diarrhea by Caregivers and timely commencement of oral rehydration therapy using oral rehydration solution (ORS) or appropriate home available fluids are recommended corrective measures. Diarrhea is the second chief cause of mortality among under-five children in the world. This study was to ascertain the basic knowledge of childhood diarrhea and the health- seeking practices among caregivers of under-five children in Calabar- South, Calabar, Nigeria within the limits of available sanitation and public health-seeking facilities.

Materials and Methods: Six wards were chosen from the 12 wards in the study area by casting lot. Ten streets were randomly selected from each of the 6 wards. Eleven compounds were selected randomly per street to give a total of 660 compounds. A household with an under-five child or children was randomly selected per compound and therefore 660 Caregivers were enlisted on giving consent. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents.

Results: In this study, 638 (98.2%) of respondents had good basic knowledge of childhood diarrhea in under-five children, 12 (1.8%) had fair basic knowledge, no group was rated as having poor basic knowledge. Occurrence of childhood diarrhea was marginally higher among respondents with good knowledge of diarrhea (50.3%) than respondents with fair basic knowledge, (50%). In practice during advent of childhood diarrhea, some caregivers chose to seek health-care from traditional healers 6.1% (19), churches 1.9% (6), pharmacies 16.9% (53), patent drug stores 18.8% (59), hospital, 14.3% (45), or self medication at home 42% (132).

Conclusion: Although most Caregivers possessed good basic knowledge of childhood diarrhea, there were constrains translating this knowledge into intervention practices due to inadequate presence. of social amenity framework in the study area. Government and non Governmental authorities should make provision of social amenities such as hospitals, pipe borne water, waste disposal facilities, power supply, water drainages etc, a priority. These findings might be attributed to inadequate availability of social amenity framework comprising primary healthcare centers and community pharmacy, pipe borne water system, water-closet toilet system, public garbage disposal dumps planned water drainage system etc, thus constraining translation of knowledge to diarrhea intervention practices.

Erythroferrone (ERFE) is a hormone produced by erythroblasts in the bone marrow in response to erythropoietin controlling iron storage release through its actions on hepcidin, which acts on hepatocytes to suppress expression of the hormone hepcidin. Erythroferrone now considered is one of potential clinical biomarkers for assessing erythropoiesis activity in patients with blood disorders regarding to iron imbalance. Since discovery of in 2014 by Dr. Leon Kautz and colleagues and till now no more enough studies in Erythroferrone among human, most studies are conducted in animals. In this chapter we briefly address the Role of Erythroferrone hormone as erythroid regulator of hepcidin and iron metabolism during thalassemia, anemia of inflammation, and iron deficiency anemia. Studies in this review were identified through a search using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Academia, Scopus, Google Scholar, and another open database source.

Conclusion: Most of studies concluded that, in people with thalassemia anemia of inflammation, and iron deficiency anemia, erythroferrone levels in the blood are higher than in people without thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. Knowing the mechanisms of erythroferrone as erythroid regulator of hepcidin and iron metabolism during thalassemia and in iron deficiency anemia important in the diagnosis and treatment for both conditions. The erythroferrone hormone may act as potential factor in physiological hepcidin suppressor in cases with iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia disease and play a key role in treatment process among those patients in status of iron deficiency or iron overload. However, till now few studies of the function of ERFE in humans because is recently discovered and remains to be investigated and most studies are conducted among animals.