Prof. Abbas Mohammed
Fellow IET, Senior Member IEEE,
Professor, Senior Consultant ExAudio AB, Sweden.

ISBN 978-81-19217-51-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19217-49-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/fraps/v4

This book covers key areas of physical science. The contributions by the authors include Lorentz transformations , relativity theory, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic theory, radioactive materials, gamma ray spectroscopy, gas sensing response, fuzzy rule base, heat supply systems, energy transfer quantum mechanics, golden sunrise Nutraceutica, Schrodinger equation, Tieu equation, angular distribution, photoelectron, hydrogenoid atoms, elastoplastic calculation, electronic quality factor, universal electrical conductivity, monolithic thermoelectric module, angle-based outlier detection, logistic growth model, gradient energy space, electro space, general dynamics of the universe. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science.


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Lorentz Transformations and the Theory of Relativity: A Fundamental Concept

Fleur T. Tehrani

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 1-8

The purpose of this research was to get an in depth understanding of Lorentz transformations and the theory of relativity. The foundations of the relativistic concepts of space and time, their connections to Lorentz transformations, and the equivalence of mass and energy were investigated as part of a research study on Lorentz transformations and the theory of relativity. Numerous references on the aforementioned topics were examined. Lorentz transformations are empirical; the concept of contraction of space in a moving coordinate system as viewed by a stationary observer can be derived from Lorentz transformations. However, some critical questions have risen in the course of this research study on the concept of dilation of time in a moving system as measured by a stationary observer, and the concept of unbounded increase of a particle’s mass with velocity.

Determination of Radionuclides and Radiological Parameters in Some Fruits from Niger Delta, Nigeria

C. J. Mgbemere , C. P. Ononugbo , G. O. Avwiri

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 9-30

The present study ascertain radionuclide activity levels that are available in fruits, investigate possible risks that are connected with consuming these fruits and the need to determine radiation exposure level in humans due to consuming these fruits from Niger Delta. Radionuclides’ activity concentration in fruits is essential for the determination of radiological parameters and protection of human health.Fruits can be radioactive due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) and technically enhanced radioactive materials (TENORMs) in the environment. The Radionuclide activity concentration and Radiological parameters of Some Fruits from Niger Delta, Nigeria was determined by using gamma ray spectroscopy. The study measured the activity concentration of radionuclides in fruits and the results showed that the total activity concentration of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in fruits were 578.24 Bqkg-1, 263.84 Bqkg-1and 128.35 Bqkg-1 respectively. The study found out that 40K is the radionuclide with the highest value of activity concentration while apricot fruit has the highest valueof radionuclide concentration compared to other fruits. The statistical analysis of data was also done using statistical packages. The radiological parameters, such as the annual effective dose AED for Infants, Children and Adults due to the radioactivity in Avocado, Apricot, Guava and Pear were; 829.02 \(\mu\)Svy-1, 565.865 \(\mu\)Svy-1, and 838.725 \(\mu\)Svy-1, 2737.665 \(\mu\)Svy-1, 4361.4875 \(\mu\)Svy-1 and 2497.9025 \(\mu\)Svy-1, 651.20833 \(\mu\)Svy-1, 1202.6767 \(\mu\)Svy-1and 813.22167 \(\mu\)Svy-1, and 1164.7883 \(\mu\)Svy-1, 1724.2933 \(\mu\)Svy-1 and 1088.8933 \(\mu\)Svy-1 respectively. The estimated AED due to the consumption of various fruits were above world value. However, the estimated excess lifetime cancer risks for the various fruits are far below the world (WHO) limit. According to the study's findings, there is no cancer risk associated with eating fruits in the study area, and fruits with tap root systems had the highest concentrations of radionuclide activity.

Conductometric Assisted ZnO and Polypyrrole Composite Based \(NH_3\) Gas Sensor

Ajay Pratap Singh Gahlot

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 31-40

Metal oxides are excellent choices as base materials in emerging technologies in the field of Gas Sensors. In this work, an effort is made to prepare the ZnO and polypyrrole composite thin film using sol-gel technique. Nanocomposite thins film was prepared using spin coating on glass substrates for ammonia gas sensing. ZnO and polypyrrole sols were prepared using sol-gel technique and thin films were prepared by using spin coater. The nanocomposite thin films were prepared by varying the percentage composition of ZnO and Polypyrrole. Structural, optical and morphological properties of the prepared films were done using XRD, UV-Visible and SEM studies. The films were separately prepared on Inter-Digital Transducers for gas sensing applications. Gas sensing response characteristics of the prepared sensor were performed using laboratory. The sensing response of the prepared films is observed and found to be maximum (~33) for the 70%PPy+30%ZnO film at a relatively low operating temperature of about 150 °C. The prepared film is also tested by optical gas sensing technique i.e., Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). SPR gas sensor works on the principle of recording the change in refractive index of the sensing layer (70%PPy+30%ZnO) on exposure to target ammonia gas.

Application of Fuzzy Logic Methods to Evaluate the Serviceability of Northern Main Pipelines

Galina Struchkova, Tamara Kapitonova

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 41-52

The paper presents the influence of climatic conditions of the North on the serviceability of trunk pipelines (TP) of the North, including: thermokarst, swelling, soil erosion, solifluction, bogging, presence of underground ice, ice formation and related negative processes. Such influences lead to the fact that in severe climatic conditions the pipeline transport is exposed to various deformations to a much greater extent and higher requirements should be imposed on materials, structures and laying technologies.
More than 65% of the trunk pipelines (TP) in the North are laid through swamps, watered areas and permafrost soils. The annual amplitude of air temperature fluctuations in these areas ranges from 80 to 90 degrees. This leads to unpredictable changes in spatial displacement and deformations of pipeline networks, reducing the reliability and safety of technical systems by 2-3.5 times. The problem of increasing the reliability and safety of TP is especially relevant for the northern regions, where, at extremely cold temperatures in winter, gas is one of the main sources of energy for heat supply systems. To improve reliability and reduce damage from the possibility of emergency situations, it is necessary to determine the risk components, identify vulnerabilities, determine the main parameters for developing measures to reduce the risk, mitigate the material and financial consequences in the event of an emergency. Due to the large number of uncertainties in the long-term data used, it is proposed to solve this extremely complex but necessary task using fuzzy models combining qualitative expert knowledge and quantitative statistical methods.

Experimentation of Tieu Equation by Energy Transfer Quantum Mechanics Cellular Function

Huu S. Tieu, Martin F. Loeffler

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 53-69

The foundation for any theory in Physics is Quantum Mechanics. This gives a description for the properties in the physical form of nature. Quantum Sciences studies particles on the atomic scale which involves subatomic particles. This is the fundamental basis for Quantum physics and the Quantum Sciences. Quantum Sciences includes Quantum Chemistry, Quantum Biology, and Quantum Field Theory. All of this total encompassing discipline studies the particle function and how it relates to the natural environment. Particles can be affected by themselves, other particles around them and even move and react in similar function.

Tieu’s equation was developed to advance research for innovation and later to provide a convergence of information for the success of the substance in biological organisms' giving explanation to processes like photosynthesis. Even though a toxic substance was introduced as described in the paper's introduction to harm animal subjects and cause weight loss through toxicity, all of the animals in the study consistently gained weight on the first day of the experiment.  Animal studies suggests that in a toxic environment that the biological mechanism becomes more efficient and requires less input to function properly, yet the efficiency is improved to the point that the mechanism can even store unused energy for a future need by the mechanism. Blood test results can be used to create tests. Human patients' health was also observed to improve as the substance was administered to the biological mechanism, and plants were initially exposed to the substance to observe results. This is consistent with the Tieu equation which provides that wave function is created as the introduction of the substance to the biological mechanism which supports Quantum Mechanics. The Tieu equation shows how a particle can be moved by temperature, for instance, producing energy that can cross the blood-brain barrier. In order to include the substance administered through laboratory standards using Good Laboratory Practises in accordance with Title 40 C.F.R. 158, the Tiu equation's methods incorporate animal studies. Human patients were administered the substance by medical professionals who are experts in their field and are familiar with patient responses. Plant applications were obtained for the purpose of observing and guiding ongoing experiments of animals representing the biologics mechanism. An impressive line that has followed the Tiu equation to constantly show progress in the introduction of the Innovation to biologic systems has been demonstrated by animal research along with patient blood test results.

The mechanism reacts to the material by producing energy that has an effective response in the mechanism. Plant organisms responded to observations of them and were observed to be improving through visual observation.

Atomic Photoionization Dependence on the Light Polarization: Application to Hydrogenoid Atom

Issoufou Arzika Alio, Almoustapha Aboubacar

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 70-103

The differential or total cross-sections are fundamental parameters in physics to understand the matter structure. These parameters provide relevant information on the interaction process probability. They are used in various application such as laser physics, medical radiation protection and nuclear applications. In the case of atoms or complex molecules photoionization, the analytical calculation of cross section is tedious and very complex because we have to use poly-electronic wave function. In this case it is difficult to solve the problem using the Schrodinger's equation. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we resort to mathematical approximations. This article provides a general study of the photoionization by considering atom subjected to electromagnetic radiation with photon energy close to the upper ionization threshold and using also one active electron model. A general and detailed calculation of the differential cross section as a function of photon polarization in linear case and the circular case has been performed. Moreover, we made case of an unpolarized wave and deducted the elliptical polarization component the keeping in mind that unpolarized light is mainly composed by an elliptically polarized wave. Then, a study of the angular distribution of the photoelectrons according to the \(\beta\) asymmetry parameter was made. A particular application was made on hydrogenoid atom considered as a one-electron system. From this study it appears in the vicinity of the upper photoionization threshold, the differential cross section decreases with the incident photon energy in the linear and circular polarization cases while it increases in the elliptical polarization case. So, In the linear polarization case, contrary to the circular and elliptical case, the maximum photoelectron signal (peak) is obtained witch the ejection photoelectron angle \(\theta = 0\) (forwards ejection electron) or \(\theta = \pi\) (backscattering).

Application of the Theory of Bending for Elastic-plastic Calculation of the Cabin Carcass of the Tractor

Khakimzyanov Ruslan, Shoikromov Shotemur

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 104-112

In this chapter, a design method for the framework of the tractor's cabin's bending moment and curvature in a plastic zone is presented. The proposed technique procedure of the bending moment and curvature in a plastic zone combined with the established methods of calculating an elastic zone allow with count deformation of the framework design with adequate accuracy for the framework of the tractor cabins. 

The temperature dependences of the electronic quality factor and the universal electrical conductivity of n- and p-type Six Ge1-x, as well as the dependences of the Seebeck coefficient on the specific and the universal conductivities, are studied. The effective masses and mobilities of charge carriers are calculated for different temperatures, temperature dependences of the eleqtronic quality factor and the thermoelectric figure of merit are studied. Monolithic packages based on an alloy with the composition Si0.7Ge0.3 of n- and p-type conductivity are made. The energy characteristics of these monolithic thermoelectric modules have been studied.

Machine Learning Outlier Detection Algorithms for Enhancing Production Data Analysis of Shale Gas

Taha Yehia, Ali Wahba, Sondos Mostafa, Omar Mahmoud

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 127-163

Economically evaluating shale gas reservoirs, which have huge amounts of reserves, is challenging because of the intricate driving mechanisms. Decline Curve Analysis (DCA) has historically been regarded as the simplest approach for production prediction in shale gas reservoirs since it only requires production history. Nevertheless, uncertainties persist in selecting a suitable DCA model to match the production behavior of shale gas wells. Moreover, the production data are typically noisy due to the dynamic changes in choke size employed to regulate the bottom hole flowing pressure and the periodic shut-ins employed to remove the associated water. Various statistical and machine-learning approaches have been used in the analysis of production forecasting, reservoir property estimation, and resource evaluation. However, many of these methods are not effective in detecting production trends and reservoir signals. The aim of this chapter is to comperhensivly reviewe different machine learning algorithms for outlier detection and assess their efficacy in enhancing the quality of production data for DCA. Out of these algorithms, five were deemed unsuitable since they eliminated entire sections of production data instead of only identifying and eliminating scattered data points. The remaining algorithms (seven) underwent a rigorous evaluation, with a presumption that 20% of the production data is composed of outliers. Further, eight distinct DCA models were studied and implemented before and after removing the noise to test their sensitivity to noise. It was found that usually improving the production data improves their goodness of fitting and reliability of prediction. The clustered-based outlier factor, k-nearest neighbor, and angular-based outlier factor algorithms were found to be effective in improving the data quality for DCA, whereas the stochastic outlier selection and subspace outlier detection algorithms were least effective. Furthermore, certain DCA models, such as Arps, Duong, and Wang models, demonstrated less sensitivity to the removed noise, irrespective of the outlier removal algorithm used. On the other hand, the power law exponential, logistic growth, and stretched exponent production decline models exhibited greater sensitivity to noise removal, with their performance varying based on the employed outlier removal algorithm. The chapter discusses the optimal combination of outlier detection algorithms and DCA models that could potentially mitigate the uncertainties associated with production forecasting and reserve estimation in shale gas reservoirs.

The Forzon and Vacum Space Energy: A Novel Perspectives

D. S. Acosta

Fundamental Research and Application of Physical Science Vol. 4, 20 May 2023, Page 164-184

The purpose of this work was to explain the way in which the Forzon obtains its energy from space and in which form this energy is found in the vacuum space in order for the Forzon to use it; while also being the source of other manifestations, such as the universe expansion, the dark matter, dark energy, gravitation and the electromagnetic fields. The Forzon theory is consistent with its calculations and furthermore one of its prediction, related to the accumulation of kinetic energy in agrupacion of surface areas of unidirectional forzons has been experimentally documented in highly energetic protons observed in the big European particle accelerator LHC. All of this leads to a model of a fluid universe in which time is the foundation of matter and energy, as well as the space evacuator. OIS space, i.e. the model of tense space evacuated by time surface areas marks a possible scientific pathway towards the complete understanding of dark matter, also known as vacuum space and general dynamic of the universe.