Dr. Ravi Kumar Chittoria
Department of Plastic Surgery & Advanced Centre for Microvascular, Maxillofacial & Craniofacial, Laser Surgery, Tertiary Burn Care, Antiaging & Regenerative Medicine, Smile Train, Advanced Wound Care, Telemedicine, Cadaveric Organ & Tissue Transplantation, Skin and Tissue Banking. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (Jipmer) (An Institute of National Importance Under Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt of India) Pondicherry- 605006 India.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India.


ISBN 978-93-5547-360-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-363-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/etdhr/v4


This book covers key areas of  Disease and Health Research. The contributions by the authors include omicron variant, emotional health, Human health, colored vegetables, bioactive compounds, antioxidants, phytochemicals, dietary fiber, horticulture, Human health, genetic engineering, antioxidants, horticulture, phytochemicals, nutraceuticals, transgenic vegetables, transgenes, phytochemicals, bioactive compounds, glucosinolates, antioxidants, breeding, hyperventilation syndrome, panic disorder, non-cardiac chest pain, dizziness, syncope pseudo seizures, obesity, metabolic disorder, nutrigenomics, molecular diagnostic, genetic variation, metabolomics, genomics array platform, phenolic compounds, polyacetylenes, disease prevention, Tooth regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells, heterogeneity, Marker, epigenetic regulation, Hirschsprung, rectoanal inhibitory reflex, intestinal obstruction, coloanal anastomosis, hypothyroidism, haemostasis, core endurance, Swiss ball, autism spectrum disorders. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of   Disease and Health Research.


Media Promotion:


COVID 19 – Omicron Variant and Emotional Health

K. Jayanthi

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 1-6

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be stressful for people and communities. COVID 19 created the people to take up the path for psychiatric emergency as keeping the people emotionally unstable with different variant spread. By this the people’s emotional health is affected. The pandemic spread started with COVID 19, then Delta and now Omicron variant.

Stress is an inevitable part of life. Coping with it has an effect on both physical and emotional states. Stress may be external and internal factors. Managing stress involves the tips to adapt to the external factors that confront and to the internal factors that strengthen the ability to manage. Stress management helps to cope with the stress and to lead a healthy life.

Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Vegetables

João Carlos da Silva Dias

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 7-35

This article reviews and discusses the nutritional quality and health benefits of the major vegetable groups. Each vegetable group contains a distinct combination and amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds, distinguishing it from other vegetable groups and vegetables within its own group. Vegetables are considered necessary for well-balanced diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables in the daily diet have been strongly linked to improved gastrointestinal health, good vision, and a lower risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Some phytochemicals of vegetables are powerful antioxidants that are thought to lower the risk of chronic disease by protecting against free radical damage, modifying metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, or even influencing processes that alter the course of tumor cells. Nutrients such as potassium contribute to blood pressure regulation.  All vegetables have the potential to protect humans from chronic diseases. And can contribute to the resolution of many nutrition problems. Because each vegetable contains a unique combination of nutrients and bioactive compounds, a wide variety of vegetables should be consumed to ensure that an individual's diet includes a variety of nutrients and bioactive compounds and that all health benefits are obtained.

Transgenic Vegetable Breeding for Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits: A Review

João Silva Dias, Rodomiro Ortiz

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 36-52

This article discusses recent attempts to characterize and modify nutrients and bioactive compounds in vegetable crops by using transgenic approaches. Malnutrition and unhealthy diets have become major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Vegetables are an important part of a well-balanced diet. Due to unbalanced diets, around 3 billion people worldwide are malnourished. Vegetables can aid in the prevention of malnutrition-related illnesses. Vegetable breeders can use genetic engineering to add desired transgenes into elite cultivars, greatly increasing their value. It also provides one-of-a-kind chances to improve nutritional quality and provide other health benefits. Many vegetable crops have been genetically modified to improve features like nutritional value or flavor, as well as to minimize bitterness and anti-nutritional elements. Transgenic veggies can also be utilized to deliver vaccines. Consumers may profit even more from eating more nutritious transgenic veggies; for example, increasing crop carotenoids through metabolic sink manipulation via genetic engineering appears to be possible in some crops. Ca uptake may be boosted by genetically engineering carrots with higher Ca levels, reducing the occurrence of calcium shortages such osteoporosis. The lack of this micronutrient, which severely inhibits organ function, will be remedied by fortified transgenic lettuce with zinc. Transgenic tomatoes with folate levels that give a complete adult daily requirement can also help to overcome folate insufficiency, which is considered a global health problem. Genetic engineering has also become an ideal tool to develop anthocyanin-rich tomatoes. Transgenic lettuce with higher levels of tocopherol and resveratrol may help to prevent coronary artery disease and arteriosclerosis, as well as cancer chemoprevention. Transgenic techniques can help improve food safety and health advantages; for example, rural African resource poor consumers will gain from consuming cyanide-free cassava varieties. Growers and consumers will accept biotechnology-derived vegetable crops if clear benefits and safety are demonstrated.

The genus Brassica comprises six crop species: B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and B. napus, which provide edible roots, leaves, petioles, stems, inflorescences and seed. All of these six species can be used and consumed as vegetable, although B. nigra is most exclusively cultivated as condiment mustard. Of these species, B. oleracea and B. rapa are highly polymorphic displaying a range of vegetable morphotypes. Brassica vegetable crops are a unique and diverse group. They are highly nutritious and have unique flavor and taste. The healthy potential of brassicas is bound to their glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. Brassicas are good sources of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin K, minerals, and antioxidants glucosinolates and flavonoids, that exhibit anticarcinogen properties. They can accumulate considerable amounts of selenium when grown on high selenium content soils. The objectives of this article are to analyse the diversity and uses of vegetable brassicas, their nutritional and health benefits, and to show examples of breeding products and attractive product concepts that can stimulate brassicas consumption and diet diversity.

Hyperventilation Syndrome: Commonly Encouuntered, But Regularly Overlooked

Morton E. Tavel

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 74-77

Hyperventilation syndrome is far more common than generally believed, and thus usually unrecognized. It often produces misleading complaints that include alterations of consciousness, inexplicable sensory and motor sensations, and it is often masked by coexisting somatic symptoms. Obscuring recognition further, symptoms attributed to the panic disorder are often, in reality, those of hyperventilation. Proper diagnosis of this breathing disorder depends upon a heightened awareness of its various manifestations, which can then lead to effective means of diagnosis and management.

Empowering Molecular Network in the Pathogenesis of Obesity with Omics Architecture

S. Bartley, H. H. Cho, D. E. Heck, J. H. Cho, H. D. Kim

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 78-83

Obesity is regarded as a major public health concern, with multidimensional factors involved in metabolic complications rooted in multifactorial causes (e.g., environmental toxicity or genetic abnormality), and the unmet landscape of the health care system seeking therapeutic or prevention methods. Evidence that supports Omics as a strategic tool of systemic biology is used to define the wiring of the molecular circuit in metabolic malfunctions and the evaluation of metabolic modulators such as synthetic drugs, stem cell replacement, and natural secondary metabolites derived from various resources. Nutritional genomics or Nutrigenomics refers to the interface between the nutritional environment and cellular/genetic processes. It seeks to comprehend the effects of diet on a person's genes and health. Nutrigenomics aims to provide a genetic understanding of how common dietary chemicals (i.e., nutrition) affect the balance of health and disease by altering the expression or structure of an individual's genetic makeup. Furthermore, a prevention thread in public health informatics still requires improving detection skills from patient clinical samples and monitoring development of the disease in reserve populations, who may be at a higher risk of disease susceptibility due to various micro- and/or macro-environmental determinants. Molecular-based detection systems can forecast evolving disease in terms of key molecule modifications that may contribute to disease pathogenesis and reflect heredity, such as quantitative trait loci, polymorphism, and epigenetic modification, by utilising the omics platform, which includes epigenetics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, pharmacogenomics, and genomics.  Furthermore, by structuring a person's health algorithm in conjunction with a molecule chain-based surveillance and prevention system, an individualised or personalised approach to treating metabolic disease could be used. To encourage effective biomarker discoveries in the field of molecular therapy and early detection target molecules in obesity, innovation tactics, and earlier diagnostic tools as a potential strategy have inspired us in clinical validation and assessment to improve prevention/treatment outcome for a better quality in the translation medicine process. In this short review, we aim to understand a better interaction and connectivity between risks and metabolic disorders like obesity by utilizing the molecular drive platform that OMICS technologies are worthy to develop a clinical assessment with regard to diagnosing, predicting, and treating chains of metabolic diseases (i.e., initiation, progress, and determination) and defining causative molecule-based wiring on host defense machinery after exposure to various unknown environmental agents such as harmful bacterial infections or pathogens, heavy metals in air pollution, and environmental stressors as an environmental threat. Nutrigenomics, as a key strategical approach to detecting genetic variation or revealing malfunctions of the host defence system in metabolic disorders, can be used not only to assess one's risk for obesity, but also to treat obesity by establishing personalised diet plans.

Nutritional and Health Benefits of Carrots and Its Seed Extracts: A Review

João Carlos da Silva Dias

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 84-98

Carrot is a root vegetable rich in bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, vitamins, and minerals, all of which possess numerous nutritional and health benefits. Genotype colors of carrot root flesh, environmental conditions, and the storage conditions influence the amount and type of bioactive compounds present in carrots. Besides lending truth to the old adage that carrots are good for eyes, carotenoids, polyphenols and vitamins present in carrot act as antioxidants, anticarcinogens, and immunoenhancers. Anti-diabetic, cholesterol and cardiovascular disease lowering, anti-hypertensive, hepatoprotective, renoprotective, and wound healing and anti-ageing skin benefits of carrot have also been reported. The cardio- and hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of carrot seed extracts are also noteworthy. This article reviews the nutritional and health benefits of carrots and their seed extracts.

Key Markers and Epigenetic Modifications of Dental-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Review

Jingqiu Chen, Xiaodan Zheng, Nanquan Rao, Yao Huang, Juan Liu, Yanhong Li, Jun Zhang

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 99-134

The oral region contains a variety of different mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) populations. Among the regenerative strategies, dental-derived MSCs based techniques have demonstrated particular promise. Several preclinical studies and clinical trials have been performed using dental-derived MSCs for the treatment of dental and non-dental diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune and orthopedic disorders. However, dental-derived MSCs exhibit variability among tissues of origin, individual donors, clonal subpopulations, and single cells. Variation in the regenerative potential among cells in dental-derived MSCs cultures may confound trial results and slow or arrest the translation of dental-derived MSCs therapy into clinical practice. Although variation is inevitable, our limited ability to detect and control heterogeneity poses challenges for the production of dental-derived MSCs therapies. Here, we reviewed the heterogeneity of dental-derived MSCs firstly and then discussed the key markers and epigenetic modifications related to the proliferation, differentiation, immunomodulation, and aging of dental-derived MSCs. These messages help to control the composition and function of dental-derived MSCs and thus accelerate the translation of cell therapy into clinical practice.

Disability in Yorogo-Yipala Community: A Matter of Perception

Fiasorgbor A. Doris

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 135-143

Disability is often perceived negatively perhaps due to ignorance and some prevailing socio-cultural beliefs as well as economic factors. The challenges facing people with disabilities (PWDs) therefore are varied; they come in the form of violation of human rights, poverty, stigma, discrimination and exclusion. Disability is closely associated with poverty and it is also a barrier to education, employment, access to public services and social protection. In most cases, disability has been addressed through charitable approaches without the recognition of the rights and participation of persons with disabilities, like other citizens. The objectives of the study included the assessment of the causes of physical disability and the perception of rural folks about people with disability. The study employed a mixed method approach where both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used. Focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews and observation were utilised to collect data. The respondents also displayed positive perceptions about disability. This is inspiring, though the positive perceptions seem not to have translated into attitudinal change. Most participants appear to have positive attitudes toward disability, and this could reduce stigmatisation and discrimination against people with physical disabilities (PWPDs). This is also a signal that stigma and discrimination against the disabled were not widespread among the respondents. This study therefore recommends that outfits like the department of social welfare in Bolgatanga municipality should be equipped logistically to increase their efforts in sensitising rural communities on disability issues.

Study about Hirschsprung’s Disease in Adults: An Approach to Clinical and Therapeutic Features

Haithem Zaafouri , Wassim Riahi, Manel Mabrouk, Mouna Cherif, Fatma Khanchal, Nizar Khedhiri, Dhafer Haddad, Anis Ben Maamer

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 144-156

Introduction:  Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) is definitely a childhood disease as it is the most frequent cause of bowel obstruction in the newborn and in the child whereas it is rare in adults and it is thus often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed.

Objective: Through this series of 12 cases of HD we try to study the clinical characteristics of this pathology, to define its diagnostic clues and to assess the different therapeutic approaches.

Materials and Methods:  This is a series of 12 patients referred to our department by the emergency department of HABIB THAMEUR hospital in Tunis for acute bowel obstruction.

  • Ten of them had selectively a lateral discharge colostomy.
  • One patient had a peritoneal lavage and the Hartman colostomy for a stercoral (fecal) peritonitis following perforation of the sigmoid colon.
  • One patient had a peritoneal lavage and the Bouilly Wolkman double stomy for a stercoral peritonitis following perforation of the left colon.
  • Anorectal manometry was performed in 25% of cases only. It revealed in each patient the absence of recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR).

Definitive diagnosis is established on histology of specimens from the rectum and colon. The disease involved the rectum and the sigmoid colon in 2 patients and was confined to the rectum, in the 10 others.

Treatment was in all cases surgical consisting of recto-colic resection associated with coloanal anastomosis and a protective right lateral ileostomy. Histology of the operative specimens confirmed the diagnosis of HD.

Conclusion: Hirschsprung’s disease is rare in adults but by no means exceptional. It should be considered in young adults with a history of chronic constipation. Diagnosis is first of all clinical. When barium enema appearances are pathognomonic we needn’t resort to histology to confirm the diagnosis. Anorectal manometry does not usually show RAIR.

Current primary treatment of HD diagnosed in adults consists mainly of surgical resection.

In the present study, effort is made to evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism on certain haemostatic parameters. Thyroid disorders which has increased incidence in females, were found to effect coagulation-fibrinolytic system. In the present study an effort is made to evaluate the alterations of certain haemostatic parameters in overt hypothyroid patients.

Bleeding time, clotting time & platelet count were estimated in hypothyroid subjects and control group, with sample size of 15 each. Hypothyroid group included subjects with low FT3, FT4 & elevated TSH value (mean 14.9 mU/L).Both the groups were age and sex matched. The results showed prolonged bleeding time and clotting time which were statistically significant with p-value of <0.0001 for both the parameters each. In the present study, hypothyroid group showed decreased platelet count when compared to control group which was statistically significant with a p-value of <0.0001.This finding was in contrast to many of the previous studies which showed either increase in platelet count or even if there was decrease, it was statistically not so significant.

This shows increased bleeding tendency or hypocoagulable state in overt hypothyroid patients. The more elevated the TSH levels, the more the deviation of haemostatic parameters from normal. Unravelling the effect of thyroid hormone variations on haemostatic parameters & the mechanisms involved more precisely may lead to increased options for treatment of altered parameters so as to avoid serious complications.

Aims: Non specific Low back pain is defined as pain without any known pathology which affects almost all the leading occupation where body's awkward posture, twisting and stress forces are commonly encountered across the globe and it is highly prevalent 60% to 70% in a year. Studies have shown various exercise regimen individual effect on the same but superiority of regimen out of these is not clear.

Study Design: Comparative Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ahmedabad Institute of Medical Sciences, Duration 2013-15 Objective: To assess and compare the effect of core stability exercise, back school program and Swiss ball exercise on Pain, core endurance and Functional disability.

Methodology: A group of 24 patients having non-specific low back pain between age groups 18-40 were randomly selected and allocated in to two groups. Group A(n=12) received traditional exercise whereas Swiss ball exercise was given to Group B(n=12). The subjects were treated for two weeks. Baseline data for VAS, Core endurance and MODI were taken on day1 and at the end of two weeks

Results: The results were analyzed by wilcoxon signed rank test within both groups. Both groups showed significant improvement in VAS, core endurance and MODI at the end of 2 weeks. Comparison between both the Group A and Group B was done by Mann- whitney U test and statistically no significant difference was seen in VAS, core endurance and MODI between the groups.

Conclusion: The study concluded that both the exercises are equally effective in reducing pain intensity, improves core endurance and functional status in subjects with non specific low back pain.

Early Intervention on Autism: Facts and Findings

Clay Brites

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 172-179

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Psychiatry Association (APA) and several scientific evidences, an early intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is the best and most efficient treatment to improve core signs of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Especially for two-year-old patients, specific methods and approaches can help you shift your prognosis and preserve cognitive aspects, IQ size, language and emotional self-regulation. What are the steps required to raise awareness and to confirm ASD diagnosis? The aim of this paper is to summarize and briefly describe the diagnostical assessment and therapeutics related to early intervention on autism.

Impact of Environmental Stress on College Students

V. Andal

Emerging Trends in Disease and Health Research Vol. 4, 5 March 2022, Page 180-186

This chapter aims to Highlights the impact of Environmental Stress on Physical Health and academic performance of College Students. College students are especially important as they are young and still at a learning age. Stress is allegedly the cause of a fall in work output, failing physical health, questionable mental stability, pressurized mental health and a plethora of other issues the youth faces.