Dr. Mohammad Reza Naroui Rad
Department of Horticultural Crops Research, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Sistan, Iran.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19491-94-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19491-95-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/eias/v7

This book covers key areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include fish farming, aquatic ecosystem, compound fertilizer, cassava production, post-harvesting operations, electric seeder, multi-crop seeder, cocoa beans, post-harvest processing, crop practices, sesame seed, natural antioxidants, cash crop, biological products, agricultural demand, potato tubers, crop rotation, protection of roots, fruit crops, leaf explants, apple rootstocks, sugarcane, agricultural innovation, livestock production, sedentary human civilization, soil parameters, fertilizer-application, bacteria, food production system, microbe-microbe interaction and green vegetables. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural sciences.


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This chapter aimed to investigate the impact of heavy metals pollution in a fish farm in El Fayoum Province on some vital organs tissues (liver, gills, intestines and muscles) of Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Pollution of aquatic environment is a serious and growing problem [1], which is usually brought about by increasing domestic, agricultural, commercial and industrial activities of man. Fish samples of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) were caught during year 2006 from a fish farm in El Fayoum Province for monitoring bioaccumulation of some heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in the liver, intestine, gills and muscles of the fish and their effect on the tissue organs. The present study revealed that, the concentrations of zinc and lead were higher than the permissible level in the liver, intestine, gills and muscles of Oreochromis niloticus (L.). The concentrations of copper and cadmium were higher than the permissible level in the liver for copper and in the liver and intestine for cadmium. The liver, gills, intestine, and muscles all showed a number of histological abnormalities. Hepatocytes in the liver sections showed signs of degeneration and necrosis. Necrotic patches and expanding deterioration filled the hepatic tissue. The fish gills were examined under a microscope, which revealed edema in the primary and secondary lamellae, full fusion of the secondary lamellae, and telangiectasis (blood cell congestion in the ends of the secondary lamellae). The fish's gills also experienced considerable bleeding. The hisopathological changes in the intestine included degeneration and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucosa, aggregation of inflammatory cells in submucosa and destruction of muscularis. Skeletal muscles exhibited different stages of degeneration, atrophy, necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The heavy metals accumulated in the vital organs of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and caused many pathological lesions. So, we recommend treatment of drainage water before its entrance into fish farms.

The study objectives were; (a) assess the high yielding variety amongst the three cassava varieties (TMS 95/0289, TMS 96/0523 and TME 419). (b). evaluate the impact of the compound fertilizers (N-P-K- 20:10-10and N-P-K 15—15-15) on the growth performance of the three cassava varieties in terms of growth and yield. (c) determine the effect of interaction between the N.P.K. fertilizers and the three cassava verities. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial crop of the family Euphorbiaceae domesticated in Nigeria. It is a root crop that is propagated vegetatively from stem cuttings for commercial purposes, but can also be propagated by seed. Cassava is however, not usually planted sole under the traditional cropping system so as to maximize the farmer’s income generation and also to produce diverse crops on the limited available land area. Thus, an experiment on the growth and yield responses of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using two compound fertilizer types was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Rivers State University Port Harcourt between March 2021 and February 2022. Three cassava varieties (TME 419, TMS 95/0289, and TMS 96/0523), two types of compound fertilizer (NPK 20-10-10 and NPK 15-15-15), and a control with no fertilizer application were combined in the treatments. The treatments were set up as a split plot with the cassava varieties going in the main plot and the fertilizer types going in the subplots, in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Parameters evaluated were plant height and leaf number at four weekly interval starting at ten weeks after planting, also tuber number and tuber weight. Results show that cassava variety TME 419 interacting with NPK 15-1515 produced the highest plant height (288.3cm) while TMS96/0523 without fertilizer application produced the lowest plant height(199cm) at harvest.  Significantly more leaves, tubers, and plant height were produced using NPK 15-15-15. Comparing the fertilized plots to the unfertilized plot (control), the fertilized plots produced considerably more fresh tubers and heavier tubers. Since the variety and compound fertilizer generated the maximum tuber number and tuber weight, TMS 95/0289 and NPK 15-15-15 should be suggested to subsistence farmers in order to boost cassava output.

Empowering Women Farmers: Designing and Developing Pull Type Electric Seeder

S. K. Chavda , S. K. Gaadhe , J. M. Chavda , Alok Gora

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 31-49

Women are an essential component of the agricultural system in Gujarat's tribal region. They generally convert all kinds of labor. Manual seeding requires a lot of effort and time. Accurate measurement of the space between the seeds is necessary to achieve consistent planting. The majority of manual seeders in use today lack this capacity. In order to provide a better option, a multi-crop electric seeder was developed at the College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Godhra for women farmers in the tribal region of Gujarat. The mainframe, handle, furrow opener, seed tube, marker, metering mechanism, battery (12V), motor and speed controller, switch, and DC charger are all parts of the multi-crop seeder. The designed equipment has a payback period of 6 hectares per hectare and 53.42 hours per hour. Over a 10-year period of the seeder's lifetime, the cost-benefit ratio was found to be 14.97 for the created multi-crop seeder.

High Free Fatty Acids (FFA) Content in Fermented and dry Cocoa Beans with Various Cocoa Producing Geographical Location of Côte d’Ivoire in the Climate Change Context

Kouakou Richard Houphouet , Joëlle Stéphanie Tape , Kouadio Ignace Kouassi , Konan Mathurin Yao , Kra Brou Dider Kedjebo , Pauline Mounjouenpou , Noêl Durand , Didier Montet , Tagro Simplice Guehi

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 50-64

Aims: Cocoa beans sourced from Côte d’Ivoire faces more and more to the high FFA contents. Yet, generation of FFA levels degrades beneficial rheological properties of cocoa butter and chocolate. This study investigated the factors that potentially promote the increase of high FFA contents of Ivorian cocoa beans.

Methodology: Samples: 240 cocoa beans batches were sampled from cocoa farmers of some big cocoa producing regions for their FFA contents analysis. Also, influence of primary post-harvest processing such as pod’s sanitary status, pod opening delay, fermentation duration and dry cocoa beans storage under various relative humidity (RH) ranged 80-90% on FFA’s formation of Ivorian cocoa beans was investigated. Data interpretations were performed according to the Fisher’s test.

Results: Main results showed that dry cocoa beans recorded FFA content varying from 0.99 to 14% in function of the geographical origin. Beside, 53% of tested cocoa bean samples exhibited FFA content up to 1.75%. Poor sanitary status of pods and 7-days fermented cocoa beans recorded FFA content above 1.75%. Dry cocoa beans stored at RH above 85% promoted more the FFA’s formation (14%) than those stored under lower RH values. 53% of tested cocoa beans samples presented FFA contents up to 1.75%. Controlled primary post-harvest processing highlighted that poor sanitary status of cocoa pods promotes the formation of FFA. Interacting poor sanitary status of pods with long fermentation provoked occurrence of FFA concentration above 1.75%. However, the fermentation duration of cocoa beans from healthy pods had no effect on the changes of FFA content. The FFA content of beans increases greater with both the duration of cocoa fermentation and storage of dry cocoa beans at RH above 85% up to FFA content above 1.75%.

Conclusion: So, in order to produce fermented and dry cocoa beans containing low and suitable FFA contents in the context of climate change, mitigation strategies need to integrate good crop conditions regarding postharvest processing and to improve beneficial ones.

An Assessment of the Transaction Chain of Sesame Seed in Nasarawa State Nigeria

Emmy Owoicho Okadonye , Iornem Shima Kennedy , Rengmang Rohop Saidu , Otokpa Sam Otse , Akaa Bee Joseph , Apochi Joshua Apochi , Mluna Charles Korinjoh , Ikyoh Aondoaver Lawrence

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 65-77

The study analyzed the sesame seed trade in Nasarawa, Nigeria, identifying key players, factors determining price, and challenges faced by traders. A total of 150 subjects were sampled, using quantitative methodologies. The findings showed that sesame seed is a profitable crop for traders, but price determination influenced by external entities like the dollar exchange rate and affluent merchants is not advantageous for local traders. The primary individuals involved in the trade are local buying agents, rural assemblers, and exporting firms. The operational approach has led to adverse outcomes, including property and capital investment loss, and life-threatening situations. To prevent exploitation, capital loss, and life-threatening situations, a task force should be established to oversee the sesame seed trade chain, conduct quality assurance checks on foreign investors' trading activities, and enforce policies restricting foreign investors' access to local markets.

Assessment of The Impact of Biological Products on the Quality of Potato Tubers

S. P. Zamana, T. V. Papaskiri , T. D. Kondratieva , D. A. Shapovalov , T. G. Fedorovsky

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 78-85

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of beneficial microorganisms introduced into the soil on selected indicators of the quality of edible potato tubers. The study evaluated an early, unpretentious, drought-resistant, frost-resistant and stress-resistant potato variety of the Russian selection "Udacha". When growing potatoes, biological products "Organic", "Protection of roots" and "Crop rotation" were used, which include bacteria and fungi in its composition. The experiment provided for 4 options: 1) Control, 2) "Organic", 3) "Protection of roots", 4) "Crop rotation". Biological products "Organic" and "Protection of roots" were applied when planting potatoes, and the biological product "Crop rotation" was applied two weeks before planting. In the grown potato tubers, the starch composition was determined using the polarimetric method, the vitamin C composition was determined using the visual titration method, the polyphenol composition was determined using the spectrophotometric method applying Folin's reagent, the antioxidant activity was determined using potassium permanganate titration, and the nitrate composition was determined using an ion-selective electrode on an ion meter. The results of the research showed that in potato tubers the starch composition was the lowest in the control variant (14.9%), and the highest in the variant with the biological product “Crop Rotation” (17.8%); the composition of vitamin C was the lowest in the control variant (18.9 mg/100 g), and it was the highest in the variant with the biological product “Crop Rotation” (25.3 mg/100 g); the composition of polyphenols (in mg-eq of gallic acid per g of dry weight) was the highest in the variant with the biological product “Organic” (4.1), and the lowest in the control variant (3.0); antioxidant activity (in mg-eq of gallic acid per g of dry weight)  was the lowest in the control variant (6.5), and it was the highest in the variants with biological products "Organic" and "Crop rotation" (8.4); the composition of nitrates decreased in all experimental variants in comparison with the control variant. The application of beneficial bacteria and fungi into the soil greatly contributed to the improvement of the quality indicators of grown potato tubers.

Micro-Propagation Methodology for the Apple Balady Cultivar Utilizing Leaf Explants

Sayed, A. A. Elsayh , Rasha, N. Arafa , Eman H. Afifi , Marwa M. Abdalgaleel , Alaa N. Draz , Salwa El-Habashy , Emadeldin A. H. Ahmed

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 86-115

The objectives of this study are to establish a tissue culture and rapid micro-propagation technological system, as well as an efficient shoots regeneration method utilizing leaf explants from the Balady apple genotype. The effects of various types and amounts of cytokinin and carbon sources on shoots regeneration were studied using in vitro leaves as explants for adventitious shoots induction. The optimal medium for inducing callus from leaf explants was MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l BA and 5.0 mg/l NAA. MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l Kin + 0.5 mg/l NAA were the optimal medium for apple shoots differentiation and proliferation. MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l TDZ and 0.1 mg/l NAA was the best medium for shoots regeneration, producing the greatest number of shoots (20.32 shoots /jar). The addition of 30 g/l of Sorbitol to the culture medium was the most efficacious for in vitro shoots proliferation. With a combination of 2.0 mg/l GA3 and 3.0 mg/l BA, the most strong growth and elongation were achieved. The medium with the highest rooting rate of 87.6% was ½ MS with 1.5 mg/l IBA added.

The study aimed to investigate diversity, population dynamics of nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization bacteria in rhizosphere of sugarcane cultivated in acrisol and ferrasol soils of Dong Nai province, the Southeast of Vietnam. Nitrogen total, soluble phosphorus and organic carbon of the soil were determined by using colorimetric method and method described by Walkley-Black. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization bacteria were isolated on Burk's nitrogen free and NBRIP media. Identification, SNPs and nucleotide diversity of selected bacterial strains were based on 16S rDNA sequences with primers 27F and 1492R, SeqScape@Software and Theta (\(\theta\)) described by Halushka et al.. Validation of nitrogen fixation of strains was carried out by screening presence of nifH with Pol primers. The research found that rhizosphere of sugarcane cultivated in Dong Nai province were slightly acidic, poorly nutrient and had diverse plant growth promoting bacteria. pH, nitrogen total and organic matter component of the soils were three essential factors influencing both populations of nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization bacteria in the soils while available phosphorus in the soils was closely related with nitrogen fixation bacteria population rather than phosphate solubilization bacteria population in the soils. Thirty-one strains isolated expressed capacity of fixing nitrogen, solubilizing phosphate and biosynthesizing IAA. Fourteen of thirty-one strains were amplified nifH. Twelve of thirty-one strains with high capacity of plant growth promotion were identified as species of Bacilli, Acidobacteria, Bacteroides and Betaproteobacteria where Bacilli had the highest Pis and thetas. Bacillus megaterium B6 isolated from ferrasols and Sphingomonas sp. P14 isolated from acrisols showed as potential candidates and were proposed to be tested their ability to promote plant growth of sugarcane grown in acrisol and ferrasol soils of Dong Nai province.

The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics that influence extension delivery in Ghana's Ashanti, Eastern, and Northern regions. Food problems have haunted mankind since time immemorial. Along with a few technological breakthroughs to increase yields, the food needs of growing populations were historically met by expanding the cultivated area. As the most fertile and irrigable lands became scarce, further expansion meant bringing poorer and lower-yielding land into cultivation and placing greater reliance on fallow-based cultivation. The agricultural industry in the developing world is fast changing, owing to a variety of causes. The sector also confronts a variety of difficulties that are growing in quantity and complexity. As a result, the need for extension services, which play a critical role in fostering agricultural innovation to keep up with the changing circumstances and enhance the livelihoods of the dependent poor, has expanded dramatically. Ghana’s agricultural sector has not seen any major improvement over the years: The main reasons behind this are small farm sizes and inefficient farm management. One of the most important tools to resolve these problems is the extension service. The study aimed to find out the factors that affect extension delivery in Ghana. The questionnaire was distributed to 105 responders, who were Research Scientists, Technical Officers, and Extension Agents. According to the study, there is a need to actively include farmers in extension delivery, and extension agents must have the necessary competence to carry out their assigned duties in agricultural development. According to the study's findings, there were several issues that hampered the dissemination of agricultural information to users (farmers). These issues varied from the idea that the technology is pricey to the fundamental competency of extension agents.  There is an urgent need to address these issues in order to assist farmers in obtaining the necessary knowledge and skills to enhance agricultural productivity. The need to revamp the present extension system is critical to improving the successful expansion of agricultural technology to boost production.

Inter-Units Conversion in Soil Analytical Studies

Oyatokun, Olukayode Stephen

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 147-156

This article seeks to provide some inter-unit conversion or provide conversion factor in soil analytical studies. The basis or justification for carrying out soil analysis include the need to know plant available nutrients vis-a-vis their replenishment; to determine increase in crop yield through fertilization; to evaluate the nutrient status of soil and the need for fertilizer application which consequently improve farmers’ decision making for economic planning. Analytical procedures in soil science vary from one method to another, each with its peculiar unit of measurement. The calculation and conversion of units of measurement of different soil parameters will unify conclusions of different analytical results, such as in fertilizer application and experimental reactionary systems. The outcome of this article has provided meaningful inter- unit conversion through simple derivation principles, by the derivation of conversion factors and in practice of fertilizer calculation for fertility studies.

Rhizobium and Virus Interaction on Growth and Yields of Cowpea

Oyatokun, O. S. , Oyelakin, F. O. , Akanbi, W. B. , Adigun, M. A. , Ajiwe, S. T.

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 157-167

This review has as its focus microbe-microbe interaction and its effects on nodulation and yields of cowpea, with a view to examining the impacts on sustainability of food production system. Cowpea is a nutritious grain that is widely consumed in tropical and subtropical poor nations. Pathogens and pests such as bacteria, viruses, fungus, and insects can harm it at any stage of development. Microbes, plants, and animals all interact in both isolated and complex systems. To complete the food web process, these interactions might be plant-plant, plant-microbe, microbe-microbe, or microbe-microbe-plant. While some interactions are healthy and helpful to the relationship's participants, others are toxic and detrimental.  Knowledge of such relationships might aid enhance productivity and enable for the development of novel tactics for plant protection, parasite control, and agricultural yield increase. Hence this article assess the interaction of rhizobium and virus on cowpea nodulation and yields with a view to evaluating their contributory effects and assess their individual potency in the interaction.

A Critics on Nuclear Theory of Cultivation Science of Crops

Peizhan Tian

Emerging Issues in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 14 September 2023, Page 168-178

The purpose of this work was to explain the study materials and the nuclear theory system of crop cultivation science on the basis of the current situation and crop cultivation science's problems, practices in crop production, and some theoretical perspectives. In this work, it was argued that a theoretical system for Chinese agricultural cultivation science could not be developed without also showing and describing all of the cultivation practices. Due to influence of scientific concept of western scholars, theory of this applying subject only stopped on level of point obtaining from contacts in general terms among things, lacked highly summarizing and abstraction, but contents of this subject were on basis of big agriculture conception, ecological agriculture, it embodied idea that recognizing crop production only from long-term interests, higher layer, bigger range, including handing well relationship both among all of ecological systems and between planting industry and animal husbandry, could well resolve problem of food. Cultivation science of crops had itself special study field, mainly were relationship between community and individual, contradiction among factors of community yield and its movement, technology regularity of high- yielding. Putting forward new concept of Cultivation Science of Crops, it was science researching contradiction movement among yield factors of crop (high-yielding) community and regularity of regulation and control technique. This concept emphasized the subject's intrinsic characteristics and features as well as its differences from nearby topics. Comparing them to the current teaching materials used in agricultural colleges, we developed relative nucleus theories and specific contents of better crop cultivation science based on demands of the growth of ecological agriculture, practices of crop production, and existing difficulties. Finally, the issue of the advancement of agricultural cultivation science was raised.