Dr. Marcello Iriti
Professor of Plant Biology and Pathology, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Italy.

ISBN 978-93-5547-526-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-534-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ecafs/v5

Profile Link : http://www.unimi.it/chiedove/schedaPersonaXML.jsp?matricola=16744

This book covers key areas of Agriculture and Food Science. The contributions by the authors include consumer behavior, food labeling, nutrition, biosorption, heavy metals, antioxidant activities, geographical Indication, ion mobility spectrometry, agricultural ecological map, virgin olive oil, topography, ecological zone, curd cheese enrichment, dough rheology, bread texture, in vitro starch digestibility, glycemic index, nutritional gains, sensory and consumer evaluation, dietary fiber, bakery cereal products, nutritional value, intoxicating substances, biomarkers, bioinformatics, epitope, biological stressors, heat shock protein. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Agriculture and Food Science


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Measuring Consumer Responses to Food Labels: A Descriptive Study

Greg Clare

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 5, 25 May 2022, Page 1-12

Consumer responses to beef steak label information placement variations were measured in this study, which controlled for chromaticity. To measure information flow to consumers across label variations, eye tracking and scan path entropy have been used. In the placement variations, safe handling messages had the lowest entropy. Except when the monochrome information panel was combined with colour label elements, monochrome information had lower entropy than coloured label information. The study emphasises the possibility of producing a variety of effects on consumer attention by strategically placing monochrome and colour label elements in food label systems. Scan path entropy should be considered when evaluating label designs that are meant to highlight specific information for a variety of purposes, such as marketing, health communications, and safety messages. The use of monochrome or colour label components appears to influence observed entropy in label systems where information competes for consumer attention, and observed entropy can be influenced by the placement and combinations of various label elements that can be measured and adapted to achieve message attention goals.

Evaluation of the Biosorption Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Heavy Metals in Milk

R. Masoud , F. Mirmohammad-Makki, A. Zoghi

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 5, 25 May 2022, Page 13-23

The application of biosorbents like bacteria, yeast, and algae is a biotechnological method for eliminating heavy metals from the environment. These microorganisms can also be used for the decontamination of heavy metals in food and water. Our research team has investigated the heavy metals biosorption in milk by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this regard, initial heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) and S. cerevisiae were added to milk and the bioremoval process was monitored during four days. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of some variables including exposure time, temperature, S. cerevisiae concentration and initial metal concentration in the heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) bioremoval process in milk. The analysis of ANOVA showed that among the above the variables, S. cerevisiae concentration, initial metal concentration, and exposure time were statistically significantly associated with heavy metals removal (p values \(\leq\) 0.05). The highest biosorption (70%) was observed after 4 days with 30×108 CFU S. cerevisiae in milk. These findings provided further evidence for S. cerevisiae as a powerful biosorbent for heavy metals removal from milk and a potentially safe and green tool for providing safe and healthy food supply.

In Africa, the fruits of Borassus aethiopum Mart trees are underutilized and most of them are left to rot in the field. These fruits are rich sources of pectin and thus excellent raw materials for the pectin industry. Since B. aethiopum fruit pectin characteristics are affected by the extraction procedures, it was important to highlight the effects of the precipitating methods on the quality of the isolated pectin. In this study, different precipitating solvents were evaluated, and the characteristics of the final products were determined. Pectin precipitated with isopropanol (IPA), acetone (ACTN), and the 50/50 IPA-ACTN solvents showed great variability in their functional and rheological properties. Isopropanol (IPA) precipitated pectin exhibited the highest (p<0.05) emulsifying activity and the best gel sensorial property. Regardless of the precipitating solvent, high purity pectin with high viscosifying, emulsifying and gelling properties was obtained. Thus, industrial production of pectin from B. aethiopum fruit pulp should be governed by its intended use since extraction and precipitation processes isolate pectin samples with various functionalities.

The goal of this research is to determine the impact of Cekiste olive oils in various areas and to demonstrate variances in geographic locations while using the geographical indicator label. The impacts of geographical locations on the chemical characteristics of the Cekiste olive oil variety planted in six distinct places (Birgi, Bademli, Beyazit, Yenicekoy, Zeytinlik, Uzumlu) were investigated. GIS was used to construct each location's agricultural ecological map.  Fatty acid, sterol, and phenolic analysis were performed on olive oil samples. Furthermore, the geographical fingerprints of olive oil samples from various regions were determined using the LC IMS Qtof spectrometer and Progenesis QI software. The results revealed that the oil quality of some places varied significantly (p <0.05) depending on the olive producing area, while others do not. The Principal Component Analysis of the many sites investigated found that the "geographical location" factor has a substantial impact on the quality of olive oil.

Assessing the Technological and Nutritional Functionality of Curd Cheese in the Overall Gluten-Free Bread Quality

Carla Graça, Anabela Raymundo, Isabel Sousa

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 5, 25 May 2022, Page 55-82

Replacing wheat flour in the breadmaking process is a technology challenge since the absence of gluten has a strong influence on overall bread quality. Protein-rich source substitutes are often used to aid a formation of a protein network capable of mimicking gluten-like structure so that it would support the gas cells of the dough foaming. Apart from the protein structuring ability, the interaction with starch granules can perhaps be useful to make them less available for enzymatic degradation, becoming a nutritional advantage. When the bread matrix includes simultaneously proteins and lipids, the nutritional advantages can be further enhanced, since the lipids can form lipid-amylose complexes influencing the final dough consistency. Therefore, nutritional gains in terms of the glycemic response of gluten-free bread can be positively improved.

This study aimed at evaluating the technological and nutritional functionality of curd cheese as a protein and lipid source, and as a promising alternative bakery ingredient in gluten-free breadmaking. The influence of curd cheese, based on its ability to strengthen gluten-free dough structure, by testing several levels of addition (5% up to 20%, weight/ weight) focused on: i) dough rheology properties, mainly flow and viscoelastic profile modifications, ii) starch physical behaviour by pasting properties measurements, was assessed in detail. The quality of the derived bread samples was evaluated by measuring the post-baking quality. Nutritional gains focused on the chemical composition and glycemic response were further assessed. Considering the highest level of curd cheese (20%) tested, improvements in bread quality were observed, leading to a considerable increase in bread volume (73%) and softness (65%), with a marked reduction in staling kinetic (70%), comparing with control bread. Additionally, an improvement in nutritional value in terms of proteins (80%) and minerals content, particularly P, Mg and Ca, covering more than 15% of the daily recommended doses, was obtained. As for the glycemic response, a considerable reduction of 40%, resulting in bread with an intermediate glycemic index, was achieved. Strong linear correlations (R2 > 0.902) were observed between dough rheology properties and bread quality attributes, pasting properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and glycemic index. The linear relations found can be used to support the hypothesis that the curd cheese addition had a markedly influence on the overall bread quality and nutritional value.

Development and Consumer Evaluation of Aerva lanata Incorporated Ready to Eat (RTE) Snack

Kanneboina Soujanya, B. Anila Kumari , E. Jyothsna

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 5, 25 May 2022, Page 83-90

Nowadays there is an increased demand for the RTE and RTC foods due to changed lifestyle, their convenience, price, taste, appearance and attractiveness. Aerva lanata is a traditional green leaf vegetable. It has cultural, food and medicinal value. Both jowar and Aerva lanata has good nutritional value. The main objective of the study is to incorporate dried leaf powder into jowar chakli at different formulations and to evaluate for sensory and consumer acceptance. Initially, the collected leaves from Nalgonda district of Telangana state were blanched, dried and incorporated to jowar chakli and analysed for sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory, 10% leaf powder incorporated jowar chakli was selected. The taste of the test sample was highly accepted than the control sample. The best selected formulation was further analysed for consumer acceptance by randomly selected 100 members from different age groups. The results of the study found that the cost, colour, texture, flavour and overall acceptability of the product was well accepted. Inclusion of traditional green into the trending products adds variety, improves nutritional value, reduces the raw material cost and good economic value.

Characteristics of Wheat-Hemp and Wheat-Teff Models: Composite Flours

Marie Hrušková , Ivan Švec, Ivana Jurinová

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 5, 25 May 2022, Page 91-100

Model composites of wheat/hemp and wheat/teff were made as 90:10 and 80:20 w/w mixes with two distinct Czech commercial wheat flours and bright/dark forms of these non-traditional crops flour. Used analytical methods involved also insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre contents evaluation as well as the Solvent Retention Capacity profiling. Consumer’s quality of tested composites was proven directly by baking test. Bakery products are the most important human food.   In the case of hemp and teff testing, nutritious flour enrichment attained greater levels of protein (from approx. 13.0 percent  approximately 30 percent vs. 6 percent) and fibre (from approx. 3.3 percent about 50 percent points vs. 30 percent points). Wheat flour SRC profiles partially differ between both standards – qualitatively better sample M was weakened by hemp flour additions, while somewhat worse sample M1 was improved by teff flour additions. The volume of bread made with bright hemp was reduced from 257ml/100 g to 196ml/100 g in baking tests, while those made with dark hemp increased to 328ml/100 g. Volumes of teff-fortified buns ranged from 325 to 369ml/100 g, compared to 381ml/100 g for regular M1. The sensory score of wheat/hemp breads was lower due to the spicy flavor and fatty aftertaste, whereas hay-like by-taste in wheat/teff bread could be tolerated with a 10% increase in the recipe.

In Silico Prediction and 3D Model Analysis of Potential Epitope of Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP70) Gallus gallus as Candidate Biomarkers for Poultry Meat Quality Tests

Sulaiman Ngongu Depamede, Budi Indarsih, I Ketut Gede Wiryawan, Muhammad Hasil Tamzil, . Maskur

Emerging Challenges in Agriculture and Food Science Vol. 5, 25 May 2022, Page 101-109

The main objective of this study was to investigate potential epitopes of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) from the chicken (Gallus gallus). The epitopes are very important for designing a vaccine to produce antibodies against HSP70 which in turn can be used as biomarkers to study HSP70 expression. It has been reported elsewhere that there is a correlation between HSP70, reflecting the presence of stressors, and meat quality. Reduction in poultry meat quality can be as a result of physical, chemical and biological stressors before-, during-, and after broilers slaughtering. The success in exploring a potential biomarker of HSP70 therefore will be very helpful for the assessment of poultry meat quality. In this study, an in silico study of the HSP70 sequences of Gallus gallus were conducted to analyze the potential epitopes as biomarkers. The method used was a software-based method related to bioinformatics. From this study, two potential biomarker candidate peptides related to HSP70 were obtained, namely AILMGDKSENVQD, and ISWLDRNQMAEKEEYEHKQKELEK. A 3-dimensional model design is also produced from these epitopes. Further research is still needed to prove the potential of these two biomarkers in vivo.