Benjamin Manasoe
North-West University: Business School, South Africa.

Victor M. Mmbengwa
North-West University: Business School, South Africa.

Joseph N. Lekunze
North-West University: Business School, South Africa.

ISBN 978-93-5547-893-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-894-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-5547-893-1

South Africa as a nation-state post-1994 is characterised by three main challenges: poverty, inequality, and unemployment. While scholars and policy designers appear to be in agreement with this categorisation, in reality, the challenges faced in South Africa appear to go beyond the economic and political spectrums. The United Nations has prioritised the eradication of inequality as one of its sustainable development goals, while the African Union has identified the agricultural sector as part of its Agenda 2063. This book attempt in addressing inequality in South Africa from the perspective of agricultural economists. The book title "Development of an economic empowerment framework for small-scale agro-processors in South Africa” is intended to develop an empowerment framework for small agro-processors as a tool for reducing inequality in the agricultural sector of South Africa. The content of this book to a larger extent is an extraction from a PhD thesis submitted to the North-West University Business School for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economic and Management Sciences with Business Administration. The book has identified the critical tenets for the economic empowerment of small-scale agro-processors in South Africa. The book came as a result of over two years (2019 and 2021) of intensive review of literature, collection of data and analysis. These processes occur during the activation of national disaster management frameworks as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. This book is dedicated to small-scale farmers, agro-processors, academics, and policymakers for openly sharing their views, experiences, and opinions that contribute to the development of a framework. Whether you are a policy maker, scholar, researcher, political or gender activist, potential investor, government agency or student in agribusiness, the book provides knowledge and value in the understanding of the agro-processing sector and its contribution to finding solutions to sector-based inequality. I dedicate this book to the Co-authors (Prof. Victor M. Mmbengwa and Prof. Joseph N Lekunze) who also happen to be my promoters. The outcome of this project is not free from limitations even though efforts were made to ensure the book is free of errors.  We apologise for any mistakes that may be found and we have also ensured that the materials used have been properly cited and referenced. Please, feel free to contact the authors or reflect on your comments to improve the book’s subsequent editions. 

Benjamin Manasoe, North-West University Business School, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, Potchefstroom, Republic of South Africa.


Media Promotion


Development of an Economic Empowerment Framework for Small-scale Agro-processors in South Africa

Benjamin Manasoe, Victor M. Mmbengwa, Joseph N. Lekunze

Development of an Economic Empowerment Framework for Small-scale Agro-processors in South Africa, 29 September 2022, Page 1-186

Any nation that seeks sustainable economic growth and development must ensure the economic empowerment of its entire population. The aim of this study was to create an economic empowerment framework for the management of small-scale agro-processors in South Africa. Agriculture's position and function are evolving globally, and the agro- processing sector is no exception. Since 1994, strategies to fill policy gaps and build an ecosystem for small-scale agro-processors to fully engage in the formal economy have not yielded the desired results. However, creating an effective small-scale agro-processing sector is dependent on government programs to drive the process. While there is a policy (the South African Agri-BEE Transformation Charter), the framework is not clear. Its execution has not properly resolved the challenges of small-scale agro-processors in engaging in the formal economy, which is a perennial problem.

Despite the South African government's significant investments in all areas to close gaps in the agro-processing market, the dominance of a few large-scale commercial enterprises is expanding. The central argument of this study is whether post-apartheid South Africa's government policies have modified the inherited agro-processing system to enable small-scale agro-processors to join the formal economy. The question is whether the existence of the previous agro-processing system is due to the government's failure to establish an empowerment mechanism capable of effectively addressing past inequalities in South Africa's agro-processing field. The thesis employs a mixed-method approach, with data gathered from small-scale agro-processors in five South African provinces.

The data was analyzed using inferential (correlation analysis, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, one-way factorial ANOVA, and structural equation modelling) and descriptive statistical techniques. The study discovered that the networks, inventory, and trademarks of organizations have a direct impact on the internal resource status of small-scale agro-processors. Furthermore, capacity building has the greatest effect on  small-scale  agro-processors'  economic  empowerment. Transformation  and infrastructural tools, time allocation, output decision-making, interventions and engagement, income generation, leadership, and interventions, on the other hand, are enablers for small- scale agro-processing incorporation into the formal economy. According to the findings of the study, capacity-building significantly improves business networks and business networks improve access to markets. Access to markets influences the generation of income and, consequently, the economic empowerment of small-scale agro-processors. The study also revealed that a business network is a critical internal resource for small-scale agro-processing enterprises to participate in the formal economy, while existing policies, such as Agri-BEE, focus on transformation. Thus, an economic empowerment framework was designed and developed for small-scale agro-processing enterprises to enable agro-processors to manage their businesses better and participate in the formal economic system.