Dr. Kristina Mastanjevic
Assistant Professor, Faculty of food technology, University of Osijek, Croatia.

ISBN 978-93-90768-13-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-17-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cras/v7

This book covers key areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include regulated deficit irrigation, water use efficiency, deficit irrigation, food security, non-conventional food resources, preliminary phytochemical screening, adoption, agroforestry practice, taungya farming system, dairy production systems, fermentation, convenience foods, sensory evaluation, food processing method, Seed priming, salt stress, imbibing, vigor index, halopriming and hydropriming treatments, germination, ecosystem dynamics, forage production, osmopriming, dry matter digestibility, crude protein, biostimulant, chemical fertilizers, fertigation system, agricultural productivity, seed bank, rainfall variability, moisture stress, agronomic traits, harvest index. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural sciences.


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Water is fast becoming an economically scarce resource in many areas of the world, including Eswatini, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Deficit irrigation (DI) is a well-accepted practice to optimize and or increase water use, thereby saving cost, by allowing crops to withstand mild water stress with no or only marginal decreases in yield and quality traits. A study to test the response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to deficit irrigation was conducted in a field plot experiment at the Faculty of Agriculture at the Luyengo Campus of the University of Eswatini. The treatments were laid in a randomized block design. The experiment consisted of four treatments, each replicated three times. Treatment 1 (T1) was irrigated daily, treatment 2 (T2) irrigated after 2 days, treatment 3 (T3) irrigated after 3 days and treatment 4 (T4) irrigated after 4 days. A total of 30 lettuce plants were planted in each treatment. The lettuce was grown for a period of four weeks and then harvested whole. Yield parameters measured included the number of leaves, the plant height (cm), leaf area index (LAI) and the fresh and dry head mass (grams). Significant differences (P < 0.01) between treatments T3 and T4 were obtained for fresh and dry lettuce head mass. The highest water use efficiency and crop water productivity were obtained in treatment T3. It was concluded that irrigating lettuce every three days was the best option for the area under the conditions of the experiment. However, irrigating every after four or more days would result in significantly lower yields than expected, which could be a loss to the farmer.

Standardization and Evaluation of Cauliflower Stalks Powder Incorporated Products

Md. Rafiuddin, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 9-16

The world produces enough food to feed everyone yet many people suffer from chronic health issues. The advancement in science and technology has explored the possibilities of food as medicine that can help in combating degenerative diseases. The reduction in these wastes can occur if food produced is effectively utilised to provide food security to under privileged as these two are interrelated.  The utilization of waste products is the recent trend for improving the nutritional value of processed food products. The increasing of awareness amongst consumers necessitated developed aesthetic products necessitates the analysis of physical properties of foods. There are a number of possibilities for use of some types of ingredient wastes but there is as yet no evidence that any of these are economic.

The use of rice bran is gaining importance as large amounts of the grain’s outer layers are removed during the processing of paddy rendering bran as an important source of nutrients to food industry, human consumption and supplementation with nutrient dense ingredients to improve the nutritional value of the food. The cauliflower trimmings powder (CTP) added to rice bran extrudates and phulkas were best accepted at 5 and 10% addition respectively.  The incorporation of CTP to rice bran extrudates and phulkas improved their sensory properties.

Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

O. N. Oladele, O. Olukotun, U. U. Emeghara, J. T. Ayodele, B. F. Ishola, M. M. Olorukooba, R. Suleiman, T. A. Awobona

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 17-30

The study examined agroforestry practices among farmers in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 100 randomly selected farmers with the use of structured questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, level of awareness and adoption of agroforestry practices, types of agroforestry practices adopted, factors influencing the willingness of farmers to adopt agroforestry practices, common tree species retained in the farm and constraints faced by the farmers in adopting agroforestry-based farming. Data was analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and probit model. The study found that male (78.00%) dominated farming activities in the study area, the majority (96.00%) of the farmers is in the age group of 21-60 years, most of the farmers (87.00%) are educated and the majority (76.00%) of them had more than 5 years farming experience. The study revealed that farmers in the study area were aware and practicing different types of agroforestry system such as retaining of trees on the farm(33.00%), planting of trees along with the retained trees(28.00%),  taungya farming system(28.00%), and alley farming(20.00%). The study revealed that the adoption of agroforestry practices is high (79.00%) in the study areas. Retention of trees on farmland was mostly adopted (31.00%) while shifting cultivation is the least adopted (5.00%) agroforestry practice in the study area. The result of the probit model analysis showed that farm size (1.1122), farming experience (0.0231) and access to credit (0.1103) were the factors that significantly influence farmers’ willingness to adopt agroforestry practices at 10.00% probability level in the study area. The study also revealed that Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa were the most two tree species retained on farmlands by all the respondents (100%) while Eucalyptus camadulensis was the least grown tree species grown or retained by the farmers (12.00%) on their farmland in the study area. However the level of adoption of agroforestry practices in the study area was hampered by constraints such as high capital intensive nature of agroforestry practices (87.00%), poor extension service (80.00%), inadequate capital (77.00%), poor technical know-how of agroforestry practices (45.00%), land tenure system (36.00%) and lack of access to credit (13.00%). The study suggests that to enhance the adoption level of agroforestry practices among farmers in the study area, improved agroforestry extension services should be provided to farmers; workshops, seminars and symposia should be organized for adequate training of farmers to understand the techniques of agroforestry; and farmers should be encouraged to form cooperative societies so that they can have access to credit facility to boost their capital.  

Innovation Domains for Driving Transformation and Rural Development: The Case of Smallholder Dairying in Zimbabwe

Benjamine Hanyani-Mlambo, Maxwell Mudhara, Simbarashe Tatsvarei

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 31-46

Dairy production in tropical regions has a lot of growth potential but also presents a series of challenges. Smallholder dairy production systems the world over are also heterogeneous and consist of a large number of farmers with different technical characteristics, socio-economic circumstances and institutional attributes. This chapter explores broad global issues of innovation domains based on a survey of 227 households from Rusitu and Gokwe smallholder dairy projects in Zimbabwe. The study uses a multivariate analysis approach and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in identifying eight major components, while subsequent analysis using Cluster Analysis identified five distinct innovation domains. These innovation domains included smallholder dairy producers, smallholder dairy heirs, new and emergent producers, smallholder dairy pioneers, and commercial and market-oriented producers. The survey established that innovation domains with higher levels of participation in smallholder dairy innovation platforms had higher rates of dairy technology adoption (p < 0.01). The net effects have been higher estimated annual dairy incomes, with commercial and market-oriented producers having estimated total dairy gross incomes of USD4,726 compared to averages of USD2,895 for all innovation domains. This has implications for household socio-economic well-being, re-investment capacity and agricultural development.

Study on Standardization of Fermentation Time for Foxtail Millet to Blackgram

P. Harichandana, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, M. Tejashree

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 47-54

Fermentation is an easy and economic food processing method used to prepare desirable convenient foods. Instant or ready to use dosa mix from foxtail millet, rice and pulses (black gram and green gram) at 37°C with fermentation intervals of 6, 12 and 18 hours depending upon the pulse were analysed. Different combinations were prepared by mixing these ingredients in various ratios like 70% foxtail millet, 20% black gram, 10% green gram or 50% foxtail millet, 20% rice, 30% black gram and 10% green gram or 50% foxtail millet, 20% rice, 20% black gram, 10% green gram and control of 70% foxtail millet and 30% black gram. The results revealed that 12 hours of fermentation was necessary to give best dosa for all combinations and control. The first combination gave better results when compared with control and the percentage increase in appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptance were 3.66%, 2.41%, 1.18% and 1.19% respectively with decrease in taste by 7.53% and no change in sourness for both samples.

Monitoring the Comparative Effects of Hydropriming and Halopriming on Germination Performance of Secale montanum Guss. Under Salinity Stress

Ghasem Ali Dianati Tilaki, Seyed Morteza Araghi Shahri, Mohammad Ali Alizadeh, Behzad Behtari

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 55-62

Seed priming is known as method which improves germination performance in seeds, under stress conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Hydropriming and Halopriming on germination performance of Secale montanum growing under the NaCl-salinity stress. For the Halopriming treatments, Concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 mM of sodium chloride was applied. This experiment was carried out in the four levels of salinity stress. Germination percentage in Halopriming showed the significant reduction with increasing durations and concentrations of treatments. Longer root and shoot length of S. mountanum was observed in Hydropriming treatment. S. montanum appears to be moderately salt-tolerant. The results of this study indicated that Halopriming and Hydropriming had negative effects on germination and growth of S. montanum.  From the present study, it can be concluded that seeds of S. montanum are sensitive to priming techniques.

Determining sustainability harvesting levels for most non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is an evolving science. Non-Timber Forest Products: Refers to a vast array of goods and services of biological origin derived from the forest, other wooded land and trees outside forests, including small wood and fuel wood. A monitoring programme that will continually assess the health and vitality of the natural resources base should be implemented. Though there is some information on individual species, ecosystem dynamics are still not well understood, commercialization of natural products makes it imperative to manage proactively through monitoring, harvesting and replanting and tree succession plans. Important steps in sustainable natural products management include the following: Identification and demarcation of the resource base by ecosystem type (forest, pasture, farmland, rock outcrop, and so on) and map of the locations of various ecosystems types; identification of resource supply areas of the preferred products; and estimating the volume based on current harvesting and trade or use. Further, identify potential threats to standing stock of natural resource base. In addition to conducting group meetings to investigate where and how products have been harvested, extracted or collected over the last 3 to 5 years; undertaking resource inventory of standing stock and also conducting user surveys and engaging resource collectors. Ultimately, for business development, the following logical issues are examined and critically analyzed; enterprise opportunity and location-specific overview of the community forestry subsector, sustainability of supply of forest products, regulatory environment and forest resource users/groups, technology, management and finance, and lastly marketing and sales.

A Critical Study on the Effect of Seed Priming on the Germination, Seedling Emergence, Yield and Quality of Forage Production in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb)

Ghasem Ali Dianati Tilaki, Behzad behtari, Mohammad Ali Alizadeh, Ali Ashraf Jafari

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 79-89

This study evaluated the effect of priming on germination, emergence, yield and quality of Festuca arundinacea in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Previous priming studies have evaluated only germination and seedling emergence for fescue but priming treatment effects on forage quality have not been assessed. A wide variety of priming treatments have been used to enhance seed germination. Hydropriming and osmopriming are commonly used methods to prime the seeds. Hydropriming is the simplest method to hydrating seeds and minimizes the use of chemicals. The Seeds were treated by hydropriming (distiller water) and osmopriming in polyethylene glycol 6000(PEG) and KNO3 solution for 1, 3 and 6 day with osmotic potential -1.5 and -2.2 MPa. The results from germination percentage test in laboratory showed that with osmotic priming by PEG 1.5 for 6 day germination was significantly higher than with the control (p­ ? 0.05), while, in greenhouse conditions, PEG 2.2 MPa for 1 day increased the seedling emergence (76.7%) compared to control (42.5%). Primed seeds also had significantly higher fresh weights than the seeds by other treatment and the control. The maximum digestibility percentage of dry matter and crude protein percentage of forage was recorded in PEG 1.5 MPa for 6 day that which exhibited significant difference with untreated seeds. The present study showed that priming enhanced the performance of germination the parameters of emergence and the quality in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The Results suggest that, the principle of management and decision about efficacy of priming is not suitable to be assessed from absolute measures of laboratory performance.

In seed priming studies, seeds usually are sown directly in the field or stored for short periods of time. Priming provides controlled hydration of seeds to a level that allows pre-germination metabolic activity to proceed, but prevents the actual emergence of the radicle after priming, the seeds can be dried back to the initial moisture content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of storage on the primed seed of tall fescue. Hydropriming and osmopriming methods were used in this study to prime the seeds. The water osmotic potential for osmopriming was between -1.5 and -2.2 MPa. After drying, the seeds were first divided into two groups. For the first group, the seeds were sealed in aluminum foil bags and stored at 25°C for up to 1 year and the second group was used for un-stored germination test. Germination percentage for primed seeds stored at 25°C for 1 year was decreased significantly compared to the un-stored primed seeds in most treatments, but the control seeds (stored non-primed seeds) in comparison with hydropriming for 1 day had the lowest germination value. The results revealed that significantly decreased the germination percentage in stored seeds. The mean germination times of seeds primed and un-stored were lower than those of stored primed seeds. Generally results show that in order to improve seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, hydropriming can be advised. Between all priming treatments, hydropriming, was known to improve germination performance without loss of longevity. Also hydropriming as physiological treatment caused an increase in the seed performance following storage conditions of F. arundinacea.

Study on the Use of Biostimulants in High-density Olive Growing: Quality and Production

Gilberto Hernández-Hernandez, Domingo M. Salazar, Juan Martínez-Tomé, Isabel López-Cortés

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 98-108

Due to the increase of high-density holdings, especially of olive trees, the nutritional requirements of the plants are higher per unit area, which implies that a greater contribution of fertilizers to the soil is needed. Opting for fertilizers of inorganic origin will produce an increase in the pollution of the soil. There is a clear tendency nowadays towards the use of environmentally friendly cropping techniques, there is a special interest in the practice of organic fertilization with products coming from extracts of algae and/or crops, which provide a high organic matter content that delivers the necessary nutrients to the plant.

In the face of this possible soil contamination, our aim is to analyze the effect of biostimulants as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, to steadily produce and maintain high quality standards during the life of the crop. Our objective is using more environmentally friendly products in order to satisfy one of the most important demands from both consumers and the authorities.

In this study, we carried out five different treatments in addition to a control treatment with a supply of NPK, from inorganic products, which are used to control fertilization with a solution obtained from seaweed extracts. These treatments were applied in two crop cycles for two of the most important varieties in the current olive tree growing scenario: Arbequina and Koroneiki.

This study was developed in the farm Pozohondo, which is located in a crop zone by the Palancia river (Castellón, Valencia, Spain), in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, where the olive trees were established in a high-density system with a planting framework of 4 x 1.5 m. We ensured an exhaustive control of the nutritional needs of the holding by using a fertigation system.

We could notice differences in the productions of each applied treatment, avoiding any possible biases through the additional control of 100 randomly selected olives from each of the samples. There is an improvement in the set of physical characteristics of the olives with the treatment that provides amino acids and extra potassium based on amino acids. We analyzed the quality of the olive oil obtained from the production of each treatment by measuring the fatty acids, tocopherols and polyphenols contents. We also carried out an organoleptic tasting analysis following the rules of the International Olive Committee (IOC).

We observed an improvement with regard to the rest of treatments in the pomological parameters of the olives when applying the potassium and amino acid biostimulant, while the quality of the soils was not affected by the type of fertilization applied in each treatment. We achieved an improvement in production by making different extra biostimulant contributions, which can be said to replace, at least under our working conditions, fertilizers of an inorganic origin.

Essential Steps for Developing Rice Harvest Mechanization in Bangladesh

Bidhan Chandra Nath, Md. Durrul Huda, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Subrata Paul

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 109-125

The agricultural productivity can be sustainably enhanced with the mechanization, especially harvesting to the reduction of postharvest losses. Viewing this aim would require knowing the status, problems and suggestion of harvest mechanization. Under this study, considered 21 upzillas from seven regions (Dhaka, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Comilla, Bogra, Rajshahi and Rangpur) based on different agro-climatic condition and cropping intensity. Total of 126 farmers has participated in an interview.

We carried out a structural questionnaire and statical analysis for formulation of the information. In the project area, the average cultivable area was 225 to 1239 decimal. Harvesting is the tedious job for the farmers, which mainly (97.62%) done by sickle; however, only 2.38% are completed by machine. After harvesting the paddy, 44.44% of farmers used head carry, small truck or manual operated trolley for transportation to the threshing yard. In Bangladesh, the threshing operation of paddy is all most mechanized (95%). Among the threshing devices, the closed drum thresher (49.21%), open drum thresher (26.19%), paddle thresher (16.7%), combine harvester (0.79%), and others were available. In the research area, the kula is the most popular (37.3%) cleaning device.

A considerable amount (80.95%) of farmers had machinery, in the study area, while the 19.05% paddy growers had no machines. Farmers agreed that harvesting was a labour-intensive method (42.06%), time-consuming (36.51%). Transporting of harvested paddy was dangerous and painful for head, shoulder, hand, waist, backbone, leg, etc. In mechanization and machinery introduction, 40.48% of farmers identified the main restriction on the machine's price and information/lack of credit system (21.43%). In the survey area, most farmers (36.51%) identified the vital advantage of mechanized harvesting as lower labour requirement while 21.43% of farmers said a lower rice loss. All farmers who participated in the interview expressed their need for machinery and mentioned agricultural credit with easy terms and conditions, subsidy for buying machinery, and a fair market price for their rice.

The present study highlights the Morphological Variation in the Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Coccinellidae abdomen consists 1st to 8th or 1st to 9th segments where is 1st, 2nd and 3rd segments are invisible. Only 4th to 8th in the male or 4th to 9th in the female ventral segments is clearly visible in the ladybird beetles abdomen. Coccinellids abdomen has a great role for oviposition and mimicry behavior for predator. Their segments are more heavily chitinized and flexibly connected to each other and last two segments carrying tarsi or hair. The first abdominal segment is well evaluated and significantly different in each species. Abdominal shape, size and color are representing strong morphological characters in different species of Coccinellids. In their behavioral activity abdomens shape, size, color and hairs may carry seasonal variation for finding odors or honeydew in their host-plant for complete reproduction. The study showed that, different species of Coccinellidae family members have own unique shape and size which are their morphological character. Same time their abdominal color variation also has a big role of different species characters.

Research on Soil Seed Banks of a Rangeland Area White Nile State, Sudan

A. K. Elsafori, A. N. Guma’a, M. A. El Nour

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 132-143

Three soil depths (0 to 5, 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 cm) were chosen at the study area and the soil seed bank was analyzed for the number of live and dead seeds for each of them. The analysis revealed the following: The seed bank density was higher in the upper soil depths (0 to 5 and 5 to 10 cm) as compared to the lower ones (10 to 15 cm). It was found that the seed density had decreased with increasing depth. The live seed density ranged from 1015 to 5371 seeds/m2, whereas that of the dead seeds ranged from 3215 to 6957 seeds/m2. The dominant plant species to which the live seeds belonged were grasses including Schoenefeldia gracilis, Brachiaria spp., Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Aristida spp. The dominant species to which the dead seeds belonged were mixed life- forms including Panicum turgidum, Euphorbia aegyptiaca and Cyperus rotundus. The study also revealed that the percentage of dead seeds was higher as compared to that of live seeds.

Research on the Effect of Irrigation Intervals on the Growth and Yield of Quinoa Crop and Its Components

Abdullah M. Algosaibi, Ayman E. Badran, Abdulrahman M. Almadini, Mohammed M. El-Garawany

Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7, 24 March 2021, Page 144-154

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation intervals on growth, yield and its components and some of the chemical characteristics of the soil after the harvest of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) plant. Quinoa plant is considered from the species that are resistant to various stresses such as salinity, cold air, high solar radiation, low temperature and different pH in the soil .Three treatments were used as follow: T1 (twice irrigation every week, which is the common in the region), T2 (once irrigation every week) and T3 (once irrigation every two weeks) using in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The crop coefficient (Kc) value differed according to the stage of growth where the results showed that the T2 treatment gave the highest mean in all the studied traits followed by the T3 treatment in all traits except the number of seed/m2. The results also confirmed that the increase in water reduced the agronomic traits such as harvest index, number of seeds and yield of seeds and straw/m2. Also it showed that the pH values in soils were not significantly affected by irrigation, while Ec significantly affected. Correlation coefficient was negative with the most traits and low with the number of grain (0.34) under overall studied treatments which confirms that quinoa is a plant that needs limited amounts of irrigation water. On the other hand there was positive strong correlation between the harvest index and grain yield (0.92). The results showed that moisture stress treatments increased the concentration of the ionic, NH4-N and NO3-N significantly compared to soils which do not have moisture stress (T1, T2). We assume that the development based on Kc during growth-stages helps in irrigation management and provides precise water applications for quinoa plant. These results indicate that the water requirements of quinoa plant are limited and that quinoa plant growth is not affected by the lack of irrigation water on the crop and its qualities.